Education Funding: From Grants and Contributions to Statutory

Education Funding: From Grants and Contributions to Statutory

EDUCATION FUNDING: FROM GRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO STATUTORY FROM GOOD WILL OF THE SOVEREIGN TO CONSTITUTIONAL OBLIGATION CANADAS BUDGET PROCESS: A BRIEF OVERVIEW CANADAS BUDGET PROCESS IS, MORE OR LESS, A YEAR LONG PROCESS. CABINET IS THE BODY THAT SETS THE BUDGET. PARLIAMENT EXPRESSES ITS AGENDA, PRIORITIES, WHO GETS HOW MUCH OF THE AVAILABLE FINANCIAL RESOURCES, WHAT INITIATIVES ARE FUNDED, THROUGH THE BUDGET PROCESS. THERE ARE 4 MAIN STAGES TO THE PROCESS: PREPARATION, CONSULTATION, BUDGET DECISION, BUDGET APPROVAL CONSULTATION INCLUDES MINISTERS, TREASURY BOARD, SENIOR OFFICIALS, PMO, DEPT. OFFICIALS, ETC. PART I: PARLIAMENTARY BUDGET PROCESS CABINET: SETS BUDGET

CONSULTS: PMO, MINISTERS, DMS, ADMS, ETC. BUDGET REVENUE GOVT INCOME TAXES, FEES, ETC. EXPENDITURES ESTIMATES(DEPT. BUDGETS) STATUTORYGS & CS CANADAS BUDGET PROCESS: A BRIEF OVERVIEW THE BUDGET IS DIVIDED IN TWO MAIN PARTS: REVENUE AND EXPENDITURES REVENUE IS THE GOVT.S INCOME FROM TAXES, SERVICE CHARGES, FEES, ETC. EXPENDITURES ARE ARE THE GOVT.S ALLOCATION OF THE FINANCIAL RESOURCES TO ALL THE PROGRAMS, SERVICES, COSTS, AND SO ON FOR RUNNING THE COUNTRY.

CANADAS BUDGET PROCESS: A BRIEF OVERVIEW THE BUDGET IS USUALLY EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF TABLING OF THE ESTIMATES WHICH ARE ALL THE DEPARTMENTAL BUDGETS. THE ESTIMATES ARE THE DETAIL ESTIMATES OF THE AMOUNT OF MONEY EACH DEPARTMENT OR AGENCY REQUIRES FOR RUNNING THEIR PROGRAMS FOR THE COMING YEAR. EACH DEPARTMENT HAS TO HAVE AN EXPENDITURE PLAN WHICH INCLUDES PLANS AND PRIORITIES AND PERFORMANCE REPORTING REQUIREMENTS. PARLIAMENT MUST VOTE ON THE BUDGET. THE BUREAUCRACY CANNOT SPEND MONEY UNLESS IT HAS BEEN PASSED BY PARLIAMENT. CANADAS BUDGET PROCESS: A BRIEF OVERVIEW ON THE EXPENDITURE SIDE OF THE BUDGET, THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF APPROPRIATIONS: STATUTORY AND GRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS. STATUTORY APPROPRIATIONS ARE BUDGETED ACCORDING STANDING LEGISLATION SUCH AS OLD AGE SECURITY. THE ALLOCATIONS FOR STATUTORY FUNDED PROGRAMS ARE ONGOING AND FUNDED ACCORDING TO A FORMULA LAID OUT

IN THE STATUTE. MORE THAN HALF AO ALL BUDGET ALLOCATIONS ARE BASED ON STATUTE. GRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS ARE TIME-LIMITED AND VOTED ON BY PARLIAMENT ON A YEAR-TO-YEAR BASIS. THE LEGAL BASIS FOR EXPENDING OF THE MONEYS USUALLY EXPIRE AT THE END OF THE FISCAL YEAR. CANADAS BUDGET PROCESS: A BRIEF OVERVIEW GRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS ARE BUDGET VOTES TO TRANSFER FUNDS TO INDIVIDUALS, ORGANIZATIONS, FIRST NATIONS, AND SO ON, AND USED BY GOVERNMENT TO FULFILL ITS OBJECTIVES. GRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS ARE GOVERNMENT-WIDE AND NOT SPECIFIC TO FIRST NATIONS. CONTRIBUTIONS ARE CONDITIONAL TRANSFERS OF FUNDS TO ASSIST INDIVIDUALS, ORGANIZATIONS, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS INCLUDING FIRST NATIONS TO MEET AND FULFILL GOVERNMENT OBJECTIVES. CONTRIBUTIONS ARE SUBJECT TO ACCOUNTABILITY CHECKS. CANADAS BUDGET PROCESS: A BRIEF OVERVIEW GRANTS ARE UNCONDITIONAL TRANSFERS OF PUBLIC MONEY

TO INDIVIDUALS, ORGANIZATIONS, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS INCLUDING FIRST NATIONS. GRANTS HAVE ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS BUT ONCE ONE QUALIFIES FOR A GRANT THEY ARE USUALLY NOT SUBJECT TO ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING CHECKS BUT MAY HAVE DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS. NOTE: DEPARTMENTS LIKE INAC HAVE A LARGE NUMBER OF PROGRAMS. ONCE VOTED UPON AND ALLOCATED, INAC, FOR INSTANCE, CAN MOVE MONEYS FROM ONE PROGRAM AREA TO ANOTHER WITHOUT HAVING TO SEEK PARLIAMENTARY APPROVAL. PART II-HOW ARE FIRST NATIONS FUNDED? CABINET ULTIMATELY SETS THE BUDGET BUDGET

REVENUE EXPENDITURES ESTIMATES (DEPT. BUDGETS) STATUTORY GRANTS & CONTRIBUTIONS FIRST NATIONS HOW ARE FIRST NATIONS FUNDED? AS THE DIAGRAM SHOWS, FIRST NATIONS ARE FUNDED AS PART OF THE GRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS BUDGET VOTE SCHEME. THE GENERAL LEGAL/CONSTITUTIONAL AUTHORITY FOR FUNDING FIRST NATIONS IS S.91(24): INDIANS AND LANDS RESERVED FOR THE INDIANS. BUT THE GENERAL ATTITUDE ON THE PART OF GOVERNMENT IS GOOD WILL OF THE SOVEREIGN RE FIRST NATIONS FUNDING. THERE IS NO MENTION OF TREATY OBLIGATIONS, FIDUCIARY, NOR S.35. GRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS ARE DISCRETIONARY ON THE PART OF GOVERNMENT. NOTE: THE INSISTENCE ON OWN SOURCE REVENUE. GOVERNMENT WANTS YOU TO USE YOUR OWN MONEY SUPPLEMENTED BY CONTRIBUTIONS.

HOW ARE FIRST NATIONS FUNDED? A COMMENT OWN SOURCE REVENUE IS UNREASONABLE IN VIEW OF THE FACT THAT ALL INDIAN MONEYS GO INTO THE CONSOLIDATED REVENUE FUND (GOVERNMENTS CASH FLOW) AND THAT ALL BUDGET ALLOCATIONS COME FROM THE CRF. IN OTHER WORDS, FIRST NATIONS PAY FOR THEIR OWN PROGRAMS TO A LARGE EXTENT. THE GOVERNMENT DOES NOT KEEP INDIAN MONEYS IN A SEPARATE ACCOUNT: IT IS JUST ALL CONSOLIDATED REVENUE FUND MONEYS. INDIAN MONEYS ALL GO INTO THE CRF AND THE GOVERNMENT TURNS AROUND AND USES THE CRF TO FUND THE GRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS THEY GIVE TO FIRST NATIONS. THE CRF IS NOT ALL INDIAN MONEYS BUT A GOOD AMOUNT IS INDIAN MONEYS. PART III-FROM GRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO STATUTORY FUNDING CABINET: ULTIMATELY SETS THE BUDGET

BUDGET REVENUE EXPENDITURES ESTIMATES (DEPT. BUDGETS) STATUTORY (S.35) S.91(24) FIRST NATION Gs & Cs (Discretionary, FROM Gs & Cs to STATUTORY

FUNDING THE CONSTITUTIONAL BASIS FOR STATUTORY FUNDING WOULD BE S.35: ABORIGINAL AND TREATY RIGHTS. THE STATUTE FOR THE FUNDING WOULD BE AN IMPLIMENTATION OF TREATY. THE STATUTE WOULD INCLUDE A FUNDING FORMULA. THE STATUTE WOULD INCLUDE ADJUSTMENT FACTORS SUCH AS INFLATION, POPULATION, ETC. THE STATUTE WOULD INCLUDE ACCOUNTABILITY AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS, CHECKS AND BALANCES. EQUALIZATION: AN EXAMPLE OF CONSTITUTIONALLY BASED FUNDING EQUALIZATION PAYMENTS TO PROVINCES IS ENTRENCHED IN THE CONSTITUTION [S.36(2)]. PAYMENTS TO PROVINCES ARE UNCONDITIONAL: FUNDS CAN BE SPEND AS SEEN FIT BY THE RECEIVING PROVINCE. EQUALIZATION PAYMENTS ARE BASED ON A FUNDING FORMULA. NATURAL RESOURCES OF THE PROVINCE IS NOT INCLUDED IN THE FORMULA (OWN SOURCE REVENUE?). THE FORMULA INCLUDES ADJUSTMENT FACTORS.**See CANADAS EQUALIZATION FORMULA, www.lop.parl.gc.ca

ACHIEVING STATUTORY FUNDING THE GOVERNMENT ALWAYS WANTS A LEGAL ENTITY AS A CONDUIT FOR THE TRANSFER OF FUNDS. OPTIONAL APPROACHES TO THE LEGAL ENTITY REQUIREMENT: TRUSTEE BODY OF CHIEFS FROM TREATY 6, 7, & 8 DIRECT TRANSFERS TO EACH FIRST NATION WHO, IN TURN, CAN DELEGATE TO ITS OWN SCHOOL BOARD A SCHOOL BOARD FOR EACH TREATY AREA ONE MEGA SCHOOL BOARD COVERING THE PROVINCE FUNNELING EDUCATION MONEY THROUGH THE PROVINCE FUNNELING MONEY THROUGH A TSAG-TYPE BODY FROM Gs & Cs to STATUTORY FUNDING BENEFITS OF STATUTORY FUNDING: -FUNDING IS AUTOMATIC: NO ANNUAL NEGOTIATIONS

-MONEY FLOWS DIRECTLY FROM TREASURY BOARD: NO INDIAN AFFAIRS INVOLVEMENT -MONEYS TRANSFERRED WILL BE A CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGISLATIVE OBLIGATION ON THE PART OF THE CROWN COMPARED TO Gs and Cs WHICH ARE DISCRETIONARY AND SUPPLEMENTAL -ACCOUNTABILITY AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS WILL BE DIFFERENT THAN THE REQUIREMENTS FOR Gs & Cs -TRUE INDIAN CONTROL OF INDIAN EDUCATION ACHIEVING STATUTORY FUNDING STATUTORY FUNDING SHOULD BE OPT IN AND NOT MANDATORY. STATUTORY FUNDING WILL NOT BE AN ALL AND BE ALL FUNDING FOR FIRST NATIONS EDUCATION. FIRST NATIONS WILL STILL BE ABLE TO APPLY FOR GRANTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS FOR PROGRAMS NOT COVERED BY THE

STATUTE OR TREATY. APPENDICES, GENERAL INFORMATION, AND REFERENCES Appendices, General information, References The Federal budget in Canada, www.mapleleaf.com How does native funding work?, www.cbc.ca An Overview of the Canadian Budget Process, www.parlcent.org From Red Tape to Clear Results: The Report of the Independent Blue Ribbon Panel on Grants and Contributions, www.publications.gc.ca Legislative Process, www.parl.gc.ca Budget 2016: Chapter 3 A Better Future for Indigenous Peoples, www.budget.gc.ca/2016 Program Plan: Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development 2017-2018 www. aadnc.gc.ca/eng/1479910216412/1479910296703 A A N D C N e w N e w fu n d in g ra n t u d it b u t

ro g ra m lig ib ility e u s e d F u n d in g A p p r o a c h e s - F u n d in g a p p ro a c h e s a g r e e m e n ts a p p ly 1 . G a p e b 2 .

S e t C c o n d it to a u d a n d w 3 . F ix e d C o n tr ib u tio n a p p r ( F T P ) ; a n n u a l f u n d in g a m o b a s e d o n " f ix e d - c o s t a p p r o p o s s ib le t o a llo w r e c ip ie n t s r e q u ir e m e n ts , u s e u n s p e n t a g r e e d to b y D IA N O . 4 . F le x ib le A u th o r itie s a tr a n s fe r p a y m e n t, n o t s u b je c t to b e a r e q u ir e s p e c if ic C a b in e t p o lic y a n d T r e s p e n d in g a u th o r itie s ; r e c ip ie n t m a y n e a n d e n title m e n t; m a y b e r e q u ir e d t o r e

fo r a n y d u r a tio n o f tim e n e c e s s a r y to a o n tr io n s its ; s h e re ib u tio n a p p r o a c h - a t r a n s o u tlin e d in a fu n d in g a g r e e m e t c o n tr ib u tio n fu n d in g is th e u n s p e n t fu n d in g is r e tu r n e d C o n tr ib u tio n c o s t c a te g o r ie s o f a is u s e d w h e n a p r o g a c h ie v e o b je c ts a n d fu n d in g m u s t b e re t

m e e t c e r ta in a s s e s s 5 . to ra m c a n u rn e m e n A p r il 1 , 2 0 1 1 . c c o u n te d fo r o r n o r m a lly s u b je c t to a s u r y B o a r d o f C a n a d a S e c r e ta r ia t e d to m e e t p r e - c o n d itio n s fo r p o r t o n r e s u lts a c h ie v e d . G r a n ts c a n c h ie v e p r o g r a m r e s u lts . p a y m e n t; m u s t b s ic ty p e th e d e p a

t th a t is s u b je c t to p e r f o r m a n c e e a c c o u n t e d f o r a n d a r e s u b je c t o f c o n t r ib u tio n u s e d in t h e p a s t r tm e n t a n n u a lly . o a c h - F o r m e r ly c a l le d t h e F le x ib le T r u n ts e s ta b lis h e d b y fo r m u la o r th e t o ta l a c h . " F ix e d fu n d in g is d is tr ib u te d o n a p to k e e p a n y u n s p e n t fu n d in g b a s e d o n fu n d in g o n th e p r o g r a m o b je c ts o r a n y a p p ro a c h s in g le fe r e n b a to b e g in n in g p ro g ra m

r e q u ir e s b e fu n d e d to D IA t c r ite r ia - F C A d u r in g is m u lt i- y e a r f u n d in g th e lif e t im e o f th e to

a n s fe r P a y m e n t e x p e n d itu r e is ro g ra m b a s is ; : m e e t in g p r o g r a m o th e r p u rp o s e m a y m o v e d w ith in p r o je c t/a g r e e m e n t a n d a tw o o r m o r e y e a r r e la t io n s h ip w ith a r e c ip ie n t to d u n d e r a m u lti- y e a r fu n d in g a g r e e m e n t; u n s p e n t N O a t t h e e n d o f th e p r o je c t. T h e r e c ip ie n t m u s t to b e a p p ro v e d o f F C A fu n d in g .

B lo c k C o n tr ib u tio n a p p r o a c h - F o r m e r ly k n o w n b y D I A N D 's p r e v i o u s A l t e r n a t i v e F u n d in g A r r a n g e m e n t ( A F A ) , B C A is m u lt i- y e a r f u n d i n g m a n a g e d in a s im ila r w a y t o A F A . B lo c k f u n d i n g a l l o w s f u n d s t o b e r e a l lo c a t e d w it h i n t h e b lo c k o f p r o g ra m s a s lo n g a s p r o g r e s s o f p r o g r a m o b je c tiv e s is b e in g a c h ie v e d . U n s p e n t fu n d in g c a n b e k e p t b y t h e r e c ip ie n t . B lo c k f u n d i n g a p p lie s t o : la n d a n d e s ta te s m a n a g e m e n t; r e g is tr a tio n a d m in is tr a tio n ; e le m e n ta r y / s e c o n d a r y e d u c a tio n p r o g r a m s a n d s e r v ic e s ; p o s ts e c o n d a r y ; in c o m e a s s is ta n c e a n d a s s is te d liv in g ; N a tio n a l C h ild B e n e f its R e in v e s tm e n t, c a p ita l fa c ilitie s a n d m a in te n a n c e ; b a n d s u p p o r t a n d tr ib a l c o u n c il fu n d in g ; e c o n o m ic d e v e lo p m e n t. 3

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