Electronic Commerce

Electronic Commerce

Instructor Morteza Maleki Minbashrazgah, PhD Value of Attitudes Measurement in Information Research Before starting to study the attitude measurement, three fundamental principles should be taken into account: :

Raw data, data structures, and information are not the same things; they are unique concepts with different origins and uses . 2. Raw data are nothing more than a given set of responses to a stated question and/or directive . 1. 3

Value of Attitudes Measurement in Information Research Complete scale measurement consists of three components: 3. 1. 2. 3.

The question/setup, (/) The scale dimensions and attributes, and ( ) The scale point descriptors ( ) 4

Value of Attitudes Measurement in Information Research Attitudinal structures are useful in understanding consumers & industrial buyers observable marketplace behavior. . 5

Value of Attitudes Measurement in Information Research Attitude is a learned predisposition to react in some consistent positive or negative way to a given object, idea, or set of info. . They are state-of-mind constructs that are not directly observable. . The true structure of an attitude lies in the mind of the individual holding that

attitude. . 6 Value of Attitudes Measurement in Information Research To have a chance at accurately capturing customers attitudes, the researcher must be able to understand the dimensions of the construct.

. 7 Value of Attitudes Measurement in Information Research There are two prevailing schools of thought regarding the structure of an attitude; 1. 2.

The Trilogy Approach The Affect Global Approach () ( ) 8 Overview of Trilogy Approach The trilogy approach suggests that understanding of a persons complete

attitude toward an object, a person, or a phenomenon requires an understanding of the cognitive, affective, & conative components that make up that attitude. . 9 Overview of Trilogy Approach

10 Overview of Trilogy Approach It represent the persons beliefs, perceptions, & knowledge about the prespecified object & its attributes. 1. Cognitive Component

. These aspects are the elements & outcomes of learning. . 11 Overview of Trilogy Approach 1. Cognitive Component Most state-of-mind objects or constructs investigated by researchers

will most likely have a multidimensionality aspect requiring researchers to include sets of attributes in their scale measurement designs. In reality, people have hundreds of beliefs about many different items, attributes, & objects that make up their everyday environment. 12 Overview of Trilogy Approach 2. Affective Component

It represents the persons emotional feelings toward the given object. This is the component most frequently expressed when a person is asked to verbalize his attitude towards some object, person, or phenomenon. It is the amount of emotional feeling that a person attaches to each of his/her individual beliefs. 13

Overview of Trilogy Approach 2. Affective Component It serves as a mechanism that allows a person to create some type of hierarchical order among a set of beliefs about an object or behavior. 14 Overview of Trilogy Approach 3.

Conative Component It relates to the persons intended or actual behavioral response to the given object. It tends to be an observable outcome driven by the interaction of a persons cognitive component (beliefs) & affective component (emotional strength of those beliefs) as they relate to the given object. 15

Overview of Trilogy Approach To measure attitudes, researchers must collect several types of data (cognitive, affective, & conative) about the object & its attributes of interest & then, through a modeling process, derive a composite attitude score. 16 Overview of Trilogy Approach Two most frequently used multiplicative-additive model of trilogy models are; 1.

2. Attitude-toward-object Model Attitude-toward-behavior Model 17 Overview of Trilogy Approach The fundamental reasons behind the need for a model: 1. 2.

3. Most objects are really nothing more than a composite of many different parts (or attributes), People have the capability of developing a separate attitude toward each attribute, and Attitudes themselves tend to consist of distinguishable components. 18 Overview of Trilogy Approach

To measure attitude, researchers must collect several types of data (cognitive, affective, and conative) about the object and its attributes of interest and then, through a modeling process, derive a composite attitude score. 19 Overview of Trilogy Approach 1. Attitude-toward-object Model It is a multiplicative-additive model that attempts to capture a persons attitude about a specific object, where the attitude is a separate

indirectly derived composite measure of a persons combined thoughts & feelings for or against a given object. 20 Overview of Trilogy Approach Where AttitudeO is a separate, indirectly derived composite measure of a persons combined thoughts and feelings for or against the given object (e.g., product,

service, brand, manufacturer, retail establishment); bi is the strength of the belief (cognitive components) that the person holds toward the ith attribute of the object 21 Overview of Trilogy Approach Where ei is the persons affect evaluation (affective components) of the belief toward

that ith attribute of the object indicates that there are k salient attributes making up the object over which the multiplicative combination of bi and ei for those attributes are summated. 22 Overview of Trilogy Approach Example Lets say the overall research objective is to collect the data and

information that will allow management to better understand the attitudes that owners hold toward the performance of a 2002 Mazda Millenia. 23 Overview of Trilogy Approach Example It is a two-phase research plan that includes both qualitative and quantitative research activities to create the different scale measurements needed to collect the cognitive components (bi) and

corresponding affective components (ei) that relate to assessing respondents attitudes toward the performance of an automobile. 24 Overview of Trilogy Approach 25 Overview of Trilogy Approach After collecting the cognitive (bi) and corresponding affective (ei) data on

the seven attributes, researchers can apply the multiplicative-additive model to determine a respondents overall composite attitude toward the performance of the 2002 Mazda Millenia or the respondents individual attitudes for each of the separate seven attributes. 26 Overview of Trilogy Approach 2.

Attitude-toward-behavior Model It is a multiplicative-additive model that attempts to capture a person's attitude towards behaving or acting towards a given object rather than the persons attitude towards the object itself. 27 Overview of Trilogy Approach 2. Attitude-toward-behavior Model

The attitude is a separate, indirectly derived composite measure of a persons combined thoughts & feelings for or against carrying out a specific action or behavior. 28 Overview of Trilogy Approach 2. Attitude-toward-behavior Model It gives researchers a picture that more closely demonstrates the

actual behavior of individuals than does the attitude-toward-object model. 29 Overview of Trilogy Approach Where Attitude(beh) is a separate, indirectly derived composite measure of a persons combined thoughts and feelings for or against carrying out a specific action or behavior (e.g. purchasing or driving of a 2002

Mazda Millenia); bi is the strength of the persons belief that the ith specific action will lead to a specific outcome (e.g., that driving a 2002 Millenia will increase the persons social standing in the community); 30 Overview of Trilogy Approach Where

ai is the persons expressed feeling (affect) toward the ith action outcome (e.g., the favorableness feeling of knowing friends admire the 2002 Millenia); and indicates that there are n salient action outcomes making up the behavior over which the multiplicative combinations of the bi and ai for those outcomes are summated 31 32

33 34 35 Overview of Trilogy Approach Deciding over either affective or cognitive scale point descriptors to use for an attitudinal scale measurement: If the measurement objective is one of collecting data that enable you to

describe how the respondent is thinking, then the focus should be on using scale descriptors that emphasize the cognitive component. 36 Overview of Trilogy Approach Deciding over either affective or cognitive scale point descriptors to use for an attitudinal scale measurement: If the measurement objective is one of collecting data that enable you to

identify how the respondent is feeling, then the focus should be on using scale descriptors that reflect the affective component. 37 The Affect Global Approach It maintains that an attitude is nothing more than a persons global (or overall) expression of favorable or unfavorable feelings towards a given object.

A persons feelings can have dominant influence on his overall judgment of a given object; affect equals attitude. Within this approach, heavy emphasis is on capturing a persons global evaluative feeling of an object as being either positive or negative (i.e., liking/disliking, good/bad, satisfied/dissatisfied). 38 The Affect Global Approach

Yet, it does not give the researcher insights into what beliefs contribute to the formation of the overall attitude. At best, the researcher can only speculate about the beliefs underlying the expressed emotional ratings. 39 40

The Links between Measurement of Cognitive, Affective, & Actual or Intended Behavior Marketers should be aware of several factors that can operate to reduce the consistency between measures of beliefs, feelings, & observations of marketplace behavior. 1. A favorable attitude requires a need or motive before it can be translated into the action. 41

The Links between Measurement of Cognitive, Affective, & Actual or Intended Behavior 2. Translating favorable beliefs & feelings into ownership requires ability. 3. Some attitude scales measure only one concept, construct, or

object at a time. 42 The Links between Measurement of Cognitive, Affective, & Actual or Intended Behavior 4. If the cognitive & affective components are weekly held when the consumers obtains additional info within the shopping process, then the initial attitudes may give way to new ones.

5. Researchers typically measure attitudes of an isolated member of the family; the other members may affect the purchase behavior. 43 The Links between Measurement of Cognitive, Affective, & Actual or Intended Behavior 6. Researchers generally measure brand attitudes independent of

purchase action. 7. In reality, it is difficult to measure all of the relevant aspects of an attitude. 44 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales The development of any itemized rating scale measurement begins with

understanding the construct to be measured. 45 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 46 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Likert Scale (developed by Rensis Likert) It asks respondents to indicate the extent to which they either agree or

disagree with a series of mental belief or behavioral belief statements about a given object. Normally, the scale format is balanced between agreement & disagreement scale descriptors. 47 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales

Steps of Hierarchical activities in developing a Likert Scale 1. The researcher identifies & understands the concept to be studied. 2. The researcher assembles a large number of belief statements (e.g. 50 to 100) about the concept to be studied. 48 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales

3. Steps of Hierarchical activities in developing a Likert Scale The researcher subjectively classifies each statement as having either a favorable or unfavorable relationship to the specific attitude under investigation Then, the entire list of statements is pretested (e.g. through a pilot test) using a small convenience of respondents. 49

Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 4. During the pilot test, respondents decide the extent to which they either agree or disagree with each statement, using the intensity descriptors strongly agree, agree, not sure, disagree, strongly disagree. Each response is then given a numerical weight, such as 5, 4,3,2,1. For assumed favorable statements, a weight of 5 would be given to strongly agree response. For assumed unfavorable statements, a weight of 5 would be given to

strongly disagree response. 50 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 5. The researcher calculates a respondents overall-attitude score by the summation of the weighted values associated with the statement rated. 51

Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 6. In analyzing the results, the researcher uses only those statements that appear to discriminate between the high & low total scores. One possible method is a simple comparison of the top (or highest) 25% of the total mean scores with the bottom (or the lowest) 25% of total mean scores.

52 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 7. In determining the final set of statements (normally 20 to 25), the researcher would select those statements that exhibited the greatest differences in mean values between the top & bottom total scores. 8. With the use of final set of statements, step 3 & 4 are repeated in a full

study. 53 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Features of Likert Scales 1. It is the only summated rating scale agreement/disagreement scale descriptors. that

uses a set of It collects & measures only cognitive-based, or specific behavioral beliefs, not a persons complete attitude.

54 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Features of Likert Scales 2. It can capture only the cognitive components of a persons attitude and are therefore only partial measures. They also do not capture the different possible intensity levels of expressed affective or

conative components of a persons attitude. 3. It is best suited to research designs that use self-administered surveys, personal interviewers, or most online methods to collect data. 55 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales

56 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Semantic Differential Scale (developed by Charles Osgood, George Suci, and Percy Tannenbaum) As an ordinal rating scale, this type of scale is unique in its use of bipolar adjectives & adverbs (god/bad, like/dislike, competitive/noncompetitive, helpful/unhelpful, high quality/low quality, etc.) as the end points of an apparently symmetrical continuum.

/ / / / /( .) ... 57 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Semantic Differential Scale (developed by Charles Osgood, George Suci, and Percy Tannenbaum) There will be one object & a related set of factors, each with its own set of

bipoles to measure either a cognitive or an affective element. . In most case, semantic differential scales use between five & seven scales descriptors, though only the endpoints are identified. 7 5 . 58

Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales It allows the researcher to collect both cognitive and affective data for any given factor. Yet, it does not allow for collecting both types of data at the same time. This scale type is best for identifying a perceptual image profile about the object or behavior of concern. 59

60 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Response problems with the Semantic Differential Scale Format 1. Randomization of the Positive & Negative Pole Descriptors When all positive pole descriptors are arranged on one side of each scale & the negative pole descriptors are all on the other side, there is a tendency to create a

halo effect bias. . 61 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 1. Randomization of the Positive & Negative Pole Descriptors Halo Effect Bias happens when it tends to lead the respondent to react more

favorably to the positive poles than the negative poles. . To prevent this problem, the researcher should randomly mix the positions of the positive & negative poles descriptors. .

62 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 2. Lack of Extreme Magnitude Expressed in the Pole Descriptors The descriptors used to express the ends of each scale lack the expression of extreme intensity associated with those end poles. For example, the dependable/undependable

trustworthiness dimension. scale within the 63 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales

2. Lack of Extreme Magnitude Expressed in the Pole Descriptors This problem can be corrected by attaching a narrative expressed extreme magnitude (like extremely or quite) to the bipolar descriptors. 64 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 3. Use of Non-bipolar descriptors to Represent the Poles

Sometimes the researcher will express a negative pole in such a way that a positive one is not really its opposite. It relates to the inappropriate narrative expressions of the scale descriptors. 65 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 3. Use of Non-bipolar descriptors to Represent the Poles

Such a decision creates a skewed scale design that is difficult for the respondent to interpret correctly. For example, the expert/not an expert scale in the expertise dimension. Instead of not an expert, its better to use novice. 66

Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 4. Matching Standardized Intensity Descriptors to Pole Descriptors In using standardized intensity descriptors like Very, researcher must be careful in determining the specific phrases for each pole. Each phrase must fit the set of intensity descriptors in order for scale points to make complete sense to the respondents. In case of Makes you feel at home/Makes you feel uneasy, the intensity word very does not make sense when applied to that scale.

67 68 69 70 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Behavioral Intention Scale

In using this format (e.g., purchase intent, attendance intent, shopping intent, usage intent), the decision maker is attempting to obtain some idea of the likelihood that people will demonstrate some type of predictable behavior regarding the purchase of an object or service. ) (

. 71 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Behavioral Intention Scale In general, these scales have been found to be good predictor of consumers choices of frequently purchased & durable consumer products. .

Consumers are simply asked to make a subjective judgment on their likelihood of buying a product or service, or taking a specified action. . 72 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 73

Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales When designing a behavior intention scale, you should include a specific time frame (e.g., would consider attending in the next six months) in the question/setup portion of the scale. (" ... ") ... . Without an expressed time frame, you increase the possibility that the respondents

will bias their response toward the definitely would or probably would scale categories. ." " " " 74 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales To increase the clarity of the scale point descriptors, the researcher can attach a percentage equivalent expression to each one.

.() 75 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 76 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Other Types of Comparative & Non-comparative Scale Formats

A. Non-comparative Scale Format It is used when the scaling objective is to have a respondent express his attitude, emotions, actions, or intentions about one specific object (or person, or phenomenon) or its attributes without making reference to another object (or person, or phenomenon) or its attributes. ( ) . ( ) 77

Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Other Types of Comparative & Non-comparative Scale Formats Three of the most used non-comparative formats are; . () 1. Graphic Rating Scales, 2. Performance Rating Scales, &

3. Staple Scales ... 78 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 1.

Graphic Rating Scale Descriptors use a scaling descriptor format that presents a respondent with some type of graphic continuum as the set of possible raw responses to a given question or directive. .

79 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales It is employed in situations where the researchers wants to collect usage behavior data about an object (or person or phenomenon) or perhaps a particular attribute underlying the object. " " ( ) .

80 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Another popular type of graphic rating scale descriptor design is the Smiling Faces. They are arranged in a particular order and design that depicts a continuous range from very happy to very sad without providing narrative meaning of the two extreme positions. They are used to collect a variety of attitudinal and emotional data.

It is most popular in collecting data from children. 81 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 2. Performance Rating Scale Descriptors are just a particular type of itemized rating scale that uses a scale point format that allows the respondents to express some type of post-decision or evaluative judgment about the object under investigation.

Its difference with graphic rating scale is that each scale point included is given narrative meaning & sometimes additional numerical meaning as well. 82 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales The researcher would ask respondent to select the response among a prelist of possible responses that best expresses their evaluative judgment toward the object or attribute of interest.

83 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 3. Staple Scales are considered a modified version of the semantic differential scale. . ... The scale design takes a single narratively expressed descriptor & centers it within a

numeric set of plus (+) & minus (-) descriptors. . 84 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales They are used to simultaneously measure the direction & intensity of a single dimensional attitude; they eliminate the need for creating pairs of bipolar

descriptors. . They are most appropriate to use in self-administered surveys (offline or online) & personal interviews. . ( ) 85

Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales B. Comparative Scale Format The scaling objective is to collect data that allow the researcher to identify and directly compare for similarities and differences between objects or any of the attributes that underline objects, people, or phenomena.

. It can be used to collect any type of raw data (e.g., state of being, mind, behavior, or intentions). ( .) 86

Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales B. Comparative Scale Format Three of the most used non-comparative formats are; Rank-order Rating Scale Format, 2. Paired Comparisons Scale Format, & 3. Constant Sum Scale Format

1. 87 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 1. Rank-order Rating Scales incorporate a scale point format that allows respondents to compare their own responses by indicating the first preference, second preference, third preference, & so forth, until all the desired responses are placed in either a highest to lowest or a lowest to highest rank order.

88 89 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales It allows for easy comparison of each possible raw response which holds high importance or positive emotional feelings to the respondents. They are easy to use in personal interviews and all types (online and offline) of

self-administered surveys. Only ordinal data structures can be obtained using rank-order scales. 90 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 2. Paired Comparison Rating Scales create a preselected group of traits, products, or service characteristics, or features that are paired against one another into two groups.

Then respondents are asked to select which trait, characteristic, or feature in each pair is more important to them. 91 92 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Consequently, respondents make a series of paired judgments between the

attributes (features). Problem: Respondent fatigue can set in if too many attributes and paired choices are included, thus creating a potential bias in the resulting data structures. 93 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales 3.

Constant Sums Rating Scales require the respondent to allocate a given number of points, usually 100, among several attributes or features based on their importance or some other emotional feeling to him. This format requires the respondent to determine the value of each separate feature relative to all the other listed features. The resulting value assignments indicate the relative magnitude of importance (or emotional feeling) that each feature has to the respondents.

94 95 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Single-item versus Multiple-item Scales When the data requirements focus on collecting data about only one attribute (e.g. age) of the object or construct (e.g. persons) being investigated, this scale design is used.

1. Single-item Scale Design 96 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Single-item versus Multiple-item Scales 1. Multiple-item (composite) Scale Design ) (

When using of this scale design to measure the complete object or construct of interest, the researcher will have to measure several items (or attributes) simultaneously rather than measuring just one item. Most of the advance attitude, emotion, & behavior scales are examples of this scale design. 97 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales

Two factors play in deciding to use which design; 1. First, the researcher must assess the dimensionality of the construct under investigation. Any construct that is viewed as consisting of several different, unique sub-dimensions will require the researcher to measure each of those definable subcomponents.

98 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales Two factors play in deciding to use which design; 2. researchers must deal with the reliability & validity issues of the scale measurements used to collect the data. Consequently, researchers are forced to measure each sub-component using a set of different scaling items. Second,

99 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales There are two types of Multiple-item Scale Designs: 1. A formative composite scale design is used when each of the individual scale items measures some part of the whole construct, object, or phenomenon.

. 100 Special Types of Attitude & Behavior Scales There are two types of Multiple-item Scale Designs: 2. With a reflective composite scale design, researchers use multiple items to measure an individual subcomponent (dimension) of a construct,

object, or phenomenon. . 101 Recap of Key Measurement Design Issues The main design issues related to both construct development and scale measurement:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Construct Development Issues Scale Measurement Issues Screening Questions Skip Question Ethical Responsibility of the Researcher

102 The End 103

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