Elektronischer Hšrsaal - univ-pau.fr

Elektronischer Hšrsaal - univ-pau.fr

Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 1 TCP in Painful Detail Michael Welzl http://www.welzl.at DPS NSG Team http://dps.uibk.ac.at/nsg Institute of Computer Science University of Innsbruck, Austria Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 2 What TCP does for you (roughly) UDP features: multiplexing + protection against corruption ports, checksum stream-based in-order delivery segments are ordered according to sequence numbers only consecutive bytes are delivered reliability missing segments are detected (ACK is missing) and retransmitted flow control

receiver is protected against overload (window based) congestion control network is protected against overload (window based) protocol tries to fill available capacity connection handling explicit establishment + teardown full-duplex communication e.g., an ACK can be a data segment at the same time (piggybacking) Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 3 TCP History B a s ic s Standards track TCP RFCs which influence when a packet is sent (status: early 2005) S lo w s t a r t + c o n g e s t io n a v o id a n c e , S W S a v o id a n c e / N a g le , R T O c a lc u la t io n , d e la y e d A C K

T im e s ta m p s , PAW S, W in d o w s c a li n g D SAC K SAC K R FC 1122 10 / 1989 R FC 1323 05 / 1992 N ew R eno R FC 2883 07 / 2000 RTO R FC 793 09 / 1981 L a r g e r in it ia l w in d o w

R FC 2018 10 / 1996 R FC 2988 11 / 2000 R FC 2581 04 / 1999 F u ll s p e c i f i c a t io n o f S lo w s ta rt, c o n g e s t io n a v o id a n c e , FR / FR R FC 3390 10 / 2002 R FC 3042 01 / 2001 R FC 3168 09 / 2001 ECN R FC 3782 04 / 2004

R FC 3517 04 / 2003 S A C K -b a s e d lo s s r e c o v e r y L im it e d T r a n s m it Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 4 TCP Header Flags indicate connection setup/teardown, ACK, .. If no data: packet is just an ACK Window = advertised window from receiver (flow control) Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 5 TCP Connection Management heavy solid line: normal path for a client heavy dashed line: normal path for a server Light lines: unusual events

Connection setup teardown SYN F IN AC K SYN, AC K F IN AC K Host 1 AC K Host 2 Host 1 Host 2

Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 6 Error Control: Acknowledgement ACK (positive Acknowledgement) A Segment #0 ACK 1 B ACK meaning: received Segment #0 o.k., now we expect no. 1 next Purposes: sender: throw away copy of segment held for retransmit, time-out cancelled msg-number can be re-used TCP counts bytes, not segments; ACK carries next expected byte (#+1) ACKs are cumulative ACK n acknowledges all bytes last one ACKed thru n-1 ACKs should be delayed TCP ACKs are unreliable: dropping one does not cause much harm

Enough to send only 1 ACK every 2 segments, or at least 1 ACK every 500 ms (often set to 200 ms) Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 7 Error Control: Retransmit Timeout (RTO) Go-Back-N behavior in response to timeout RTO timer value difficult to determine: too long bad in case of msg-loss! too short risk of false alarms! General consensus: too short is worse than too long; use conservative estimate Calculation: measure RTT (Seg# ... ACK#) Original suggestion in RFC 793: Exponentially Weighed Moving Average (EWMA) SRTT = (1-) SRTT + RTT RTO = min(UBOUND, max(LBOUND, * SRTT)) Depending on variation, this RTO may be too small or too large; thus, final algorithm includes variation (approximated via mean deviation) SRTT = (1-) SRTT + RTT = (1 - ) * + * [SRTT - RTT]SRTT - RTT] RTO = SRTT + 4 * Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 8

RTO calculation Problem: retransmission ambiguity Segment #1 sent, no ACK received segment #1 retransmitted Incoming ACK #2: cannot distinguish whether original or retransmitted segment #1 was ACKed Thus, cannot reliably calculate RTO! Solution [SRTT - RTT]Karn/Partridge]: ignore RTT values from retransmits Problem: RTT calculation especially important when loss occurs; sampling theorem suggests that RTT samples should be taken more often Solution: Timestamps option Sender writes current time into packet header (option) Receiver reflects value At sender, when ACK arrives, RTT = (current time) - (value carried in option) Problems: additional header space; facilitates NAT detection Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 9 Window management W in d o w Sender buffer 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

sent and a c k n o w le d g e d s e n t, not AC Ked can be sent m u s t w a it u n til w in d o w m o v e s Receiver grants credit (receiver window, rwnd) sender restricts sent data with window Receiver buffer not specified i.e. receiver may buffer reordered segments (i.e. with gaps) Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 10 Called congestion collapse by John Nagle in RFC 896 Silly Window Syndrome (SWS)

Consider telnet: slow typing = large header overhead Solution: wait until segment is filled at the sender (exception: PUSH bit) But what about ls ? Nagle algorithm: sender waits until SMSS bytes can be sent but 1 small segment /RTT allowed A TCP implementation must support disabling Nagle Also, receiver mechanism: slowly reduce rwnd when less than a segment of incoming data until window boundary reached Note that delayed ACKs also help: ACK 3 would not have happened Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 11 Congestion collapse Upgrade to

1 Mbit/s! Utilization: 2/3 Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 12 Global congestion collapse in the Internet Craig Partridge, Research Director for the Internet Research Department at BBN Technologies: Bits of the network would fade in and out, but usually only for TCP. You could ping. You could get a UDP packet through. Telnet and FTP would fail after a while. And it depended on where you were going (some hosts were just fine, others flaky) and time of day (I did a lot of work on weekends in the late 1980s and the network was wonderfully free then). Around 1pm was bad (I was on the East Coast of the US and you could tell when those pesky folks on the West Coast decided to start work...). Another experience was that things broke in unexpected ways - we spent a lot of time making sure applications were bullet-proof against failures. (..) Finally, I remember being startled when Van Jacobson first described how truly awful network performance was in parts of the Berkeley campus. It was far worse than I was generally seeing. In some sense, I felt we were lucky that the really bad stuff hit just where Van was there to see it. Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 13

Internet congestion control: History 1968/69: dawn of the Internet 1986: first congestion collapse 1988: "Congestion Avoidance and Control" (Jacobson) Combined congestion/flow control for TCP (also: variation change to RTO calculation algorithm) Goal: stability - in equilibrum, no packet is sent into the network until an old packet leaves ack clocking, conservation of packets principle made possible through window based stop+go - behaviour Superposition of stable systems = stable network based on TCP with congestion control = stable Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 14 TCP Congestion Control: Tahoe Distinguish: flow control: protect receiver against overload (receiver "grants" a certain amount of data ("receiver window" (rwnd)) ) congestion control: protect network against overload ("congestion window" (cwnd) limits the rate: min(cwnd,rwnd) used! ) Flow/Congestion Control combined in TCP. Two basic algorithms:

(window unit: SMSS = Sender Maximum Segment Size, usually adjusted to Path MTU; init cwnd<=2 (*SMSS), ssthresh = usually 64k) Slow Start: for each ack received, increase cwnd by 1 (exponential growth) until cwnd >= ssthresh Congestion Avoidance: each RTT, increase cwnd by at most one segment (linear growth - "additive increase") Timeout: ssthresh = FlightSize/2 (exponential backoff "multiplicative decrease"), cwnd = 1; FlightSize = bytes in flight Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 15 Slow start and Congestion Avoidance 0 Slow start: 3 RTTs for 3 packets = inefficient for very short transfers AC K 1 0 ACK 1

1 1 Example: HTTP Requests 2 AC K 2 2 ACK 2 AC K 3 4 5 6 Sender . . . ACK 3

Thus, initial window IW = min(4*MSS, max(2*MSS, 4380 byte)) 3 3 4 5 Sender R e c e iv e r . . . R e c e iv e r Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 16 Fast Retransmit / Fast Recovery (Reno) Reasoning: slow start = restart; assume that network is empty

But even similar incoming ACKs indicate that packets arrive at the receiver! Thus, slow start reaction = too conservative. 1. Upon reception of third duplicate ACK (DupACK): ssthresh = FlightSize/2 2. Retransmit lost segment (fast retransmit); cwnd = ssthresh + 3*SMSS ("inflates" cwnd by the number of segments (three) that have left the network and which the receiver has buffered) 3. For each additional DupACK received: cwnd += SMSS (inflates cwnd to reflect the additional segment that has left the network) 4. Transmit a segment, if allowed by the new value of cwnd and rwnd 5. Upon reception of ACK that acknowledges new data (full ACK): "deflate" window: cwnd = ssthresh (the value set in step 1) Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 17 Tahoe vs. Reno Congestion Avoidance Slow Start Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 18 Background: AIMD M IM D

F a ir n e s s L in e U s e r 2 A llo c a t io n x 2 A IA D A IM D O v e r lo a d S ta r tin g P o in t D e s ir a b le S ta r t in g P o in t U n d e r lo a d U s e r 1 A llo c a t io n x 1 E ffic ie n c y L in e Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 19 One window, multiple dropped

segments Sender cannot detect loss of multiple segments from a single window AC K 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 3 4 5 Insufficient information in DupACKs 2 1 2 3 4 5 3 NewReno: AC K 1

1 2 3 4 5 stay in FR/FR when partial ACK arrives after DupACKs retransmit single segment only full ACK ends process Example: ACK 6 4 1 2 3 4 5 5 AC K 1 Important to obtain enough ACKs to avoid timeout AC K 1 FR / FR Sender Example: ACK 3

R e c e iv e r Limited transmit: also send new segment for first two DupACKs Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 20 Selective ACKnowledgements (SACK) Example on previous slide: send ACK 1, SACK 3, SACK 5 in response to segment #4 Better sender reaction possible Reno and NewReno can only retransmit a single segment per window SACK can retransmit more (RFC 3517 maintain scoreboard, pipe variable) Particularly advantageous when window is large (long fat pipes) but: requires receiver code change Extension: DSACK informs the sender of duplicate arrivals Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 21 Spurious timeouts Common occurrence in wireless scenarios (handover): sudden delay spike

Can lead to timeout slow start But: underlying assumption: pipe empty is wrong! (spurious timeout) Old incoming ACK after timeout should be used to undo the error Several methods proposed Examples: Eifel Algorithm: use timestamps option to check: timestamp in ACK < time of timeout? DSACK: duplicate arrived F-RTO: check for ACKs that shouldn't arrive after Slow Start Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 22 Appropriate Byte Counting Increasing in Congestion Avoidance mode: common implementation (e.g. Jan05 FreeBSD code): cwnd += SMSS*SMSS/cwnd for every ACK (same as cwnd += 1/cwnd if we count segments) Problem: e.g. cwnd = 2: 2 + 1/2 + 1/ (2+1/2)) = 2+0.5+0.4 = 2.9 thus, cannot send a new packet after 1 RTT Worse with delayed ACKs (cwnd = 2.5)

Even worse with ACKs for less than 1 segment (consider 1000 1-byte ACKs) too aggressive! Solution: Appropriate Byte Counting (ABC) Maintain bytes_acked variable; send segment when threshold exceeded Works in Congestion Avoidance; but what about Slow Start? Here, ABC + delayed ACKs means that the rate increases in 2*SMSS steps If a series of ACKs are dropped, this could be a significant burst (microburstiness); thus, limit of 2*SMSS per ACK recommended Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 23 Limited Slow Start and cwnd Validation Slow start problems: initial ssthresh = constant, not related to real network this is especially severe when cwnd and ssthresh are very large Proposals to initially adjust ssthresh failed: must be quick and precise Assume: cwnd and ssthresh are large, and avail.bw. = current window + 1 SMSS/RTT ? Next updates (cwnd++ for every ACK) will cause many packet drops Solution: Limited Slow Start cwnd <= max_ssthresh: normal operation; recommend. max_ssthresh=100 SMSS else K = int(cwnd/(0.5*max_ssthresh), cwnd += int(MSS/K) More conservative than Slow Start: for a while cwnd+=MSS/2, then cwnd+=MSS/3, etc.

Cwnd validation What if sender stops, or does not send as much as it could? maintain cwnd = wrong if break is long (not related to real network anymore) reset = too conservative if break is short Solution: slowly decay TCP parameters - cwnd /= 2 every RTT, ssthresh = between previous and new cwnd Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 24 Maintaining congestion state TCP Control Block (TCB): information such as RTO, scoreboard, cwnd, .. Related to network path, yet separately stored per TCP connection Compare: layering problem of PMTU storage TCB interdependence: affects initialization phase Temporal sharing: learn from previous connection (e.g. for consecutive HTTP requests) Ensemble sharing: learn from existing connections here, some information should change e.g. cwnd should be cwnd/n, n = number of connections; but less aggressive than "old" implementation Congestion Manager

One entity in the OS maintains all the congestion control related state Used by TCP's and UDP based applications Hard to implement, not really used Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 25 Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) Active Queue Management monitor queue, do not just drop upon overflow more intelligent decisions maintain low average queue length, alleviate phase effects, enforce fairness Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) Instead of dropping, set a bit; reduced loss major benefit! Receiver informs sender about bit; sender behaves as if a packet was dropped actual communication between end nodes and the network Typical incentives: sender = server; efficiently use connection, fairly distribute bandwidth use ECN as it was designed receiver = client; goal = high throughput, does not care about others

ignore ECN flag, do not inform sender about it Need to make it impossible for receiver to lie about ECN flag when it was set Solution: nonce = random number from sender, deleted by router when setting ECN Sender believes no congestion iff correct nonce is sent back Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 26 ECN in action ACKs Sender R e c e iv e r C o n g e s tio n 1 S e n d p a c k e t w it h ECT = 1, C E = 0, n o n c e = ra n d o m 2 E C T = 1 , s o d o n t d r o p u p d a te : C E = 1

nonce = 0 3 Reduce cw nd, set C W R = 1 4 D a ta p a c k e ts Nonce provided by bit combination: ECT(0): ECT=1, CE=0 ECT(1): ECT=0, CE=1 Nonce usage specification still experimental 5 S e t E C E = 1 in subsequent A C K s e v e n if C E = 0 O n ly s e t E C E = 1 in A C K s a g a in w hen CE = 1

Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 27 Fighting TCP SYN attacks TCP SYN attack DoS attack - flood a server until its down, ideally with packets that cause work Note: per-flow state not scalable TCP needs per-flow state (connection state, address, port numbers, ..) 1 SYN packet: search through existing connections + allocate memory TCP SYN attack exploits TCP scalability problem! Solution Sequence number negotiated at connection setup Idea: do not maintain state after SYN at server encode cipher in sequence number from server to client Client must reflect it check integrity; if okay, generate state from ACK Only requires changes at the server Not specified in RFC - no specification change needed See http://cr.yp.to/syncookies.html for details (how to activate in Linux, ..) Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 28 Known issues with TCP Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 29

Current IETF concern: TCP security Historic viewpoint: can an attacker blindly disturb a TCP connection? Hardly: would have to know 4-tuple (src/dst addr, src/dst port and seqno) Thus, no countermeasures in TCP Assumption no longer correct! [ Paul Watson: "Slipping in the Window" (cansecwest/core04 conference) ] Window size larger for high speed links (RFC 1323) larger number of working seqnos Some applications use long lived connections; e.g. H.323, BGP (major concern!) longer time available for attacker Also, such long lived connections may have predictable IP addresses / ports better chances of guessing correct 4-tuple RST attack cause connection to be torn down; works because any RST in current window accepted Mitigation: only accept RST with next expected seqno SYN attack in old spec, SYN with acceptable seqno is answered with RST Mitigation: answer with ACK, which is answered with RST (where new rule applies) DATA attack can lead to "ACK war" (sender / receiver negotiation fails) or corruption Mitigation: always check range of ACK

Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 30 TCP security /2 Note: BGP problem long known; awareness issue! RFC 2385 (Proposed Standard, 1998) specifies a MD5 message digest for TCP IPSec authentication can also solve the problem So can authentication based on Timestamps option Recent discussion: what about ICMP? Messages can indicate reachability problems, but also source quench and MTU (still beneficial for convergence with new PMTUD, but a security problem) Many pro's and con's to ICMP processing Consider figure: should router Z accept ICMP packets from 170.210.17.1 which tell Host A that Host B is unreachable? Source: http://www.gont.com.ar/papers/icmp-errors/ Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 31 Some reasons for TCP CC. stability Congestion Avoidance and Control, Van Jacobson, SIGCOMM88: Exponential backoff: For a transport endpoint embedded in a network of unknown

topology and with an unknown, unknowable and constantly changing population of competing conversations, only one scheme has any hope of working - exponential backoff - but a proof of this is beyond the scope of this paper. Conservation of packets: The physics of flow predicts that systems with this property should be robust in the face of congestion. Additive Increase, Multiplicative Decrease: Not explicitely cited as a stability reason in the paper! ...but in 1000s of other papers! Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 32 Proofs of TCP stability AIMD: Chiu/Jain: diagram + algebraic proof of homogeneous RTT case steady-state TCP model: window size ~ 1/sqrt(p) (p = packet loss) Johari/Tan, Massouli, ..: local stability, neglect details of TCP behaviour (fluid flow model, ..) assumption: queueing delays will eventually become small relative to propagation delays Steven Low: Duality model (based on utility function / F. Kelly, ..):

Stability depends on delay, capacity, load and AQM Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 33 How Stable is AIMD / async. RTT? U SER 2 1 .0 0 0 0 0 .9 5 0 0 0 .9 0 0 0 Simple simulation (no queues, ..) RTT: 7 vs. 2 AI=0.1, MD=0.5 Simul. time=175 0 .8 5 0 0 0 .8 0 0 0 0 .7 5 0 0 0 .7 0 0 0 0 .6 5 0 0 0 .6 0 0 0 0 .5 5 0 0

0 .5 0 0 0 0 .4 5 0 0 0 .4 0 0 0 0 .3 5 0 0 0 .3 0 0 0 0 .2 5 0 0 0 .2 0 0 0 0 .1 5 0 0 0 .1 0 0 0 0 .0 5 0 0 0 .0 0 0 0 - 0 .0 5 0 0 0 .0 0 0 0 0 .2 0 0 0 0 .4 0 0 0 0 .6 0 0 0 0 .8 0 0 0 1 .0 0 0 0 U se r 1 Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 34

Is AIMD distorted in TCP? T C P 2 1 0 .0 0 0 0 9 .5 0 0 0 ns-2 simulator TCP Tahoe equal RTT 1 bottleneck link 9 .0 0 0 0 8 .5 0 0 0 8 .0 0 0 0 7 .5 0 0 0 7 .0 0 0 0 6 .5 0 0 0 6 .0 0 0 0 5 .5 0 0 0 5 .0 0 0 0 4 .5 0 0 0 4 .0 0 0 0 3 .5 0 0 0 3 .0 0 0 0 2 .5 0 0 0

2 .0 0 0 0 1 .5 0 0 0 1 .0 0 0 0 2 .0 0 0 0 4 .0 0 0 0 6 .0 0 0 0 8 .0 0 0 0 1 0 .0 0 0 0 1 2 .0 0 0 0 1 4 .0 0 0 0 T C P 1 Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 35 TCP vs. UDP: a simple simulation example Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 36

It doesnt look good 10 tcp - 1 cbr - drop tail 1400000 1200000 1000000 800000 100 tcp - 1 cbr - drop tail 1400000 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 600000 400000 400000 200000 200000 0

0 -200000 -200000 For more details, see: Promoting the Use of End-to-End Congestion Control in the Internet. Floyd, S., and Fall, K.. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, August 1999. Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 37 TCP-friendliness TCP dominant - therefore, Internet definition of fairness: TCP-friendliness "A flow is TCP-compatible (TCP-friendly) if, in steady state, it uses no more bandwidth than a conformant TCP running under comparable conditions." But... TCP regularly increases the queue length and causes loss detect congestion when it is already (ECN: almost) too late! possible to have more throughput with smaller queues and less loss ... but: exceed rate of TCP under similar conditions not TCP-friendly! What if I send more than TCP in the absence of competing TCPs? can such a mechanism exist?

yes! TCP itself, with max. window size = bandwidth * RTT Does this mean that TCP is not TCP-friendly? Details missing from the definition: parameters + version of "conformant TCP" duration! short TCP flows are different than long ones TCP-friendliness = compatibility of new mechanisms with old mechanism there was research since the 80s! e.g. new knowledge about network measurements TCP rate depends on RTT - how does this relate to intuitive "fairness" notion? Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 38 TCP with High Speed links TCP over long fat pipes: large bandwidth*delay product long time to reach equilibrium, MD = problematic! From RFC 3649 (HighSpeed RFC, Experimental): For example, for a Standard TCP connection with 1500-byte packets and a 100 ms round-trip time, achieving a steady-state throughput of 10 Gbps would require an average congestion window of 83,333 segments, and a packet drop rate of at most one congestion event every 5,000,000,000 packets (or equivalently, at most one congestion event every 1 2/3 hours). This is widely acknowledged as an unrealistic constraint. Theoretically, utilization independent of

capacity But: longer convergence Area: 3ct Area: 6ct Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 39 TCP with asymmetric routing TCP in asymmetric networks incoming throughput (high capacity link) can be limited by rate of outgoing ACKs (ACK compaction, ACK congestion) Mitigation: Delayed ACKs ACK suppression (selectively drop ACKs) TCP header compression triangular routing with Mobile IP(v4) and FA-Care-of-address can lead to unnecessarily large RTT (and hence large RTT fluctuations) "normal" operation MH

CH FA HA Visiting Network Internet Sometimes... Home Network Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 40 TCP in noisy environments / over satellite TCP over noisy links: problems with "packet loss = congestion" Usually wireless links, where delay fluctuations from link layer ARQ and handover are also issues (mitigation: spurious timeout detection schemes) Satellites combine several problems

Long delay High capacity Wireless (but usually not noisy (for TCP) because of link layer FEC) Can be asymmetric (e.g. direct satellite downlink, 56k modem uplink) Performanc e Enhancing Proxy (PEP) Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 41 References Michael Welzl, "Network Congestion Control: Managing Internet Traffic", John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., August 2005, ISBN: 047002528X M. Hassan and R. Jain, "High Performance TCP/IP Networking: Concepts, Issues, and Solutions", Prentice-Hall, 2003, ISBN:0130646342 M. Duke, R. Braden, W. Eddy, E. Blanton: "A Roadmap for TCP Specification Documents", Internet-draft draft-ietf-tcpm-tcp-roadmap06.txt, http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietftcpm-tcp-roadmap-06.txt (in RFC Editor Queue)

Uni Innsbruck Informatik - 42 Thank you! Questions?

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Windows Clients and Windows Server 2008 NAP: Why They Are ...

    Windows Clients and Windows Server 2008 NAP: Why They Are ...

    NAP is an Additional Layer in Network Security. Network Access Protection is not a silver bullet for network security. NAP is about stopping the next big virus or vulnerability by ensuring clients are well maintained and isolated if deemed unhealthy
  • Centre for Inclusion and Collaborative Partnerships Working for

    Centre for Inclusion and Collaborative Partnerships Working for

    Cowan 2013, Dyment & O'Connell 2011, Moon 2001, 2006, Race 2010. Inclusive assessment in HE :Butcher et al 2010, Gravestock 2006, Hockings 2010, McDowell 2008.
  • ROMAN G.R.A.P.E.S. - Chaparral Middle School

    ROMAN G.R.A.P.E.S. - Chaparral Middle School

    Four vegetation zones in West Africa are especially important because of their influence on developing civilizations. These zones are desert, semi-desert (Sahel), grassland (savanna), and rain forest In ancient times, farming communities developed south of the Sahara. This region is...
  • Developing Medical Education Fellows Within Wessex

    Developing Medical Education Fellows Within Wessex

    This resource is aimed at anyone who wants to expand their horizons in Medical Education. As trainees with a passion for education and training, we know how difficult and daunting it can be to start building up experience in this...
  • Evaluating and Choosing Sheer Overlays Camille Myers Breeze

    Evaluating and Choosing Sheer Overlays Camille Myers Breeze

    There are three main categories of sheer conservation fabrics listed in Chapter VI of the Textiles section of the AIC Collaborative Knowledge Base (AIC Wiki: ) silk crepeline, nylon net, and polyester sheers (e.g. Stabiltex®/Tetex®.) Each material has its pros...
  • Title of poster

    Title of poster

    New Mexico Nursing Education Consortium 2019 Your school logo here Becky Dakin, MA - NMNEC Program Manager The Consortium: NMNEC is a collaborative of state-funded/tribal nursing programs throughout New Mexico with a common pre-licensure nursing curriculum that supports multiple pathways...
  • Premises About Change

    Premises About Change

    MEMORIZING Knowing Making a personal commitment Energy and a positive attitude You "own" the information Memorizing Rote rehearsal Quickly lost or forgotten OWNING THE MATERIAL Can I relate x to y? Can I illustrate how x does y? Can I...
  • Circuit Switching - WPI

    Circuit Switching - WPI

    International Standards Organization Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) Reference Model OSI vs TCP/IP DCC 6th Ed., W. Stallings Figure 1.11 International Standards Organization Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) Reference Model OSI vs TCP/IP DCC 6th Ed., W. Stallings Figure 1.11 Application Layer...