Mid-Atlantic Soil Testing & Plant Analysis Work Group Hybrid Gas Streaming Sandy Hughes elementar Americas, Inc. Elemental Analyzer Technology and Operation Who is Elementar? Hybrid Gas Streaming offerings in 2010 Core Operations Combustion Gas separation Gas detection
Chemistry Details of the Hybrid Gas Streaming 2 elementar Organization Manufacturing, Research and Development elementar Analysensysteme GmbH Elemental analyzers (CHNS/O) Located in Hanau, Germany (30 minutes from Frankfurt Airport) R&D, applications and training lab, manufacturing, administration Subsidiary - Isoprime Ltd Isotope Ratio Mass Spectometers Located near Manchester, U.K R&D, applications and training lab, manufacturing, administration
elementar Americas Inc Sales, Service, Applications & Supplies - USA and Canada opened in 1998 in Mt. Laurel, NJ (30 minutes from Philadelphia ) 18 employees 3 elementar Americas Elemental Analyzer Product Line Micro scale CHNS/O vario MICRO cube vario EL cube Macro scale CHNS/O vario Macro cube vario Max
rapid N cube & rapid CS cube TOC LiquiTOC vario TOC cube 4 Macro N/CN Elemental Analyzers rapid N cube vario MACRO CN cube
vario MAX CN 5 Sample Preparation rapid N cube and vario MACRO cube Variety of foils/capsules 60 position open carousel - add samples at any time during run - optional 80 or 120 position carousel Sample Pressing Tool
6 Vario Max Sample preparation 7 Elemental Analyzer Core Operations Combustion Sample combusts in furnace at 950 deg C to 1200 deg C Sample drops into crucible Jet injection of oxygen via lance right over/at sample Creates turbulent flow around
sample like blowing on a fire 8 Elemental Analyzer Core Operations Gas Separation Helium carrier gas pushes combustion gases through analyzer. Argon is alternate gas. C, H and S combustion gases are trapped in separate columns, then sequentially released (aka purge and trap). N2 gas is not trapped. It flows
straight thru columns. 9 Elemental Analyzer Core Operations Gas Detection TCD Thermal Conductivity Detector. Combustion gases and reference gas have different thermal conductivities. R3 and R4 are thermistors (resistors whose resistance changes with temperature). TCD creates voltage signal which is integrated over time and calibrated to elemental mass. The voltage signal is created as follows: Electric current in R3 and R4 thermisters
increases their temperatures relative to TCD metal mass surrounding path of gas flow. R3 thermister is cooled by thermal conductivity of column gas. R4 thermister is cooled by thermal conductivity of reference gas. R3 vs R4 temperature difference creates difference in thermister resistance which creates voltage signal. 10 Elemental Analyzer Chemistry Combustion R-N + O2 ----> N2 + NOx + O2 + CO + CO2 + CH4 + X- + SOx + H2O
Post Combustion CO + CH4 ---CuO & Pt --> CO2 + H2O Reduction NOx+O2 +SO2--tungsten--> N2+WO3 +CO (trace) CO + CuO --------> CO2 11 Elemental Analyzer More Chemistry Removal of other gases XH2O via reaction with silver wool via condensation, membrane dryer and Sicapent
Tr S02 via reaction with tungsten Nitrogen detected by TCD Carbon Dioxide rapid N fades into carrier gas Max and Macro separated on purge and trap column, then released and detected by TCD. 12 Continuous Flow Hybrid Gas Streaming
Technology This option enables elementar CN and N analyzers to stream only a portion of the combustion gases to the reduction tube for reduction and subsequent detection. The reduction tube accordingly has a longer life. P O S T C O M B C
O M B GS R E D U C T I O N
Stream to Reduction Column To Exhaust 13 Continuous Flow Hybrid Gas Streaming Operator control Features and Benefits Operator turns on gas streaming and defines the streaming ratio User can optimize analyzer performance for customers mix of samples Turn off gas streaming for very small samples or low concentrations Turn on gas streaming for long runs of larger samples
Continuous Process The gas steaming process uses a mass flow controller. There is no ballast tank and no aliquot loop. Maintenance is very low. Reduction tube life is extended Up to three times longer life for reduction tube. Depends on streaming ratio Lower Consumables cost. Fast payback depends on samples per day, see attached. Longer runs. Less downtime. 14
Continuous Flow Hybrid Gas Streaming Equipment 15 Continuous Flow Hybrid Gas Streaming Financial Payback 16 Mid-Atlantic Soil Testing & Plant Analysis Work Group Questions, Comments, or Suggestions
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