Elements of Design

Elements of Design

COLOR COLOR THEORY THEORY All About Colors and Color Theory for Art and Graphic Design Color Color Color is the perceived character of a surface according to the wavelength

of light reflected from it. The sensation of color is aroused in the brain by response of the eyes to different wavelengths of light. Color has three dimensions: HUE (another word for color, indicated by its name such as red or yellow)

VALUE (its lightness or darkness), INTENSITY (its brightness or dullness). Do you remember ROY G BIV from your Art Class or the spectrum of light from your science class? Red Orange Yellow Violet

The Warm Colors Green Blue The Cool Colors

Indigo Color Terms Hue is another word for color. Chroma is the intensity or purity of color. Tint is a color mixed with white. Tone is a color mixed with gray. Shade is a color mixed with black.

Color and Contrast Using color can enhance or detract from a composition. www.lighthouse.org/color_contrast.htm Color wheels help determine which colors are in greatest contrast. Use Kuler from Adobe Labs to try out new color schemes: http:// kuler.adobe.com/

The Color Wheel Primary Colors Red Yellow Blue Secondary Colors Green Orange Purple

Tertiary Colors Yellow-Green Yellow-Orange Red-Orange Red-Purple Blue Purple viole t violet

Blue-Green Tertiary Colors are made by mixing a primary and secondary colors. Color Wheels Analogous colors are a palette of compatible color combinations that blend well together. They are neighbors on the color wheel. They

tend to live harmoniously because they are relatives to each other. Complementary colors are opposite each other on the color wheel. They contrast, enhance and intensify each other. Therefore, complementary colors need to be used with caution. Color in Design Use color to label or show hierarchy.

Use color to represent or imitate reality. Use color to unify, separate, or emphasize. Use color to decorate. Use color consistently. Color Color theory encompasses a multitude of definitions,

concepts and design applications. All the information would fill several encyclopedias. As an introduction, here are a few basic concepts. Primary Colors Red, Yellow & Blue A color circle, based on red, yellow and blue, is traditional in the field of art. Sir Isaac Newton

developed the first circular diagram of colors in 1666. Since then scientists and artists have studied and designed numerous variations of this concept. Differences of opinion about the validity of one format over another continue to provoke debate. In reality, any color circle or color wheel which presents a logically arranged sequence of pure hues has merit. Primary Colors

Red, Yellow & Blue In traditional color theory, these are the 3 pigment colors that can not be mixed or formed by any combination of other colors. All other colors are derived from these 3 hues Secondary Secondary Colors Colors

GREEN ORANGE PURPLE These are the colors formed by mixing the primary colors. TERTIARY

TERTIARY COLORS COLORS ye llo wgr ee n. w lo

l Ye e g an r -o blue-green

bl ue - pu rp le red

re dpu rp l e -or an

ge Analogous Analogous colors colors Analogous colors are any three colors which are side by side on a 12 part color wheel, such as yellow-green, yellow, and yellow-orange.

Usually one of the three colors predominates. Complementary Complementary Colors Colors Complementary colors are any two colors which are directly opposite each other, such as red and green and red-purple and yellow-green. In the illustration above, there are several variations of yellow-green in the leaves and several variations of red-purple in the orchid.

These opposing colors create maximum contrast and maximum stability. Nature Nature Color Color Nature provides a perfect departure point for color harmony. In the illustration above, red yellow and green create a harmonious design, regardless of whether this

combination fits into a technical formula for color harmony. Neutral Colors Neutral (NOO-trul) colors don't usually show up on the color wheel. Neutral colors include black, white, gray, and sometimes

brown and beige. They are sometimes called earth tones. Color Color Context Context How color behaves in relation to other colors and shapes is a complex area of color theory. Compare the contrast effects of different color

backgrounds for the same red square. Red appears more brilliant against a black background and somewhat duller against the white background. In contrast with orange, the red appears lifeless; in contrast with blue-green, it exhibits brilliance. Notice that the red square appears larger on black than on other background colors. Colour Light that comes from the sun is basically white. It is

made up of all colours When it passes through a specially shaped glass called a prism it breaks up into different colours. When the sun comes out while it is still raining, we often observe a rainbow because light must pass through raindrops. It breaks up into all the colours of the visible spectrum. Violet light is at one end of the spectrum because it has the shortest wavelength, red light, which has the longest wavelength, is at the other end.

Opaque (Opacity) What happens to light depends on the kind of object or material that it hits. Transparent objects, like glass, let light waves pass through without mixing them up. You can see through this material. Translucent material also allows rays to pass through, but it mixes them up so that you cannot see

through such objects clearly. Opaque materials dont let any light pass through, thus you cannot see through it such as dark coffee. Different Different readings readings of of the the same

same color color If your computer has sufficient color stability and gamma correction (link to Color Blind Computers) you will see that the small purple rectangle on the left appears to have a red-purple tinge when compared to the small purple rectangle on the right. They are both the same color as seen in the illustration below. This demonstrates how three colors can be perceived

as four colors. Different Different readings readings of of the the same same color color

Observing the effects colors have on each other is the starting point for understanding the relativity of color. The relationship of values, saturations and the warmth or coolness of respective hues can cause noticeable differences in our perception of color. Color

Color Theory and Color Schemes Color: The result of light reflecting off of a surface. Color Theory: Study of color mixing and color schemes.

A body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual impacts of specific color combinations. (wikipedia.org) According to color

theory, certain color combinations work better than others. Using color schemes can help with the over all success of a composition. Color

Schemes: An arrangement or pattern of colors or colored objects conceived of as forming an integrated whole.

(dictionary.com) Primary: Red, Blue, Yellow If you mix red, yellow & blue, you will make brown. Depending on the ratio of colors, you can also produce a beautiful gray and a wide variety of: browns or flesh tones.

Secondary: Orange, Green, Purple Complimentary Colors: Colors across from each Red and Green other on the color wheel. Orange and Blue +

Yellow and Violet Orange and Blue Red and Green. Spilt-Complimentary Colors:

Triad of colors consisting of a compliment, plus the two tertiary/intermediate colors on each side of its compliment. Analogous Colors: Colors next to each other on the

color wheel. Red, orange, and yellow. Green, Blue, Purple. Examples of analogous compositions Monochromatic:

Consisting of one color, plus its tints and shades (color + black and white = monochromatic) Examples of monochromatic compositions E

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