Emergency Preparedness and Response (Module 16)

Emergency Preparedness and Response (Module 16)

BASIC PROFESSIONAL TRAINING COURSE Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response Version 1.0, November 2015 SHORT COURSE This material was prepared by the IAEA and co-funded by the European Union. 2 INTRODUCTION Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 1. Get to know the fact that no nuclear power plant is 100% safe. 2. Understand the need for the emergency preparedness process to support an effective emergency response. 3. Get to know basic terminology such as nuclear emergency, on-site and off-site areas. 4. Distinguish on-site and off-site emergency preparedness

and response. 5. Get to know how this module is organised. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 3 Electricity is essential today Different types of power plants Nuclear power plants generate 11% of electricity All power plants have benefits and drawbacks Nuclear accident is the biggest drawback of NPPs New designs are safer But nothing is 100 % safe We still need to be prepared, to the extent practicable, to respond to nuclear emergencies!

Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 4 When one is prepared enough? Preparing for emergencies should be adequate to enable effective response It is difficult to draw a line where one is prepared enough In practice it also depends on available resources Nuclear emergency preparedness and response is not proportional to country size! Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 5 Scope of the Module and terms used EPR = Emergency Preparedness and Response Emphasis given to an emergency at NPP Nuclear emergency = Emergency in which the hazard is due to nuclear

chain reaction or from decay of its products This module is based on current good practices and international safety standards IAEA safety standards in EPR Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 6 On-site & Off-site On-site = Area within the security perimeter, fence or other designated property marker under control of the facility Off-site = Area beyond that under control of the facility Our topic is EPR of local, regional and national response organizations and the operating organization Aspects of coping with the accidents within NPP is also covered in Module 15 Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response

7 Road book for this Module Basic Concepts - Facts and phenomena for better understanding Past nuclear accidents - Practical reasoning for EPR Establishing EPR - Setting up EPR Functional & Infrastructural elements All the functions to be performed in emergency response and infrastructure necessary to support them Role of the IAEA in EPR Overview of the IAEA publications Safety standards Technical guidance and Other technical tools Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response

8 BASIC CONCEPTS Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. List specific characteristics of nuclear emergency. List goals of emergency response. Explain goals of emergency preparedness. List the radiation exposure pathways. Explain the different radiation exposure pathways. Explain the term Source Term. Understand differences between controlled and uncontrolled release. Get to know background of dose calculations. Understand limitations of dose calculations.

Get to know radiation exposure in relation to protective actions. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 9 Natural disasters Brought about by change in natural phenomena Earthquakes, flooding Man has no influence on Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 10 Manmade disasters Result of System failure

Human or organizational failure Intentional acts Nuclear accident at NPP Can be triggered by a natural disaster as well Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 11 Particularities of nuclear accidents Danger is coming From highly complex manmade machine In a form of ionizing radiation

Less known to population and general rescue services Induces fear and other psychological effects Consequences to population and environment Can be prevented if accident is contained within the NPP safety barriers Can be devastating to population, environment and nations economy Nuclear accident is quite different from natural disasters Even though probability is very low, we need to prepare thoroughly for nuclear accidents and maintain adequate capability Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 12 Challenge of competence Understanding of ionizing radiation and nuclear technology is primarily limited to:

Operator of nuclear power plant and its competent employees Government authority responsible for nuclear and radiation safety Government authority responsible for dealing with all types of emergencies may not necessarily have knowledge and competences in nuclear and radiation safety However, they provide rescue and relief services in nuclear emergency as well Thus, good cooperation and coordinating mechanism are essential for successful EPR Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 13 Response goals Primary emergency response goals Take control of situation and mitigate the consequences

Prevent severe deterministic effects Reasonably reduce the risk of stochastic effects Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 14 Additional response goals Rendering first aid Providing critical medical treatment Managing treatment of radiation injuries Keeping public informed Maintaining public trust Mitigating non-radiological consequences Protecting property and the environment Preparing for the resumption of normal social and economic activity Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 15 Preparedness goals Emergency preparedness makes sure that

Adequate response capability exists Always ready - to mitigate consequences! Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 16 Preparedness in a nut shell Documents Legal framework National nuclear emergency plan To set roles and responsibilities for all parties involved in preparedness process and response Under effective management system

People Sufficient number of people: qualified , trained, fit for duty To run the preparedness process To take positions in emergency response Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 17 Preparedness in a nut shell /cont. Communication & Equipment Reliable, secure and redundant communication systems

Equipment to support response Training, testing, exercising Process needs to be set up to regularly Train people for their positions, applying SAT Test all communication and other equipment to assure operability Exercise response Everything must be set on all levels for all involved organizations - from national down to local and the operator Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response

18 Doses For evaluating radiological consequences on human health Can be calculated or measured To be associated with health effects: How the doses are measured and calculated, i.e. what type of dose it is Knowing the exact exposure pathway Who is exposed Radionuclides involved Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 19

Deterministic and stochastic effects Deterministic effects Early or acute health effects Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) weighted absorbed dose to an organ or tissue Unit is the gray (Gy) Stochastic effects Late health effects Equivalent dose to an organ or tissue

Unit is the sievert (Sv) Stochastic effects in exposed population Effective dose Unit is the sievert (Sv) Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 20 Protective actions When doses are to exceed those at which radiation induced health effects can be expected, protective actions are almost always justified to be taken, such as: Iodine thyroid blocking

Evacuation Sheltering Restrictions on contaminated food, milk, drinking water and other commodities Relocation Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 21 Types of releases Nuclear emergency can produce two types of releases: Airborne goes into the atmosphere, forming a plume

Liquid is discharged into water bodies (ground water, rivers, lakes and the sea) Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 22 Airborne release Usually main concern as it may result to exposures of population with serious health consequences Radionuclides released to environment as Gases Aerosol particles Water soluble substances

Slightly soluble oxides Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 23 Ground contamination Deposition can be increased by precipitation (rain) Washes down radionuclides Hot spots along the rainwater path Hot spots = areas with higher radiation or contamination levels Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response

24 Exposure pathways The plume and deposition are primary sources of dose via: 1. Inhalation 2. Cloud shine 3. Ground shine 4. Ingestion 5. Inadvertent ingestion 6.

Skin contamination inadvertent ingestion Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 25 Relevance of the pathways During release, the following pathways are predominant: Inhalation Cloud shine Ground shine Skin contamination and After plume has passed, the following pathways are predominant: Ground shine Intake of contaminated food, milk, water and Inadvertent ingestion Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response

26 Actual doses received Actual doses received depend on Release itself (source term) Composition and Released activities Weather (wind, rain etc.) During release After the release

Protective actions taken Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 27 Source term Source term = ? The composition of release itself Defined by characteristics of radioactive material released Quantity or magnitude Timing Chemical species and

Physical forms Source term is always subject to uncertainty Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 28 Big uncertainty Early - before or during initial release Very little is known with certainty The operators should know If there is core damage But not the size or timing of a release Behaviour of released material

Very complex and Unpredictable Only information early on that can be used confidently is the core status! Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 29 Dose calculations Potential dose is calculated by dose models and software e.g. InterRAS, RODOS This is projected dose Used for

Planning purposes Easier decision making later in an emergency response Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response Protective actions should not be based on dose calculations Protective actions must be initiated BEFORE a major release Protective action decisions to be based on core damage Because of: High probability of a major release given core damage Relative ease to detect major core damage

Large uncertainties associated with projecting containment failure Great difficulties to make accurate dose calculations Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 30 31 PAST NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 1. Understand the reasoning for nuclear emergency preparedness and response through brief overview of the most well known past nuclear accidents. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response

32 To remind us all! Even today we can never be 100% sure that nothing would happen Past accidents provide lessons identified and hopefully learned Major nuclear accidents: Three Mile Island (1979) Chernobyl (1986) Fukushima Daiichi (2011) Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 33 Three Mile Island accident (TMI) 28 March, 1979, USA Partial core meltdown

Radioactive impact not significant But immense non-radiological impact Rated INES 5 Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 34 Chernobyl accident 26 April, 1986, USSR Ukraine today Significant amounts of radioactive material released High into the atmosphere, and far away Significant increase in thyroid cancer among children more than 350 km from the site

Contamination levels exceeded in agricultural products more than 1000 km away Rated INES 7 Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 35 Fukushima Daiichi accident 11 March, 2011, Japan As a consequence of extreme natural disaster, strong earthquake followed by tsunami Multiple core meltdowns Multiple releases over a couple of weeks to the atmosphere and for months to the ocean Evacuation of 20 km and 30 km zone Rated INES 7 It confirmed we always need to be prepared for the worst! Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI

Emergency preparedness and response 36 ESTABLISHING RESPONSE CAPABILITY Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 1. Describe the planning basis for establishing response capability. 2. Explain the importance of hazard assessment. 3. Get to know the concept of protection strategy. 4. Distinguish between reference levels and generic criteria. 5. Understand the concept of EALs and OILs. 6. Describe the IAEA emergency planning zones and distances. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 37 ESTABLISHING RESPONSE CAPABILITY /cont. Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 7. Understand the need for introducing emergency planning

zones and distances. 8. Get to know concept of operation during a general emergency at NPP. 9. Describe the three levels of responsibilities in emergency response. 10. Describe developing emergency plans and procedures. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 38 Assessment of hazards Establishing emergency response capability to be based on potential hazards and associated consequences Probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) provides essential information for the types of accident sequences and their probability Safety analysis report (SAR), the facility licensing document, contains description of the site, as well as detailed description of design basis accidents and design extension conditions

Hazard assessment, a comprehensive assessment for emergency preparedness and response purposes Where and for whom protective actions may be required Identifies actions that are most effective in mitigating the consequences and protecting individuals including the timing of actions required Allows for applying a graded approach PSA and SAR provide relevant inputs Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 39 Off-site emergency zones and distances The hazard assessment of NPPs results in off-site emergency zones and distances where: Appropriate arrangements are established in advance to ensure effective and prompt response

The IAEA nomenclature Precautionary action zone (PAZ) Urgent protective action planning zone (UPZ) Extended planning distance (EPD) Ingestion and commodities planning distance (ICPD) Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 40 Off-site emergency zones and distances /cont. Roughly circular areas Defined by local landmarks

Do not stop at national borders Emergency will not stop at the planning zone boundary! Special attention for personnel of special facilities in PAZ and UPZ Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 41 Protection strategies General approach to achieving goals of emergency response: To guide development of emergency arrangements To guide emergency response operations

Justified and optimized set of protective actions Developed on the basis of hazard assessment Justification and optimization not limited to radiation protection alone To take into account social, economic, environmental and psychological factors To take into account the impact of each protective action on the economy, society, public welfare etc. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 42 Reference level Represents the level Above which it is inappropriate to plan to allow exposures to occur and

Below which optimization takes place It is expressed in terms of residual dose Dose expected to be incurred by an individual in the emergency after protective actions have been fully implemented or in absence of protective actions if decided so (e.g. no any actions taken and protective actions being terminated) Set typically for an effective dose in the range 20100 mSv acute or annual effective dose from all exposure pathways The actual national value(s) within this band need to be chosen on the basis of prevailing conditions of the emergency situation and on national particularities. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 43 Generic criteria To be used for implementing protective actions either individually or in combination

Used in the process of developing the protection strategy and during its implementation Expressed in terms of Projected dose, or Received dose Given for RBE weighted absorbed dose in an organ or tissue Equivalent dose in an organ and tissue Effective dose

Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 44 Operational criteria An example of generic criterion When projected dose exceeds 100 mSv in the first 7 days, urgent protective action, e.g. evacuation, is warranted It is impossible to use this criterion (100 mSv in the first seven days) directly to initiate protective actions because: Projected dose cannot be measured Nearly impossible to calculate it accurately and timely to allow for effective response Therefore there is a need for criteria based on the generic criteria that can be used directly during an emergency without any need for

a further assessment Operational criteria Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 45 System of Generic and Operational criteria EALs, OILs and observables at the scene make a system of operational criteria for use within the protection strategy, satisfying the generic criteria and ultimately the reference level Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 46 Emergency Action Levels (EALs) EALs are predetermined, site-specific, observable criteria Can be observed by control room staff Instrument readings, status indications, observable events, etc.

To early detect initiating condition of an emergency To trigger protective actions when results from field monitoring may not yet be an appropriate indicator for doing so EALs form the basis of emergency classification system (discussed later) Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 47 Operational Intervention Levels (OILs) After the release monitoring teams can be deployed to take measurements and samples OILs are used to determine where protective actions are necessary OILs are measured with instruments in the field or in the laboratory: They are associated with dose rates, ground or surface contamination, radionuclides in environmental, food or water samples etc. OILs are derived from generic criteria. They are calculated and agreed upon in the preparedness as part of the protection strategy.

OILs can be revised during emergency to meet the prevailing conditions Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 48 Concept of operations T=0 - Emergency at NPP starts T=15 min - Operator declares General Emergency on the basis EALs T=30 min - Operator notifies the off-site and mitigates on-site consequences T=45 min - Off-site authorities order urgent protective actions T=1 h - Public promptly take recommended actions Within hours Authorities issue press release to general public IAEA is notified; international assistance is requested if needed Within a day - Controlling of potentially contaminated goods is in place

Within a week - Controlling of food, milk and drinking water is in place Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 49 Allocation of responsibilities One of the most important parts of emergency preparedness To assign roles and responsibilities For each action there is responsible organization Should be assigned Officially, in legislation and Documented in plans Organizations have to embrace their roles Internal rules and procedures

Employees or members be aware them and be trained Designated coordinators Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 50 Three levels of responsibilities OPERATOR (facility staff) mitigate the emergency protect people onsite

notify and keep off-site authorities informed, including international community provide initial radiological monitoring, etc. OFF-SITE (local and national authorities) implement protective actions off-site provide support to the facility public communication provide medical

treatment notify IAEA, etc. INTERNATIONAL (IAEA) Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response Notify and exchange official information among international community, Provide advice and assistance, if requested, Perform assessment of the situation and prognosis of its development, Provide information to general public and media,

and Coordinate the interagency response. Developing emergency plans and response capability Emergency response planning Hardware installations Communication setups Training Exercises Etc. Done on paper Plans Implementation National Regional

Local Operator Procedures Checklists Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 51 Hierarchy of radiation emergency plans (example) Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 52 53 Emergency plans, procedures etc. Should provide for all functions necessary to be performed in the emergency response, such as Initial accident assessment and classification

Notification and activation Accident mitigation Public protective actions and other response actions Protection of emergency workers Public communication Non-radiological consequences mitigation

Recovery All emergency functions are covered in the next chapter Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 54 FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 1. Describe emergency management. 2. Explain the need for emergency classification. 3. Describe the purpose of mitigatory actions in a nuclear emergency. 4. Distinguish between urgent and early protective actions. 5. List urgent protective actions. 6. List early protective actions. 7. Describe mechanism of iodine thyroid blocking. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 55

FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS /cont. Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 7. Explain the difference between evacuation and relocation. 8. Distinguish between informing the general public and giving instruction to the affected public during emergency. 9. Explain what arrangements for protecting emergency workers encompass. 10. Describe the purpose and importance of field monitoring in emergency response. 11. List three levels of medical response. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 56 FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS /cont. Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 13. Explain importance of triage. 14. Understand reasons for public concerns. 15. Describe particularities of radioactive waste coming from nuclear emergency.

16. Explain importance of mitigating the non-radiological consequences. 17. Understand the need for adjusting protective actions and implementing recovery operations. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 57 Managing emergency response operations Operator Full authority for response actions on-site (mitigating) Has to be able to transition from normal operations to emergency response without impairing safe and secure operation of the facility itself Notifies off-site authorities, providing sufficient information Off-site authorities

Command and control over implementation of public protective actions Decision-making process to be Well coordinated on and off-site Documented Well understood by all response organizations Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 58 Identifying, notifying and activating There should be clear and effective way for key response organizations to be alerted 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and to activate appropriate personnel and resources

Emergency class The simplest and the shortest message the operator can send off-site to trigger an adequate level of emergency response Timing requirement: Prompt enough to enable response organizations to perform their required functions effectively Notification has to extend to neighbouring countries in which emergency response actions may be warranted Countries within emergency planning zones and distances Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 59 Emergency classification Operator

To have an easy to use classification procedure To promptly identify emergency conditions and To determine and declare the emergency class Upon declaration of an emergency class The operator and each response organization should take, without further assessment, their assigned actions for that emergency class These actions are pre-planned and coordinated The meaning of emergency class needs to be consistent for the operator and the off-site response organizations Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response

60 The IAEA recommended classification system Class General emergency Site area emergency Facility emergency Alert Other nuclear or radiological emergency Description Emergencies at facilities in emergency preparedness category I or II for an emergency that warrants taking precautionary urgent protective actions, urgent protective actions and other response actions on the site and off the site. Emergencies at facilities in category I or II for an emergency that warrants taking protective actions and other response actions on the site and in the vicinity of the site. Emergencies at facilities in category I, II or III for an emergency that warrants taking protective actions and other response

actions at the facility and on the site but does not warrant taking protective actions off the site. Emergencies at facilities in category I, II or III for an event that warrants taking actions to assess and to mitigate the consequences at the facility. Emergencies in category IV that warrant taking protective actions and other response actions at any location. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 61 Taking mitigatory action Mitigatory actions for a nuclear emergency refer to immediate actions to be taken on-site: To prevent severe damage to fuel in the reactor core or spent fuel pool, preventing a large release of radioactive material To reduce the size of any release following damage to fuel To delay a large release of radioactive material following damage to fuel to allow protective actions to be taken Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response

62 NPP states during an emergency During a nuclear emergency the plant can fall within following states Design basis accident (DBA) Design extension conditions (DEC) Operator has to be capable to manage DBA and DEC There have to be procedures and guidelines in place Emergency operating procedures EOP Severe management guidelines SAMG Personnel has to be trained to cope with such conditions and mitigate the emergency. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response Taking protective actions and other response actions Public protective actions

Urgent protective actions Referred to as precautionary urgent protective actions when taken on the basis of plant conditions, before or shortly after a release Early protective actions Other response actions (which are not protective) Provision of public information Medical care Psychological support and similar Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 63 64 Urgent vs. Early protective actions Urgent protective actions

To be taken promptly (within hours) to be effective Require prompt decision-making Are used over a relatively short period of time (days/weeks) Early protective actions Can be implemented within days to weeks and they will still be effective They can be long lasting Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 65

Urgent vs. Early protective actions /cont. Major urgent protective actions: Urgent and early: Iodine thyroid blocking (ITB) Closing off the area Evacuation Preventing inadvertent ingestion Sheltering Personal decontamination Major early protective action: Relocation Restrictions on food, milk and drinking water and on commodities Medical treatment

Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 66 Protective actions implementation Two possibilities: 1. Before or shortly after the release based on EALs (upon declaration of a general emergency) within emergency planning zones and distances 2. After the release based on OILs following performance of monitoring and sampling Effective urgent protective actions - there is an urgency and time constrain! Arrangements must be made in the preparedness stage To effectively and safely take urgent protective actions

Factors such as availability of transport and effectiveness of shelters and other local characteristics and infrastructure must be considered Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 67 Iodine thyroid blocking (ITB) Radioactive iodine can be released in large amounts Radioactive iodine accumulates in the thyroid gland Important health risk Increase chance of thyroid cancer Young children and foetuses most vulnerable Protection

Take stable (non-radioactive) iodine before exposure to block the thyroid from accumulating radioactive iodine Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response Iodine thyroid blocking 68 Implementing ITB Pills to be taken before or shortly after intake, i.e. within 2 hours Clear instructions to be given to population When, what dosages ITB prevents intake from inhalation or ingestion Inhalation = short term, geographically limited Ingestion = long term, affecting larger population

ITB not for long term protection ITB is for protecting of thyroid against radioactive iodine ONLY! Other protective actions are warranted in parallel (evacuation, food, drink restrictions) Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 69 Preparing for ITB For severe accidents ITB more than few 100 km from the accident may be warranted Enough time to distribute pills that far and to effectively implement Pre-distribution necessary in the vicinity of the facility (i.e. within PAZ and UPZ) in order ITB to be effectively implemented

To be stored in homes, schools, workplaces, hospitals and other special facilities ITB mechanism implementation to be well explained to the public at the preparedness stage To support effective implementation of ITB To prevent unwarranted actions taken by the public To reduce fear Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 70 Evacuation Prompt evacuation (taken before or shortly after a release) most

effective public protective action If carried out safely Prevents exposure from all pathways Evacuations are common, they occur quite frequently in conventional emergencies Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 71 Evacuation after release may still be effective It protects against ground shine (important source of exposure) Evacuation at speeds greater than walking speed (~ 5 km/h), even during release, is more effective than sheltering If evacuating during or after a release Monitor evacuees for contamination and as necessary decontaminate

Challenges Large number of people and vehicles to monitor /decontaminate Effective traffic control plans Equipment capabilities Preventing bottlenecks during evacuation If evacuation is not possible right away shelter until safe evacuation + ITB Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 72 Sheltering

People to stay indoors with windows and doors closed and ventilation turned off Reducing exposure mainly from radioactive plume (inhalation and cloud shine pathways) and from ground contamination Sheltering in place People to go inside, shut the windows and doors Sheltering in large buildings Called substantial shelter, away from closed windows with outside ventilation shut off Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 73 Sheltering Simple to implement, but TIME - People cannot be kept inside for longer periods

Sheltering is a short term measure Few days at most Only if evacuation is not possible SUPPLIES - People do not keep extensive supplies of food If more than a day, authorities need to take care of food, water, sanitation, power, medical support, etc. Vital to keep people informed and to respond to their concerns EFFECTIVENESS Large building sheltering can prevent lethal doses

Gradual air exchange between inside and outside To be combined with ITB Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 74 Relocation Relocation means removal of people to avoid longer term exposure Based on results from monitoring using OILs Relocation due to hotspots Relocation due to essential food and water being too much contaminated to be allowed for consumption with no replacement Relocation is non-urgent

A week to a month to be implemented and still to be effective Time is available to address personal needs Providing for household pets Gathering important possessions Securing property Providing for farm animals Providing for evacuees needs as well Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 75 Closing off an area Areas where evacuation and relocation were implemented need to be closed for the public! Authorities must have complete control over closed areas Closing off to be publicly announced

Closed areas to be clearly and physically marked (e.g. roadblocks) Control points to be set up Secure exiting and entering the closed off area including entry point for emergency services Contamination control to be performed when exiting Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 76 Prevention of inadvertent ingestion Deposited radioactive material can be a significant source of exposure Activities leading to an inadvertent ingestion: Eating, drinking and smoking with contaminated hands Children playing on the ground

Working in the garden, sweeping the yard Other outdoor activities either for work or recreation Following actions can prevent and/or reduce inadvertent ingestion: Avoid unnecessary outdoor activities Keep your hands away from your mouth (do not smoke, eat and drink) Decontaminate as soon as possible if contamination is suspected (wash hands and face, shower, change clothes) Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 77

Personal decontamination People can get contaminated if they dont leave potentially affected areas before release Radioactive material deposits on clothes and skin Initial decontamination: To remove outer clothes and wash hands and face or shower Handling of clothes properly not to contaminate the premises Discarding in well-marked plastic bags Showering with mild soap, no harsh scrubbing

Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response Restrictions on food, milk and drinking water and on other commodities Protection against ingestion of contaminated food, milk and drinking water Restrictions applied to: The source - the food chain and water supply system Consumption - use and distribution of food, milk and drinking water Rainwater and local produce concern within hours of a release Milk within about two days, but urgent decisions are essential to prevent contamination of milk from grazing animals Protection against the use of contaminated non-food commodities Controls in place have to be communicated for reassuring the public

Certification can be an option Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 78 Instructions and warnings to affected population Two aspects to be considered: Informing public periodically at the preparedness stage Giving warnings and instructions of actions to take during an emergency Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 79

Informing public periodically at preparedness stage Scope of the information to be provided: The nature of hazard How people will be warned or notified On actions to be taken Emergency arrangements in place Disseminated as Brochures

Leaflets Calendars Television or radio information programs Effectiveness of public information arrangements is subject to periodic assessment Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 80 Warning and giving instructions during an emergency Affected public must be warned promptly Provide them instructions on protective actions to take Warning options may include:

Fixed sirens Centrally activated radios within homes Loudspeakers operated from police or fire fighting vehicles Door-to-door notification Even if no actions required, public still needs to be informed: To reduce their concern To prevent them taking unwarranted actions (note that public communication in general is addressed separately)

Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 81 82 Protecting emergency workers Personnel from the facility Employees who are directly employed or through a contractor Response organizations staff, such as fire fighters, police officers, medical personnel, drivers and crews of evacuation vehicles They are all emergency workers and they need to be protected adequately Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI

Emergency preparedness and response Protecting emergency workers /cont. The first step identify and designate emergency workers at the preparedness stage Will help ensuring they are adequately protected when needed (commensurate with their duties) Possibility some emergency workers may not have been seen as such earlier but may be required during an actual emergency Register and integrate them within the response organization Identify responsible organization for their protection Participation of emergency workers in emergency drills and exercises needs to be encouraged on regular basis Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response

83 84 High doses on a voluntarily basis Most response actions to be carried out within dose limits for occupational exposure Critical actions (life saving, prevention of development of catastrophic conditions, averting large collective doses) may lead to incurring higher doses (subject to pre-set guidance values) They are to be taken on a voluntarily basis Subject to informed consent To keep the doses of emergency workers as low as reasonable achievable Managing and controlling the doses

Records must be kept Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 85 Work in contaminated areas Must be planned in advance Besides external gamma radiation and inhalation, skin contamination major source of dose on-site Inhalation and skin contamination can be prevented implementing adequate protective actions (i.e. using appropriate personal protective equipment) Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 86

Helpers in an emergency Members of the public who willingly and voluntarily help in response They are aware they may be exposed to radiation Regularly seen during natural disasters but it cannot be excluded for them to volunteer to help in nuclear emergency too Register and integrate them within the response organization Identify responsible organization for their protection Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response Facility status and emergency radiation monitoring Starts with the emergency classification Detailed plant status

By using plant's emergency procedures and accident management procedures Robust instrumentation that withstands, for example: High radiation Humidity High temperature Extended measuring range Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response

87 Protective actions based emergency radiation monitoring Monitoring data Basis for additional protective actions (based on OILs) Assess actions taken, adjust them Assess hazards Measurements Ambient dose rate and dose Airborne radionuclide concentration

Environmental deposition Food, water, and environmental contamination Individual dose Object-surface contamination measurements. Measurements of airborne aerosols and gases to provide warning of unknown releases Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 88 89 Emergency radiation monitoring

Monitoring purpose: To assess hazards To assess actions taken and to identify a need to adjust them To identify further actions to be taken Decisions for protective actions based on OILs Measurements may include: Ambient dose rate and dose Airborne radionuclide concentration Environmental deposition

Food, water, and environmental contamination Individual dose Surface contamination measurements Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 90 Managing medical response Medical response is necessary element of response Based on methods used for handling other types of accidents Taking into account

Health effects of radiation Contamination issues Medical response need to consider: Needs on-site: medical care for workers Needs off-site: medical care for workers and the affected population Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 91 Three levels of medical response 1. First aid on spot 2. Initial medical examination, treatment in a general hospital 3. Complete examination, treatment in a specialized medical centre According to Degree of complexity Necessary resources for assistance Severity of consequences

Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 92 Management of patients In case of high doses (deterministic effects) Specialized medical hospital for complete medical examination, treatments, and assessment of the dose In case of large number of exposed persons Triage of persons TRIAGE = To sort patients into classes on the basis of their condition to expedite clinical care and maximize use of available medical services Contaminated patients may require decontamination But decontamination should not precede the provision of critical medical care! Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 93 Dealing with contaminated patients

Conventional protection is enough when handling contaminated patients Care needs to be given not to spread contamination e.g. use plastic cover in the vehicle in which the patient is transported Medical staff may be required to wear personal protective clothing (PPE) such as overalls, masks, plastic gloves, overshoes In some cases, medical staff may need: To wear personal dosimeters To be monitored for contamination Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 94 Public communications during an emergency

Public communication during an emergency is one of the important activities Public is very sensitive about any nuclear All nuclear emergencies are perceived as dangerous immense amount of media, public and political attention Authorities to provide official information as soon as possible Even though not much information may be known at the time Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 95 Public concerns During emergencies public is always concerned Nuclear emergencies raise even greater concerns then conventional ones, ionizing radiation is almost completely unknown to general public

Messages from the authorities may be confusing and too complicated (e.g. containing technical data and information) There are "experts" appearing in the media with their own explanations and detailed technical information There will be enquires from: Individuals Media Non governmental organizations and other interested parties Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response

96 Unwarranted actions by the public Actions not justified by the radiation hazard and not warranted May do more harm than good! Can occur even if there is no release People take such actions on their own in belief they protect themselves and others Examples of such unwarranted actions include: Shadow evacuations Unsubstantiated abortions

Not accepting products, officially cleared, from affected areas Unwarranted closing school, embassies and other public buildings Unwarranted medical examinations, etc. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 97 Managing radioactive waste Radioactive waste is normal side product Ranges from spent nuclear fuel of NPPs (high level waste) to contaminated personal protective equipment (low level waste) Major recovery and decontamination activities may be warranted in a nuclear emergency resulting in a large volumes of radioactive

waste being produced Can easily overwhelm national capabilities for its management Adequate preparedness to address waste management following the emergency is necessary Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 98 Mitigating non-radiological consequences Psychosocial, economic and other non-radiological consequences often outweigh radiological health effects Difficult to mitigate - primary related to perceived risk Emergency plans should Recognize their significance and Make provisions to reduce detrimental effects

Measures to be considered Informing affected population accurately and promptly Accidents progression Risks involved Protective actions being taken Keeping sheltered, evacuated, or relocated people informed of the expected time to return to normal Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 99 Terminating the emergency Emergency stops, no on-going uncontrolled releases and no further ones are expected, facility is under control Decision makers need to consider when and under what conditions to terminate the emergency situation and to: Transition to long term recovery operations (i.e. existing exposure situation or

Return to planned exposure situation It may be impossible to prepare a detailed plan in advance for recovery An outline of a plan or a strategy to be prepared Identifies the differences in authority, management and coordination between the emergency and recovery responsibilities Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 100 INFRASTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 1. Explain importance of assigning authorities, roles and responsibilities. 2. Understands staffing of response organizations. 3. Describe coordination of emergency response.

4. Describe the system of plans and procedures. 5. Describe facilities and equipment. 6. Explain the importance of training and exercises. 7. Explain what quality management in preparedness is in practice. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 101 INFRASTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS Functional elements vs. Infrastructural elements What functions need to be performed What infrastructure needs to be put in place in support to perform those functions

Plans Procedures Facilities Equipment Training Exercises Quality management Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 102 Authority Authorities, roles and responsibilities should be Allocated Documented in national and local plans Conflicting roles and responsibilities need to be resolved Workable concept of operations ASAP Authority and responsibilities assigned within a clearly defined and unified command and control system Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response

103 Organization The same basic response organization for all emergencies Rapid integration, co-ordination and expansion of the response Covering nuclear and conventional emergencies (all-hazards approach) Emergency command and control system (ECS) with five components: Command, Planning, Operation, Logistics, Finance/administration Small-scale emergencies Only emergency commander may perform all components Large-scale emergencies Each component runs separately Command transfer: operator /first responders Local official National official Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response Coordination of emergency response

EPR coordination mechanisms must be Established for any type of emergency Effective and practical Formalized Within organization, between individuals and departments At each level Between organizations and jurisdictional levels. Especially for large-scale operations With extensive resources required Coordination agreements Between facility and off-site authorities Notification protocols Communication mechanisms Off-site assistance ... Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response Plans and procedures All response organizations to have plans and procedures Radiation emergency response is not daily work People dont know by heart exactly what has to be done Effective system of procedures with outlines, checklists and reminders Challenge is large number of organizations

Need for coordination of plans and Concept of operations Updating is important Ensuring changes reflect in all documents Ensuring all organizations work from the last version Operational procedures revised annually National plans on a few years cycle (e.g. after bigger national exercises) Middle plans fall somewhere in between Emergency preparedness committees are needed to ensure these Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response Emergency response facilities and locations Emergency teams, decision making bodies, support teams, etc., need facilities or locations to be stationed with communication, equipment, supplies: Simple regular offices turned into emergency centres Dedicated and equipped emergency centres Facilities located within potentially contaminated zone Premises for emergency personnel to be protected from external radiation and airborne contamination Protection against other external hazards may be needed

Emergency locations, e.g. field monitoring base, medical triage base Reception centre for evacuees registration and contamination management Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response Emergency response facilities for NPPs Primary: Control room Technical Support Centre (TSC) Emergency Operations Facility (EOF) Operations Support Centre (OSC) Others include: public information centre, reception centre for evacuees, emergency centres, etc. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 108 Emergency tools, equipment and supplies All response organizations should maintain suitable tools, equipment and supplies

Lists may vary considerably and may include: Regular office equipment and supplies (computers, printers, scanners), Special applications for dose calculations, source term estimation Internal network and intranet, GIS applications to map emergency data, Monitoring equipment (measurement instruments, stations, vehicle kits, Decontamination equipment,

Personal protective equipment, Supplies for evacuees (e.g. water, food, beds and blankets), Emergency vehicles, Communication equipment (phones, radios, faxes) Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response Communications A number of organizations involved Good communication systems are needed Dedicated Reliable Robust Simple to use With redundant back-ups and regular tests

Common communication systems fail due to overloads Both landlines and cellular systems Provide key players robust and reliable communication Protected or direct lines Satellite telephones have limitations with sensitivity Microwave links are effective alternative where applicable All main communication systems to be tested and contact numbers updated periodically Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 110 Training, drills and exercises Essential part of effective emergency preparedness program Training and exercises for facility to be held several times a year Substantial financial and human resources for off-site organizations Training and exercise program for off-site organizations to take into account The role of each

Its critical needs for responding Value of the training and exercises e.g. police forces may only need specific radiological training Systematic approach to training (SAT) is needed Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 111 Quality management programme Response organizations to establish comprehensive quality management program Availability and reliability of all supplies, equipment, communication systems and facilities

Inventories, resupply, tests and calibrations Maintenance, review and updating of emergency plans, procedures and other arrangements Incorporation of lessons learned from research, operating experience and emergency drills and exercises Sufficient resources be available to regularly test all the above Testing to be carried out systematically with a continuous program Lessons learned to be fed back to the preparedness process Internal and external audits Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response THE ROLE OF IAEA IN A NUCLEAR OR RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY Learning objectives After completing this chapter, the trainee will be able to: 1. Describe the role of the IAEA related to emergency preparedness and response.

2. Describe the IAEA/IEC main functions. 3. Explain the obligations under the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions. 4. Explain the mechanism of notification under the Early Notification Convention. 5. List relevant IAEA safety standards on emergency preparedness and response. Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 112 113 THE ROLE OF IAEA in EPR Statutory responsibilities complemented with functions assigned under: Early Notification and Assistance Conventions IAEA Safety Standards in EPR IAEA Policy-making organs decisions Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response

114 Roles of IAEA in emergency response Notification and official exchange of information Provision of advice and assistance Provision of assessment and prognosis Provision of public information Coordination of inter-agency response Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 115 Roles of IAEA in emergency preparedness Developing EPR related safety standards, technical guidance and practical tools and providing for their implementation Assisting MS in establishing, enhancing their EPR and capacity building Providing peer review services, e.g. EPREV Maintaining IAEAs in-house and inter-agency preparedness Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI

Emergency preparedness and response 116 Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) Within Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, IAEA Reporting directly to Deputy Director General Custodian of IAEAs Incident and Emergency System (IES) Global focal point for EPR Worlds centre for coordination of provision of international assistance Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 117 Early Notification Convention State Parties to notify and provide information regarding

emergencies with trans-boundary consequences which are of radiological safety significance for other States Directly or through the IAEA State Parties to assign national warning point and competent authorities for notification and information exchange purposes IAEA maintains a list of these contact points and uses diverse means to promptly notify other states and international organizations and for official information exchange USIE (Unified System for Incidents and Emergencies) being one Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 118 Assistance Convention States to request for international assistance, in writing Facsimile, email, USIE Upon receiving the request, IEC

Conducts initial assessment Contacts other MS for offering requested assistance Co-ordinates the provision of assistance Response Assistance Network (RANET) Global network to facilitate assistance provision timely and effectively Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 119 IAEA Safety Standards in EPR Hierarchy of the IAEA standards Safety Fundamentals Safety Requirements

Objectives, concepts, principles basis for requirements Requirements on what is to be done to ensure protection of people and environment Safety Guides Recommendations and guidance on how to meet requirements Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 120 IAEA Safety Standards in EPR /cont. GSR- Part 7 Establishes requirements for adequate level of EPR for all facilities and activities

Uses shall statements Sets common goal, concepts and approaches in EPR GS-G-2.1 To assist Member States in implementation of selected safety requirements in EPR GSG-2 Provides the criteria for implementing protective actions and other response Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response 121 EPR Series publications

Based on EPR safety standards To assist the application of IAEA Safety Standards in EPR More operational documents Describe good practices Give practical solutions, detailed methods Informational in nature Include numerous examples and templates of actual documents Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response

122 www.IAEA.org Get the latest information on the IAEA website www.iec.iaea.org Basic Professional Training Course; Module XVI Emergency preparedness and response The views expressed in this document do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission.

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