Emission Spectrum of Hydrogen 1 nm = 1 x 10-9 m = a billionth of a meter 410 nm 434 nm 486 nm 656 nm Emission Spectrum of an Element 410 nm 434 nm 486 nm
656 nm 1 nm = 1 x 10-9 m = a billionth of a meter 1 nm = 1 x 10-9 m = a billionth of a meter Continuous and Line Spectra Visible spectrum light (nm)nm) 400 450
500 550 600 650 700 Na H Ca
Hg o 4000 A 5000 6000 7000 750 nm Continuous and Line Spectra
o 4000 A 5000 6000 7000 5000 6000 7000
light Na H Ca Hg o 4000 A Flame Emission Spectra Photographs of flame tests of burning wooden splints soaked in different salts.
methane gas wooden splint sodium ion calcium ion copper ion strontium ion Include link to web page http://www.unit5.org/christjs/flame%20tests.htm
Copyright 2006 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. Flame Tests for Certain Metals BORAX BEAD TESTS FOR CERTAIN METALS (nm)All beads formed in the oxidizing flame) Fireworks Fireworks Copyright 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. Copyright 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. Common chemicals used in the manufacture of fireworks Oxidizers
Fuels (Reductants) Ammonium perchlorate aluminum Blue flame: copper carbonate, copper sulfate, or copper oxide Barium chlorate antimony sulfide Red flame: strontium nitrate or strontium carbonate Barium nitrate
charcoal White flame: magnesium or aluminum Potassium chlorate magnesium Potassium nitrate sulfur Green flame: barium nitrate or barium chlorate Potassium perchlorate
titanium White smoke: potassium nitrate plus sulfur Strontium nitrate Special Effects Yellow flame: sodium oxalate or cryolite (nm)Na3AlF6) Colored smoke: potassium chlorate and sulfur, plus organic dye Whistling noise: potassium benzoate or sodium salicylate White sparks: aluminum, magnesium, or titanium Gold sparks: iron filings or charcoal
Almost any combination of an oxidizer and a fuel may be used along with the compounds needed to produce a desired special effect. Copyright 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. Composition of Fireworks Gunpowder Sulfur, charcoal, potassium nitrate (nm)saltpeter) Salts (nm)to give color) Red = lithium Green = copper Electron Energy Levels 3rd energy level
2nd energy level Energy absorbed 1st energy level Energy lost nucelus 1999, Addison, Wesley, Longman, Inc.
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