Enabling technology

Enabling technology

Impact of New Generation of User Oriented Radio Telescopes The Golden Anniversary of the 1960s: The Golden Years of Radio Astronomy HRA - IAU GA Hawaii 5 Aug 2015 Ron Ekers CSIRO Australia Overview The discovery process Specialized general purpose Discoveries with the first general purpose telescopes Impact of the 1960s technology revolution The concept of User Facilities & Open Access

2 The discovery process At the inception of a new field Discoveries will be made with any simple instruments which open up new parameter space Specialised instruments will dominate Sir Richard Wooley (Astronomer Royal 1955-75): Took the view that radio people were unreasonably lucky After the inception of a new field A transition occurs with more discoveries being made with general purpose telescopes For radio astronomy this transition occurred during the 1960s 3

Key Discoveries in cm Radio Astronomy# Discovery Date Discovery Date Cosmic radio emission Non-thermal cosmic radiation Solar radio bursts Extragalactic radio sources 21cm line of atomic hydrogen Mercury & Venus spin rates

Quasars Cosmic Microwave Background 1933 1940 1942 1949 1951 1962, 5 1962 1963 Cosmic masers Pulsars Superluminal motions in AGN Interstellar molecules and GMCs Binary neutron star /

gravitational radiation Gravitational lenses First extra-solar planetary system Size of GRB Fireball 1965 1967 1970 1970s 1974 Confirmation of General Relativity (time delay + light bending) 1964, 70

# This is a short list covering only metre and centimetre wavelengths. Wilkinson, Kellermann, Ekers, Cordes & Lazio (2004) 1979 1991 1997 Key Discoveries : Type of instrument The number of discoveries made with special purpose instruments has declined Key Discoveries in Radio Astronomy 7 Specialized Number/decade

6 General-purpose 5 4 3 2 1 0 1930 1940 1950 1960

Date 1970 1980 1990 5 Transition from specialised to general purpose instruments During the 1960s the first of the General Purpose Radio Telescopes were in use 1958 OVRO 2x90 dishes 1960 Parkes 210 dish 1962 Cambridge One-mile Telescope

1963 Arecibo 1000 fixed spherical reflector 1964 Haystack 120 dish 1965 Greenbank 140 dish 1965 VLA proposal submitted 1966 Goldstone 210 Deep Space Network 1967 Culgoora Solar Heliograph 1970 WSRT 6 Christiansen Potts Hill Early Australian Telescopes Specialised General Purpose

Mills Cross 7 1960s Discoveries with General Purpose Instruments Cambridge Ryle and Neville earth rotation synthesis image of the North pole MNRAS 125, 39 FT done using EDSAC II Parkes Quasars - Hazard as an example of an outside user JPL/Arecibo Mercury/Venus spin rates

Culgoora Solar Heliograph 2D dynamic spectra of solar bursts VLA images of quasars (3C273) 8 First Cambridge Earth Rotation Synthesis Image Ryle & Neville, MNRAS 1962 North pole survey

178 MHz 200x200 pixels took a full night on EDSACII 9 3C 273 identification (1963) Parkes lunar occultation January 7, 2013 Cyril Hazard AAS Long Beach 10

1962 JPL & 1965Arecibo radar Mercury/Venus rotation period Dyce & Pettengill AJ 73, p351 (1967) 11 Culgoora Solar Heliograph 1968 2D dynamic images of solar bursts 2sec/image Type II & III bursts Evolution Type IV bursts great loop structures

giant magnetic fields circularly polarized 12 Technology leads scientific discoveries De Solla Price (1963): most scientific advances follow laboratory experiments Martin Harwit (1981): Cosmic Discovery most important discoveries (in astronomy) result from technical innovation Discoveries peak soon after new technology appears usually within 5 years of the technical capability Instruments used for discoveries are often built by the observer

13 Impact of the 1960s technology revolution receiver performance changed the balance between arrays and dishes needed big D small N OVRO changed the balance between high and low frequency Impact of computers and digital signal processing 14

Dishes v Arrays circa 1957 Parkes 64m dish or a Super Mills Cross Mills OVRO The dish will be confusion limited at low frequencies At high frequencies it will only see thermal emission which is boring The array has high resolution at low frequency and you can map the distant universe Bolton build an interferometer with large dishes 15

Receiver developments (Radio Astronomy) 1940 Vacuum tubes (>1000K) 1950 Crystal mixers (300K) 1960 Parametric amplifiers (100K)

1960 Masers (65K) 1960 Diode mixers 1965 Cryogenically cooled transistors (50K) 1980 GaAs FETs (20K) 1987 Multi element receivers 1990 HEMT (10K) 2000 SIS (high frequency) 2020 Superconducting paramp (0.3K) Sep 2014 Ron Ekers: URSI GASS Beijing 16 Receiver Sensitivity

exponentials again! 1000 Tsys (K) 100 10 1 1940 1950 1960 1970

1980 1990 Date 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 17

Computers and signal processing 1958 EDSAC II completed and applied to Fourier inversion problems 360 38-point 1D transforms took 15 hours (Blyth) Output was contours! 1961 Jennison had acquired Ratcliffe's lecture notes on the Fourier transform and publishes a book on the Fourier Transform Sandy Weinreb builds the first digital autocorrelator 1965 Cooley & Tukey publish a convenient implementation of the FFT algorithm

Cambridge 1960 user queue for programming the EDSAC 2 18 Cambridge One-Mile Telescope: 1962 27 Nov 1999 R D Ekers - APRIM2011 19 1960 First Radio Astronomy Digital Correlator 21 lags 300kHz clock

discrete transistors $19,000 Sandy Weinreb Dan Werthimer 2015 The concept of user facilities NRAO and the concept of user facilities 1961 Joe Pawsey appointed as NRAO director Died 1962 - what would have happened if Joe Pawsey had lived? Proposed astronomy program 1962 beginning of VLA what is a user

astronomers are sophisticated end users - good for technology development and innovation open skies concept needs user facilities 21 Pawsey 1962 "Promising Fields of Radio Astronomy HII regions in absorption at low frequencies 20MHz observations Magnetic fields in inter-stellar space linear polarization Zeeman splitting Weinreb digital correlator High angular resolution of solar flares

Counting sources resolve the violent disagreements 22 Source Counts Resolved the disagreements First reliable catalogues 3C, 4C MSH Parkes Establish the need for source evolution 23

Pawsey 1962 "Promising Fields of Radio Astronomy HII regions in absorption at low frequencies 20MHz observations Magnetic fields in inter-stellar space linear polarization Zeeman splitting Weinreb digital correlator Counting sources resolve the violent disagreements High angular resolution of solar flares What was missed in just the next 10 years Quasars, CMB, Masers, Pulsars, . 24

VLA performance goals 1965 General consideration of the problems in radio astronomy, has led to the concept of a radio analog of the 200-inch optical telescope - a radio telescope which can produce a "picture" of a radio source with resolution and sensitivity comparable to that achieved with optical telescopes. This is the basic performance goal of the VLA. No such instrument exists at present. When a radio telescope with these capabilities does exist, it will revolutionize radio astronomy. 25 1980

VLA New Mexico 3C273 Optical HST 27 3C273 VLA 5GHz 1998 28

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