Energy Bar Charts How to represent the role of energy in a physical change Modeling Chemistry 2007 Types of Energy Thermal Energy related to particle motion (Eth)
Phase Energy related to the state of matter or arrangement of particles (Eph) Chemical Energy related to attractions between molecules (Ech) Constructing an Energy Bar Chart Consider this example (WS1 #1)
A cup of hot coffee cools as it sits on the table. 1. Determine what is in the system cup coffee Everything else makes up the surroundings Decide whether Ech is involved In this case, you start with coffee and end
with coffee; particles are not rearranged to form new substances So, ignore Ech for now. Chemical energy is involved in chemical reactions only! Assign values to Eph
Due to interactions between particles, the energy stored due to the arrangement of particles is ranked: solids < liquids < gases We choose to represent these phases by using: Solids = 1 bar Liquids = 2 bars
Gases = 4 bars Assign values to Eph Use two Eph bars before and after cup coffee Choose bars for Eth depending on temperature
Use 4 bars for hot coffee and 2 bars for room temp coffee cup coffee 4 bars = hot; 3 bars = warm; 2 bars = room temp; 1 = cold Now show energy transfer
Final situation has 2 less bars of E than initial; 2 bars had to leave the system Now, consider phase change A tray of ice cubes (-8 C) is placed on the counter and becomes water at room temperature
What do we know about the situation? The system is the tray of ice cubes. The solid water turns to liquid water - no change in Ech The Eph increases (solidliquid) The Eth increases (temp rises)
Now represent these changes in bar graph. Initial & Final States Choice of bars for Eth arbitrary, but consistent.
We generally use 2 bars for room temp and one bar for cold liquid -8C should be < 1 bar. Account for Energy Energy must flow into system via heating
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