Energy Codes and Fan Selections - Rocky Mountain ASHRAE
Energy Standards/Codes & Impact on Fan Selection April 2017 Mike Wolf, P.E. [email protected] Learning Objectives Energy Legislation & Terminology Fan Energy Regulation Metrics Energy Code Fan System Requirements Elements of Fan System Energy Personal Perspectives Energy Legislation and Initiatives History & Trivia
What initiated energy legislation in the United States today? Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) Oil Embargo (1973) 38th President Gerald Ford (Republican) signed Energy Policy & Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA) US DOE established August 1977 What is a Quad? 5 A Quad is* 1,000,000,000,000,000 BTU 100,000 BTU 293,297,222,222 kWh 83,333,333,333 Tons of AC
293.3 100 h 5.2 Ton Residential AC Units *Presenter is not responsible for conversions. United States Annual Energy Consumption = 100 Quads 7 Background According to the DOE U.S. fans consume: 0.9 quads of electricity in industrial applications 1.6 quads of electricity in commercial applications (2.5 quads is about 2.5% of total) * Sources: DOE and LLNL
Commercial Building Energy HVAC=40 % Fans=15% (30%-40%) of HVAC California Commercial End-use Survey, prepared for CEC by Intron, Inc., March 2006; CEC400-2006-005 Fan Energy Consumption Power Input (Electrical) Power Loss ! Power Output (Flow and Pressure) What is Fan Efficiency? Efficiency
= Fan Efficiency = Power Output Power Input CFM x Pressure BHP What is Fan Efficiency? Static Efficiency = Total Efficiency = CFM x Ps 6343.3 x BHP CFM x PT 6343.3 x BHP PT = PS + PV x 100%
x 100% Fan Curves 6.0 Ps 4.0 BHP vs. CFM Surge Area 10.0 8.0 3.0 6.0 2.0
4.0 1.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0 2 4 6 8 CFM x 1000 10
12 BHP Ps vs. CFM 5.0 Fan Curves PT = PS + PV PT 5.0 Total Efficiency PS 4.0 100 80
Fan Performance vs. Fan Application % Ps Peak SE High Efficiency, Low Sound Actual Selections % CFM Static Efficiency Fan Energy Regulation Metrics Fan Energy Regulation Metrics 1. Standards/Codes (being adopted) Fan Efficiency Grade (FEG)
2. Dept. of Energy (in development) Fan Energy Index (FEI) 18 Fan Efficiency Grades ANSI/AMCA Standard 205-10 Energy Efficiency Classifications for Fans ISO 12759:2010 Fans Efficiency Classification for Fans P e a k T o ta l E ffic ie n c y ( Fan Efficiency Grades AMCA 205 Airfoil Centrifugal 90 FEG 90
30 35 40 AMCA 205 AMCA 205, Annex A: In order to achieve the goals in energy savings by operating fans it is important that the fan is selected in the system close to the peak of the fan efficiency. The fan operating efficiency at all intended operating point(s) shall not be less than 15 percentage points below the fan peak total efficiency (see figure). Fan Efficiency Grades 6.0 Ps vs. CFM
100 Peak 75% Ps 4.0 3.0 80 60 Total Efficiency vs. CFM 2.0 40 1.0 20
0.0 0 0 2 4 6 8 CFM x 1000 10 12 Efficiency 5.0
Fan Curves 60% Minimum within 15 points of peak efficiency Ps vs. CFM 5.0 Ps 4.0 3.0 80 60 Total Efficiency vs. CFM 2.0
100 40 1.0 20 0.0 0 0 2 4 6 8 CFM x 1000
10 12 Efficiency 6.0 Things are not always as they seem; the first appearance deceives many. - Phaedrus (Plato) Fan Types 40,000 CFM at 0.25 Ps Model Impeller Dia BHP FEG
Housed Centrifugal 60 6.8 90 6.1 Fan Types Adhering to codes that require minimum fan efficiency grades will result in replacing this: Fan Types With this: Limitations of Fan Efficiency Grade (FEG) 1. FEG is an indicator of peak total efficiency 2. FEG NOT an indicator of fan input power 3. FEG is NOT a good comparison of fan power 4. FEG is LIMITED by fan type and horsepower
29 So what metric will the DOE use to regulate fan efficiency? DOE Fan Energy Regulation Fan Electrical Air (Input) Power (FEP) Wire to Baseline FEP = Maximum FEP @ operating point (THIS WILL BE CONSTANT FOR ALL FAN TYPES) Actual FEP = Actual FEP @ operating point 31 Fan Energy Consumption Fan Power (at the shaft)
Overall Fan Power (wire to air) Electrical Power In Motor Loss (10%) Drive Loss (3% 10%) Bearing Loss (3%) Aerodynamic Loss
(10% to 20%) Fan Power Out Overall Fan Energy Bearing Friction Loss V-Belt Friction Loss Power Output Aerodynamic Loss Motor Additional Electrical Motor Loss
Loss VFD Electrical Loss Input Power 33 Fan Efficiency Index (FEI) FEI varies along the fan curve Pressure 1.0 FEI 0 Airflow Fan Efficiency Ratio - FEI
2.0 Pressure Fan Selections Narrow Narrow selection selection range range around around peak peak efficiency efficiency at at high high CFM CFM and and Ps Ps Wide Wide selection selection range
range at at low low CFM CFM and and Ps Ps Allowable Allowable Selection Selection Range Range Fan Performance vs. Fan Application % Ps Peak SE High Efficiency,
Low Sound Actual Selections % CFM Static Efficiency What does this mean to Fan Selections? Multiple Speed Fan Performance Curves Relatively High Efficiency Fan Large selection area Static Pressure Peak Efficiency FEI 1.1 FEI 1.2 FEI 1.0
FEI 0.9 Airflow What does this mean to Fan Selections? Electronic Fan Selection Software based on Total Pressure Design Point 10,000 CFM at 3.0 Pt Fan Size (in.) Fan Speed (rpm) Fan Power (bhp) Actual Baseline Baseline
Total Power Total Efficiency (bhp) Efficiency 18 3238 11.8 40.1% 7.96 59.4% 0.67 20
Square Inline Fan with Improved Efficiency!!! New EQB-27 Lower Cost Mixed Flow Fan!!! DOE Fan Energy Index - Applications How will FEI be used? Body FEI Requirement Federal Regulation FEI 1.0 at Design Point ASHRAE 90.1 FEI 1.0 at Design Point
ASHRAE 189.1 FEI 1.1 at Design Point Rebates FEI = Savings over Baseline FEI = 1.10 means 10% energy savings over baseline 40 Benefits of Fan Energy Index(FEI) 1. FEI will limit fan power based on actual point of operation (not the BEST point of operation) 2. FEI will drive energy savings 3. FEI can be used with all fans 4. FEI is a good comparison of relative energy consumption 5. FEI can be used to incent/rebate stretch metrics 41
Energy Codes Energy Standard & Code Adoption Base Standard ASHRAE 90.1-2013 Base Code IECC - 2015 43 Federal Regulation Energy Standards/Codes State Energy Codes must: 1. Comply with ASHRAE 90.1- 2013 or equivalent and 2. Be Submitted to DOE by September 28, 2015 and 3. Be Adopted by September 26, 2016 https://www.energycodes.gov/regulations/determinations
44 ASHRAE 90.1 Adoption https://www.energycodes.gov/status-state-energy-code-adoption ^ http://www.iccsafe.org/wp-content/uploads/stateadoptions.pdf ^ http://bcap-energy.org/code-status/commercial / Energy Code Fan Requirements 46 ASHRAE 90.1-2013 22.214.171.124 Fan System Power and Efficiency Limitation 126.96.36.199.3 Fan Efficiency. Fans shall have a Fan Efficiency Grade (FEG) of 67 or higher based on manufacturers certified data, as defined by AMCA 205. The total efficiency of the fan at the design point of operation shall be within 15 percentage points of the maximum total efficiency of the fan. Exceptions: a. Single fans with a motor of 5 hp (4 kW) or less. b.
Multiple fans in parallel or series that have a combined motor power of 5 hp (4 kW) or less and are operated as the functional equivalent of a single fan. c. Fans that are part of equipment listed under 188.8.131.52 Minimum Equipment Efficiencies Listed Equipment Standard Rating and Operating Conditions. d. Fans included in equipment bearing a third-party-certified seal for air or energy performance of the equipment package. e. Powered wall/roof ventilators (PRV) as defined by ANSI/AMCA-99-2010. f. Fans outside the scope of AMCA 205 g. Fans that are intend to only operate during emergency conditions 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 Ps vs. CFM
15 points of peak efficiency Total Efficiency vs. CFM Compliant NonCompliant 0 2 4 6 8 CFM x 1000 10
12 100 80 60 40 20 0 Efficiency Ps ASHRAE 90.1-2013 Fan Curve ASHRAE 90.1-2013 184.108.40.206 Fan System Power and Efficiency Constant Volume Variable Volume
HP<= CFM*0.0011 HP<= CFM*0.0015 eCAPs Demo 49 ASHRAE 90.1-2013 220.127.116.11 Fractional Horsepower Fan Motors. Motors for fans that are 1/12 hp or greater and less than 1 hp shall be electronically-commutated motors or shall have a minimum motor efficiency of 70% when rated in accordance with DOE 10 CFR 431. These motors shall also have the means to adjust motor speed for either balancing or remote control. Belt-drive fans may use sheave adjustments for airflow balancing in lieu of varying motor speed. Exceptions: 1. Motors in the airstream within fan-coils and terminal units that operate only when providing heating to the space served. 2. Motors installed in space conditioning equipment certified under Section 6.4.1 3.
Motors covered by Table 10.8-4 or 50 Fractional Horsepower Motors Single phase applications will require EC motors to meet efficiency requirements Three phase applications may require VFDs to balance or for remote control Take advantage of low cost speed control with VFD Integrated with Motor & Control 51 Elements of Fan System Energy (Personal Perspectives) Elements of Fan System Power* Fan Design Fan Control/Sensors Fan Selection
System Effect & System Leakage Air Distribution System Design & Components *Mike Wolf Unscientific Estimates 53 Fan Selection to Minimize Energy SW Airfoil Centrifugal Fan Class Oper BHP COST
5 year TCO 22 III 24.5 $4,995 $26,927 24 III 19.0 $5,113
$22,122 27 II 16.2 $3,933 $18,435 30 II 13.6 $4,170 $16,345
33 I 12.5 $4,327 $15,517 36 I 12.0 $4,995 $15,737 Select Fans Based on Total Cost of
Ownership Size 33 has the lowest TCO Fan Selection of 15,000 CFM at 4 Ps 54 Fan Selection to Minimize Energy 18 Ps 20 22 24 27 30 Include Max Fan RPM on Equipment Schedule to
Avoid Undersized Low Efficiency Fan Selections. Include Max Bhp on Equipment Schedule to assure compliance with Fan System Power limit in Energy Code Design Duty CFM Air Distribution System Design & Components to Minimize Energy Design Pressure Loss Varies Based on Components e.g. ducts/dampers 56eCAPs Demo System Effect & System Leakage to Minimize Energy Minimize System Effect eCAPs Engineering Toolbox
57 Fan Controls & Sensors to Minimize Energy Avoid Overventilation w/ Variable Speed Controls Non-Invasive Airflow Monitoring Integrated Sensors & Speed Controls 58 Homework Review what you have learned here. Share this info (FACTS) with your fellow consulting engineers, Architects, contractors, and end users, and code officials.
Greenheck Product Application Guide, Understanding Fan Efficiency Grades http://www.greenheck.com/library/articles/88 Greenheck also has an FEG Energy Guide. Read more: http://www.csemag.com Search FEG Reference Material Introducing the Fan Energy Index; Air Movement and Control Association https://www.amca.org
HPAC Engineering Greenheck Product Update on U.S. Fan Energy-Efficiency Regulation http ://hpac.com/iaq-ventilation/update-us-fan-energy-efficien cy-regulation 60 The mission of Greenheck is to be the market leader in the development, manufacture and worldwide sale of quality air moving, control and conditioning equipment with total commitment to customer service.
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