ENGLISH 111 SHORT STORIES TERMS Review the terms listed in your resource packet: Elements of Narrative Review the Short Story Introduction Open Book Test: Monday, September 17 t h on term review Two Words by
Isabel Allende (Echoes) A Rose for Emily by William Faulkner (Seagull Reader) Tapka from Natasha and Other Stories by David Bezmozgis An Excerpt from A Visit From the Goon Squad by
Jennifer Egan Edgar Allen Poe (various from Project Gutenberg) THE STORIES POV In Objective Point of View the reader has access to nobody's head. In Third Person Limited Point of View the reader has
access to one person's head at a time. In Omniscient Point of View the reader has access to everybody's head at the same time. Introduction to Magical Realism/Read aloud: A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings: A Tale for Children. Two Words: The focus of this story is the power of language on
multiple levels. TWO WORDS BY ISABEL ALLENDE MAGICAL REALISM Magic Realism is a genre of fiction in which magical elements are blended into a realistic atmosphere in order to access a deeper understanding of reality.
These magical elements are explained like normal occurrences that are presented in a straightforward manner which allows the "real" and the "fantastic" to be accepted in the same stream of thought. Think of it as "what happens when a highly detailed, realistic setting is invaded by something 'too strange to believe'". BUT ISNT IT JUST FANTASY?! Prominent English-language fantasy writers have stated that "magic realism" is only another name
for fantasy fiction. However, magical realism is different from fantasy literature based on the perception of the fantastical element: In fantasy, the presence of the supernatural is perceived as odd or different, whereas in magical realism the presence of the supernatural is accepted. In magical realism the author presents the supernatural as being equally valid to the natural. CHARACTERISTICS The extent to which the characteristics listed below
apply to any given magic realist text varies; every text is different and will employ a smattering of those listed here. However, they do serve as a good judge of what one might expect from a magic realist text. CHARACTERISTICS - FANTASTICAL ELEMENTS As recently as 2008, magical realism in literature has been defined as "a kind of modern fiction in which fabulous and fantastical events are included in a narrative that otherwise maintains the 'reliable' tone and draw upon the genres of fable,
folk tale, and myth while maintaining a strong contemporary voice. The fantastic attributes given to characters in such novels levitation, flight, telepathy, telekinesis are among the means that magic realism uses in order to discuss the often phantasmagorical realities of present day issues. WAIT A MINUTE!
Definition of PHANTASMAGORIA 1 : an exhibition of optical effects and illusions 2 a : a constantly shifting complex succession of things seen or imagined b : a scene that constantly
changes 3 : a bizarre or fantastic combination, collection, or assemblage Examples of PHANTASMAGORIA He saw a phantasmagoria of shadowy creatures through the fog. CHARACTERISTICS - HYBRIDITY When the plot lines utilize multiple layers of reality taking place at the same time. Such opposites as urban and rural, and past and present.
CHARACTERISTICS - AUTHORIAL RETICENCE Authorial reticence is the "deliberate withholding of information and explanations about the disconcerting fictitious world". [ The narrator does not provide explanations about the accuracy or credibility of events described. Note that the act of explaining the supernatural would immediately reduce the legitimacy of this world in comparison to the natural world; the reader would consequently disregard the supernatural as false.
CHARACTERISTICS - SENSE OF MYSTERY Something that most, if not all, critics agree on is this major theme. Magic realist literature tends to read at a very intensified level. You have to be open to the crazy, zany, and wacky stuff going on in these stories. "If you can explain it, then it's not magical realism." CHARACTERISTICS - POLITICAL CRITIQUE Magic realism contains an "implicit criticism of society, particularly the elite".
M A J O R AU T H O R S A N D W O R K S Although there is much debate among critics and writers regarding who and/or which works fall within the genre of magical realism, the following authors tend to be regarded as most representative of the narrative mode. M A J O R AU T H O R S A N D W O R K S Franz Kafka, writing in the 1920s, is arguably the founder of the genre.
Within the Latin American world, perhaps the most iconic of magical realist novelist is Nobel Laureate Gabriel Garca Mrquez , whose novel One Hundred Years of Solitude was an instant worldwide success. English Author Salman Rushdie, African American novelist Toni Morrison, English author Louis de Bernires and English feminist writer Angela Carter M A J O R AU T H O R S A N D W O R K S The first woman writer from Latin America to be recognized outside the continent was Isabel Allende. Her most well-known novel The House of
the Spirits is arguably quite similar to Marquez's style of magical realist writing. TWO WORDS BY ISABEL ALLENDE LECTURE BEFORE READING : Background Until the 1960s, Latin American literature had a small, mostly localized audience. Book publishers typically published only 3,000 copies of a novel. During the 1960s, however, Latin American writers began to reach larger audiences, thanks to the growth of Latin American literacy, advances in book publishing and distribution, and the development of multinational companies. Outstanding
authors, such as Gabriel Garca Mrquez, Julio Cortzar, Mario Vargas Llosa, and Carlos Fuentes, sold as many as 20,000 copies of their works. Then in 1968 Garca Mrquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude broke entirely new ground, selling about 100,000 copies per year and creating a viable international market for other Latin American authors. Beginning in 1967, a series of Latin American authors won the Nobel Prize for Literature. TWO WORDS BY ISABEL ALLENDE LECTURE BEFORE Reading: Background In the 1980s Latin American women writers claimed
an international audience, too. Latin America already had several well-known women authors. In the 1980s a feminist literary movement began to develop that its chief proponent, Chilean writer Isabel Allende, said was unified by a common "dimension of emotion, passion, obsession, and dream." Allende, an exemplar of the style of "magic realism," became internationally famous with her best-selling first novel, House of the Spirits (1982; tr. 1985). This selection, "Two Words," is one of Allende's short stories. TWO WORDS BY ISABEL ALLENDE
LECTURE About the Author Isabel Allende (b. 1942), is a Chilean novelist, short story writer, and author of nonfiction who, with Mexico's Laura Esquivel, has helped create an international audience for Latin America's women writers. Allende was born in Lima, Peru, and grew up in Chile. As a young woman, she worked as a journalist, married, and had two children. When she was 31, her uncle, Salvador Allende, who was president of Chile, was assassinated in a military takeover of the government. Allende and her family were forced to
flee to Venezuela. TWO WORDS BY ISABEL ALLENDE LECTURE About the Author A painful divorce as well as the illness and death of her grandfather prompted her to write her first novel, House of the Spirits (1982; tr. 1985), which became an international best seller and a film. Allende moved to San Francisco in 1987 with her second husband. Her other novels include Of Love and Shadows (1984; tr. 1987), Eva Luna (1987; tr. 1988), The Stories of Eva Luna (1989; tr. 1991), and the U..S.-based The Infinite Plan (1991; tr. 1993). Her first
nonfiction work, Paula (1994; tr. 1995), was a series of letters to her dying daughter. She also wrote Aphrodite: A Memoir of the Senses (1997; tr. 1998). In 1999 two new books appeared: a novel called Daughter of Fortune (1999; tr. 1999) and Conversations with Isabel Allende (1998; tr. 1999), a collection of essays and interviews with the author. TWO WORDS BY ISABEL ALLENDE LECTURE About the Author: Allende's work is written in a style called "magic realism," which links myth and fantasy with realistic portrayals of life and often with politics. Previous writers of magic realism
include Asturias and Garcia Mrquez. Writers of magic realism view Latin America as a many-layered culture in which everyday activities and events are colored by powerful underlying forces, such as religion, superstition, passion, myth, and magic. As Allende's heroine Eva explains it, "reality is not only what we see on the surface; it has a magical dimension as well, and, if we so desire, it is legitimate to enhance it and color it to make our journey through life less trying." In the Foreword to Conversations with Isabel Allende , the author writes that "Most of my writing is an attempt to bring an illusory order to the natural chaos of life, to decode the mysteries of memory, to search for my own identity."
TWO WORDS BY ISABEL ALLENDE Read the story Complete the questions and vocabulary HANDOUT TWO WORDS BY ISABEL ALLENDE Journal Question: What do you think the author's goals and ideas were when she wrote this story? What are her main themes? Defend your answer. SPEECH PREPARATION: ADD IMPACT WITH RHETORICAL
DEVICES THINKING ABOUT RHETORIC Aft er disc u ssi n g th e fol lowing rhetori c al devic es, l isten to th e speech by Mic h ell e Oba ma at the DNC 2012. Take n ot es on th e devic es sh e u ses. A N o te on the Speec h: M i c hel l e Obam a took c enter sta ge at the D em oc rati c N ati onal C onv enti on on Septembe r 4 . H er spe ec h wa s wi de l y a nti c i pa te d. Fi rst L ady has a spec i al abi l i ty to re sonate w i th fema l e v oter s. "She j ust has a wa y o f e l ec t ri fyi ng a crow d and rel ati ng to peo pl e . The way she ha s been a bl e to bal a nce bei ng a spokespe rson and a fir st l ady a nd a gre at m om a t the sam e ti me i s some thi ng that a l ot of wom en
a dm i re . T he Fi r st L ady foc use d on her per sonal re l ati onshi p w i th her daughters and he r husband dur i ng her speec h, and then bri dged the gap be tw ee n the pe rsona l and the pol i ti c al . Then, com plete the activity in Echoes page 2 44 #5. You can present your speeches on Monday! WRITING FOR IMPACT AND BEAUTY The study of rhetoric provides speechwriters with numerous rhetorical devices. When you use these devices, your presentations will be more impactful (easier to remember) as well as more beautiful (more
pleasurable to listen to). Of the very large number of rhetorical devices, well investigate three types in this article: Devices which involve sounds (often with repetition) e.g. alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia Devices which involve repetition of words, phrases, or ideas (often with parallelism) e.g. anaphora Devices which change the usual meaning of words e.g. metaphors, similes 1. RHETORICAL DEVICES: SOUND Sound-based rhetorical devices add a poetic melody
to speeches. Not surprisingly, the net effect is that speeches are more pleasurable to listen to. Three of the most common forms are: alliteration repetition of the same sound at the beginning of nearby words e.g. what my wife wanted, her husband has had assonance repetition of the same vowel sound in nearby words e.g. how now brown cow onomatopoeia a word which imitates the sound of itself e.g. buzz, whoosh, meow
2. RHETORICAL DEVICES: REPETITION OF WORDS OR IDEAS Two common forms involve repetition in successive clauses or sentences. anaphora repetition of a word or phrase at the start of successive clauses or sentences e.g. Winston Churchill We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, [... many more ...] We shall never surrender. epistrophe repetition of a word or phrase a the end of successive clauses or sentences
e.g. Emerson What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny compared to what lies within us. 2. RHETORICAL DEVICES: REPETITION OF WORDS OR IDEAS Repetition is a powerful technique used in other ways as well. Repetition is commonly used for emphasis. Repeating a word or phrase in different parts of the speech helps the audience make connections as if you were sewing your speech elements together with a thread.
3. RHETORICAL DEVICES WHICH CHANGE WORD MEANINGS Three common rhetorical devices by which words can take on new meanings are: Personification giving human qualities to abstract ideas, inanimate objects, plants, or animals e.g. The trees called out to me. Metaphor a comparison of two seemingly unlike things e.g. Life is a highway. Simile same as metaphor, but using either like or as
e.g. Life is like a box of chocolates. These rhetorical devices, along with related concepts such as symbolism and analogies, are often the essence of storytelling as an effective means of communication. TWO WORDS Assignment: Write an analysis of the power of language through a demand writing activity. You will be given a quote from the text as a prompt. This is a 60 minute timed assignment. HANDOUT Faulkner on Hemingway:
"[Hemingway] has never been known to use a word that might send a reader to the dictionary." Hemingway on Faulkner: "Poor Faulkner. Does he really think big emotions come from big words?" A ROSE FOR EMILY B y Wi l l i a m
Fa u l k n e r A ROSE FOR EMILY BEFORE READING Read introductory notes before the story. Aristocracy: The aristocracy are people considered to be in the highest social class. "A Rose for Emily" is a five-part short story narrated
by the townspeople of Jefferson, Mississippi. "A Rose for Emily" is a short story by American author William Faulkner first published in the April 30, 1930 issue of Forum. This story takes place in Faulkner's fictional city, Jefferson, in his fictional county of Yoknapatawpha County, Mississippi. It was Faulkner's first short story published in a national magazine. WHO IS WILLIAM FAULKNER?
1897 1962 American author of the 20 t h century The majority of his works are based in his native state of Mississippi. Faulkner is considered one of the most important writers of Southern literature along with Mark Twain,, Truman Capote, and Tennessee Williams. His work was published as early as 1919 and was largely published during the 1920s and 1930s.
WHO IS WILLIAM FAULKNER? Faulkner was relatively unknown until receiving the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature. Faulkner has often been cited as one of the most important writers in the history of American literature. Heavily influenced by the south. Mississippi marked his sense of humor, his sense of the tragic position of racism, his characterization of Southern characters and timeless themes, including fiercely intelligent people dwelling behind faades.
A ROSE FOR EMILY BEFORE READING Vocabulary remit mote gilt pallid hue temerity teeming diffident
deprecation tableau cabal impervious acrid thwart august cuckold A ROSE FOR EMILY AFTER READING Characters: Identify each of the following characters by writing a brief description of each.
Emily Grierson Colonel Sartoris Tobe Judge Stevens Homer Barron A ROSE FOR EMILY AFTER READING 1. What metaphor is used to describe Miss Emily in the first paragraph? 2. How is the house personified in the second paragraph? 3. How does Faulkner describe Miss Emily in the sixth paragraph?
4. What did Miss Emily tell her visitors the day after her fathers death? 5. Why did the townspeople not think she was crazy for this? 6. What does Miss Emily do that makes the townspeople think that she and her boyfriend have wed? 7. How do the townspeople know what they know about Miss Emilys life? What is the source of their information? 8. What is the horrible revelation about Miss Emily that the story ends with? How is this related to the overall meaning of the story? THE ROS E AS A S YMBOL OF LOVE
--AFT ER READING Roses, in literature and the general daily experience, usually represent love. Roses are given as tokens of affection, as a sign of devotion to the individual to whom they are given. When viewed in this light, the rose seems an odd choice for the title of this story: Emilys story is disturbing, the tale of a woman obsessed with her own heritage who never understood the true meaning of love. This makes the title ironic, which seems to be Faulkners entire point. By using the classic symbol of love to introduce the narrative, he is leading the reader to a consideration of what the components of true love are. Love is not the distorted
narcissism that is Emilys perception; it is a selfless act of giving that builds relationships, not destroys them like in the story. THE ROSE AS A TRIBUTE Another way to look at the rose in the title A Rose for Emily is as a token, a tribute. The narrator tells her story, the kind of person Emily was and the personal actions that led to her demise. Again, Faulkners irony is apparent. Tributes are usually something positive, a way for onlookers and observers to understand a person or event as it relates to their own lives. The
story of Emily is anything but positive; it is disgusting, repulsive. So why a tribute? Perhaps it is to serve as a reminder of the ugliness of selfabsorption, of the consequences of a life lived without love. The rose is given as a tribute to a hideous person that the reader might be reminded of the importance of self-giving and true devotion. THE ROSE AS A SYMBOL OF MEMORY Roses are also often used as memories, as a way to preserve a moment in time or to keep a person close to ones heart. They are dried and kept, not only because they are beautiful, but usually because it is a way to retain a precious time in ones life. So why would Faulkner
use such a symbol of beauty and memory to present the horrific narrative of A Rose for Emily? Firstly, the story is written in the form of a memory, the narrator speaking in the first person about events that to him and the community were very real. Secondly, however terrible the tale may be, it serves as a reminder to the reader that some integral things in a persons life should never be forgotten: love, devotion, and selflessness. By presenting a woman who possessed none of these attributes, Faulkner calls on his readers to remember the things that make life beautiful, especially love. Hence the rose can be seen as a call to memory.
A ROS E FOR EMILY CONCLUSIONS DRAWN As a symbol of love, as a tribute, or as a representative of memory, the rose in the title A Rose for Emily presents a variety of interpretations. Faulkner is not an author that can be definitively defined by one theory. His writings are able to be analyzed on multiple levels, because this calls the reader to consider all aspects of the information provided and draw ones own conclusion. His choice of the rose is testimony to this, as there is no one way to interpret its use. The reader must decide Faulkners
intention. A ROSE FOR EMILY AFTER READING MLA DIDLS Analysis Essay HANDOUT Tapka by David Bezmozgis TAPKA BY DAVID BEZMOZGIS David Bezmozgis (born 1973) is a Canadian writer and filmmaker.
Born in Riga, Latvia, he came to Canada with his family when he was six. He graduated with a B.A. in English literature from McGill University. Bezmozgis received an M.F.A. from the University of Southern California's School of Cinema-Television. In 1999, his first documentary, a 25-minute film called L.A . Mohel, won a major award for student filmmakers. His first published book is Natasha and Other Stories (2004). Stories from that collection first appeared in The New Yorker, Harper's and Zoetrope All-Story. Natasha and Other Stories was chosen for inclusion in Canada Reads 2007. Bezmozgis is among The New Yorker magazine's 2010 top 20 fiction writers under the age of 40.
TAPKA BY DAVID BEZMOZGIS 1. How does Bezmozgis describe Goldfinch? 2. What do you notice right away about the language of this text? How does the author arrange the sentences? Does it seem conventional? 3. When does this story take place? 4. The narrator says that he would return from school bearing the germs of a new vocabulary. What does this mean and why is it significant? (3) 5. What does he mean by linguistic bounty? (3) 6. Describe the Nahumovskys.
7. Because the title of the story is Tapka we know that when the narrator discusses the dog on page 5 that it is a very important description. Paraphrase the information about Tapkas immigration to Canada and Ritas devotion for the dog. TAPKA BY DAVID BEZMOZGIS 8. What about lunchtime excites Mark? Why does he not relate to other students in school (effectively friendless page 8)? 9. Choose a passage that best describes Marks love for the dog. 10. Describe Bezmozgiss use of dialogue. What do you notice about the format and why do you think he does this?
11. What is significant about the line television taught me to say (9)? 12. What details does Mark relate about the accident? (12) 13. What is significant about Jana saying, Mark, get Clonchik (13)? 14. Reread the passage where Rita, in desperation, attempts to communicate with the doctor. What story does this remind you of (that weve read in class) and why? Explain your answer with evidence. 15. Explain the ending of this story. How does Mark first try to rationalize what happened and then quickly succumb to guilt? (18)
TAPKA BY DAVID BEZMOZGIS Demand Writing 3 activity. HANDOUT GREAT ROCK AND ROLL PAUSES BY ALISON BLAKE Story by Jennifer Egan [ exc e r p t f ro m A V i s i t
from the Goon Squad]. EXCERPT: GREAT ROCK AND ROLL PAUSES Alison Blake is a 12-year-old American. She lives on the edge of the desert in the near-future. Her brother, Lincoln, is autistic and obsessed with the pauses in famous rock songs. In this book, kids of the future don't write diaries in the normal way but record what's happening in their lives in PowerPoint slides. GREAT ROCK AND ROLL
PAUSES 1. Do you think it works to write a story in PowerPoint? Why? 2. In a recent interview Egan said, I think anyone whos writing satirically about the future of America and life often looks prophetic. . . . I think were all part of a zeitgeist [general trend of thought or feeling characteristic of a particular period of time] and were all listening to and absorbing the same things, consciously or unconsciously. Considering current social trends and political realities, including fears of war and environmental devastation, evaluate the future Egan envisions in Great Rock
and Roll Pauses. 3. The novel is about the passage of time. Why is music the way to describe this theme? [see next slide]. GREAT ROCK AND ROLL PAUSES Discussion: Egan was inspired by reading in the NY Times that the Obama campaign had been turned around when someone on staff made a PowerPoint presentation explaining where they were going wrong. She realized a PowerPoint had become a genre, a recognizable mode of thought and representation. So just as she might write a
chapter in the form of a magazine article, why not as a PowerPoint? The novel is about time. Why was music the way to describe her theme? Music lets us look at change, nostalgia. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pZGXILewUSQ GREAT ROCK AND ROLL PAUSES The second demand writing task for this unit. HANDOUT A 60 minute, timed discussion of theme. You can use the text and must show a seamless use of quotes to support your analysis.
MOOD AND MADNESS Edgar Allen Poe EDGAR ALLEN POE ESSAY ANALYSIS Your Task: Using the DIDLS model for essay analysis, analyze Poes writing style through DIDLS. What devices does he use to create setting and atmosphere? Prompt: Prove that Poe is the master of creating atmosphere.
Think about the authors use of narrative technique, description and diction , and find examples from the text. Requirements: 600800 word MLA Essay Due: October 26, 2012 READ: The Raven The Pit and the Pendulum The Fall of the House of Usher WHAT IS MOOD?
Mood is the atmosphere created by the setting, and actions of people and characters in it. It also relates to how the reader emotionally responds to these elements like sadness for a tragedy. WHAT WAYS CAN AN AUTHOR ESTABLISH MOOD? WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THE MOOD WHEN ANALYZING LITERATURE? WHATS THE MOOD?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W4s9V8aQu4c Tell Tale Heart WHATS THE MOOD? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q6-1cvsuyRs MADNESS IN LITERATURE The prevalence of depictions of madness in nineteenth-century literature paralleled the growth of the scientific and medical study of insanity. Increasingly in the nineteenth century, madness was
seen more as a social and medical problem, compared to the eighteenth century, when madness was feared as the absence of reason, and therefore, evil. Some authors attempted to portray mental "aberrations" in a realistic manner, while others sensationalized the symptoms of and reaction to a character's insanity. Such sensation fiction often portrayed characters who
were wrongfully accused of insanity. The multitude of ways insanity was treated in literature reflects nineteenthcentury society's fascination bordering on obsession with madness. In fiction, there were two basic trends in the way madness was represented: authors strove either for psychological realism, or they sensationalized madness, using it as a tool to bring about a certain effect on characterization or plot. Edgar Allan Poe's depictions of madness are well known. "The Fall of the House of Usher" (1840),
focuses in particular on the way in which Poe uses the language and imagery of enclosure to follow the narrator on his journey from reason to insanity. JOURNAL How does Poe establish Mood? How does the theme of Madness come into play with Poes stories? Why are people fascinated by madness? THE RAVEN THE RAVEN
Read Aloud the Poem. Pay attention to mood and the diction Poe uses to reinforce this: Dreary; Bleak; Ghost; Lost; Sorrow; Terrors; Darkness; Melancholy; Stern; Dirges; Grave; Stillness. THE RAVEN Pick out some of the other word(s) in the poem that reinforce the feelings of bleakness and hopelessness. THE RAVEN 1.What does Poe want the reader to believe has happened to the narrator before events in the poem?
2. Why does Poe use a raven instead of another bird as the major symbol of this work? 3. The universal appeal of the poem comes from its expression of the feeling of loneliness we are all subject to at some time in our lives due to separation from loved ones. The narrator is feeling that his situation is inescapable and hopeless. IS there any feeling of hope at the conclusion of this narrative? 4. What devices does Poe utilize in order to create suspense? Think of the repetition and rhyme. Is this effective? Explain. BONUS: Recreate your own version of The Raven. You must use the same rhyme scheme, meter,
and mood as Poe. THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM Summary: The narrator is sentenced to death by a tribunal during the Spanish Inquisition. He faints. He awakes in a cell and is unable to see. As he awaits his fate, the prisoner undergoes physical and mental torment. The Spanish Inquisition: The Inquisition sought to rid the church of heretical [sacrilegious or deviating] views. They
got a little carried away. The narrator decides to explore his surroundings by walking along the wall, leaving a coarse piece of cloth as a landmark. Before he is able to circumnavigate the cell, he trips on his robe and falls asleep. He wakes up, devours food left for him, and walks across the cell. He trips and realizes he narrowly missed falling into a pit. He falls asleep. He awakes. He eats. He falls asleep. He awakes and finds the cell dimly lit and that he's been tied to a wooden plank. THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM
Summary Cont.: A pendulum shaped like a scythe swings back and forth above him, slowly making its way toward the prisoner. Meanwhile, rats have come up from the pit and eaten the prisoner's food. The prisoner rubs food on his ropes and seconds before the pendulum/scythe cuts him in half, the rats chew through the ropes and the narrator escapes. The next torment involves the walls of the cell heating up and moving inward, forcing the narrator toward the pit. Moments before plummeting into the abyss, the walls retract.
General LaSalle's army has emancipated the prison. THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM Characters: Unnamed Narrator - A victim of the Inquisition. The narrator maintains sanity that many of Poes other narrators lack. He functions with Dupin-like practicality despite the invisible enemy threatening him with torture. General Lasalle - A leader of the French
army. General Lasalle is a real and positive presence of authority in contrast to the shadowy and invisible leaders of the Inquisition. T H E P I T A N D T H E P E N D U LU M S Y M BO L I S M Symbolism allows people to communicate beyond the limits of language. Humans use symbolism all the time. Words themselves are mere symbols for something else. A symbol is a person, place, or object that stands for something beyond itself. National, religious, and cultural symbols have standard interpretations as well as a personal
significance for each individual. For example, the American flag symbolizes the United States of America. The personal significance, however, varies. An army veteran cherishes its meaning. A terrorist, on the other hand, finds it despicable. A golden coloured coin with a loon on it symbolizes one dollar. A billionaire considers it chump change. A beggar considers it an elusive treasure. A literary symbol gains its meaning from the context of a literary work and often changes as the work develops. THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM QUESTIONS 1. Symbolism: Although the events in the story create
suspense and interest, its the story's deeper meaning that makes it so good. What do the following symbols represent: the pit the pendulum the judges 2. Sensory Details: The description of rats on the narrator's lips is Poe at his finest. Provide examples of sensory details: Poe's description of the cell, the pit, and the judges. Explain. 3. Suspense: Dangerous action, foreshadowing and pacing combine to keep readers on the edge of their seat. Provide an example of each.
4. Setting and Mood: Describe the setting and mood. THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM ANSWERS 1. Symbolism: Although the events in the story create suspense and interest, its the story's deeper meaning that makes it so good. An analysis of the pit (death or hell), the scythe/pendulum (time and death), and the angelic forms of the Inquisitorial tribune (angels of death) are three of many symbols in the novel. 2. Sensory Details: The description of rats on the narrator's lips is Poe at his finest. Poe's description of
the cell, the pit, and the judges provide examples of sensory details. 3. Suspense: Dangerous action, foreshadowing and pacing combine to keep readers on the edge of their seat. 4. Setting and Mood: The cell and the pit take on a life of their own. The story's backdrop of the Inquisition adds to the ominous mood. THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM QUESTIONS 5. Discuss why this narrator is considered unreliable. 6. Prove the following statement as true using
textual references: The Pit and the Pendulum is a traditional Poe story that breaks from Poes conventions: violent yet ultimately hopeful, graphic yet politically allusive. 7. Poe claims that: the ideal short story must be short enough to be read at a single sitting. Moreover, he argues that all elements of a work of fiction should be crafted toward a single, intense effect. Discuss how he does this in The Pit and the Pendulum. THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM
ANSWERS 5. Discuss why this narrator is considered unreliable. Narrator claims to lose the capacity of sensation during the swoon that opens the story. He thus highlights his own unreliability in ways that other narrators resist or deny. 6 7: Proof for statements. THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM FILM
Watch the 1961 Vincent Price version of the film. Hand in: A T chart comparing Story and Film. Then Discuss: How the genre of HORROR has changed over time. Use examples from Poe and the notes you have received on madness, and the incidents of sensationalism in the 1961 film version. THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM FILM Watch the video clip of the 1961 Vincent
Price version of the film. Time: 1:08 1:18 Discuss: why the film is so different than the text. Think of aspects the film added such as the fight scene, the known enemy versus the unknown judges, a romantic element, and the ending. THE PIT AND THE PENDULUM Bonus Assignment: Make a movie poster that includes a scene from the story and a list of actors who would be ideal for the role of narrator and Inquisitors. If you're really
feeling creative, make a soundtrack to go along with your poster. This must be presented in order to receive ONE bonus % on LOWEST ESSAY. DUE OCTOBER 31 S T THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER QUESTIONS 1. What mood does Poe create at the beginning of the story, and
how is that mood established? Note: Is there anything noteworthy about the description of Ushers house? 2. How would you characterize Roderick Usher and his life? What does he consider to be the cause of his problems? 3. What is the narrators initial reaction to the sight of his friend Usher, and how does he feel about the prospect of cheering him up? 4. What is the nature of Ushers art? Consider the significance of the painting described, as well as of the ballad The Haunted Palace in relation to the story as a whole. 5. Is there anything ironic about the narrators role in the story? Although he is Rodericks most intimate boyhood friend, the
narrator apparently does not know much about himlike the basic fact that Roderick has a twin sister. 6. Is there any significance to Roderick and Madeline being twins? 7. What do you think is the overall theme of the story? THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER ANSWERS 1. What mood does Poe create at the beginning of the story, and how is that mood established? Note: Is there anything noteworthy about the description of Ushers house?
Detailed and dark, alliteration, site of the house ominous and foreboding. House: so much detail gives us impression that this is an important element. 2. How would you characterize Roderick Usher and his life? What does he consider to be the cause of his problems? Depressed, lonely, glum, mad, split personality. Family = problems and a curse 3. What is the narrators initial reaction to the sight of his friend Usher, and how does he feel about the prospect of cheering him up? Sad, wanted to cheer him up, uncomfortable, awkward. THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF
USHER ANSWERS 4. What is the nature of Ushers art? Consider the significa nce of the painting described, as well a s of the balla d The Haunted Pala ce in relation to the story as a whole. Art was grim, tomb, represents he is mor bid, reflected in his a rtistic wa ys. Balled = decent into sickness, a cceptance. 5. Is there anything ironic about the narrators role in the stor y? Although he is Rodericks most intimate boyhood friend, the narrator apparently does not know much about himlike the basic fact that Roderick has a twin sister. Narrator is to distract, but ends up descending into madness,
Usher considers narrator close friend but doesnt share intimate details of his life. Doesnt protect Roderick, runs away. 6. Is there any significance to Roderick a nd Madeline being twins? Trope of the evil twin, mystery and myth of them. Mirrors of each other. Adds to the story. Twins can replace each other. 7. What do you think is the overa ll theme of the story? Mental deterioration, madness, and guilt. Question reality and sanity.