Enlightenment & French Revolution

Enlightenment & French Revolution

Enlightenment Chapter 17.2 Do Now What are the positives of a multiparty system (democracy)? (negatives of a single party system/monarchy)

What are the negatives of a multiparty system (democracy)? (positives of a single party system/monarchy) Do Now Choice, debate, discussions of issues, new ideas, accountability Costly elections, gridlock

Do Now What dangers exist in a government not giving enough freedom? What dangers exist in a government giving too much freedom?

Do Now Oppression, unhappiness, anger, revolt Chaos, lawlessness, civil war Do Now What dangers or problems exist in a government providing too many services to

your citizens? What dangers or problems exist in providing too little services to your citizens? Do Now

High taxes, lack of motivation, lack of productivity, no competition Neglected, uneducated or unhealthy people, high crime People and Events that led to Enlightenment Divine Right of Kings: The medieval idea that rulers receive authority from god and are answerable to god.

People and Events that led to Enlightenment In 1215, the unpopular King John was forced to sign this contract, the Great Charter, or in Latin (the official language of the 13th century Europe) the Magna Carta.

This contract contained 63 clauses that dealt with the Kings misuse of financial and judicial power. People and Events that led to Enlightenment The

most famous of these clauses stated that, No freeman shall be taken or imprisoned except by the lawful judgment of his equals. (Right to trial by jury.) Another clause stated the idea of no taxation without representation. People and Events that led to Enlightenment This

Great Charter would point toward constitutional freedoms guaranteed by founders of republics such as the United States of America. What was the Age of Enlightenment Influenced by? The Renaissance : confidence in human intelligence and curiosity about the world. Scientific Revolution : method of study. In particular, Newtons

explanation of workings of the universe through the idea of natural laws. What was the Age of Enlightenment Influenced by? Rationalism: A philosophy that is based reason rather than observation as the basis of its knowledge. English ideal that people should play a major role in government.

Main Ideas of the Age of Enlightenment Nature and Society is guided by natural laws Human reason could discover those laws A society guided by natural laws would promote well-being by ending intolerance, torture and slavery Social progress (greater liberty, happiness) would occur as reason replaced superstition and prejudice Enlightenment

Philosophers John Locke, who wrote the Two Treatises on Government in which he expressed a very positive view of human nature, was very influential in inspiring the Enlightenment. He felt people were born with natural rights and that governments were created to protect these natural rights. Locke thought people are born with a tabula rasa, blank mind. People are molded by their experiences and environment.

Enlightenment Philosophers What was the French name of the Enlightenment intellectuals who applied themselves to the study of society with the purpose of making it better and happier? p519 Philosophes

Enlightenment Philosophers Baron de Montesquieu: French nobleman who devoted himself to the study of political liberty. p520 Which countrys government did he use as an example of a monarchy?

England Enlightenment Philosophers What was Montesquieus most lasting contribution to political thought? Separation of powers (checks and balances)

Enlightenment Philosophers Montesquieu believed government should have three branches. Name them? Executive (Monarch) Legislative (Parliament)

Judicial (Courts) Enlightenment Philosophers Voltaire: The widely loved and hated Frenchman who changed his name from Francios-Marie Arouet to Voltaire because he felt his last name sounded too much like the word for king. He

admired the democratic nature of the English Parliament and despised the French Monarch. (He was imprisoned on more than one occasion). P 520 Voltaire was a well known champion of freedom of speech and religion. Enlightenment Philosophers Enlightenment Philosophers

Recently a Supreme Court ruling held up the right of free speech for a group of protesters at a soldiers funeral. The court declared that the protesters signs on placards that read, God hates the USA/ Thank God for 9/11, Thank God for IEDs among others constituted lawful and peaceful commentary under political free speech of the First Amendment.

Do you agree with the Supreme Courts ruling on the Westboro Baptist Churchs protest? Enlightenment Philosophers Adam Smith: French economic theorist who

believed that government regulations interfered with the production of wealth. His 1776 book, The Wealth of Nations, laid the groundwork for modern economic thought. What does Smiths concept of Laissez-faire mean? P521 Government should not interfere with economics, government should keep hands off business Enlightenment Philosophers

According to Adam Smith, the government had only three basic roles, what were they? Protect society from invasion (army) Defend society from injustice (police) Upkeep of public works, roads, and canals (public works) Enlightenment

Philosophers What did Mary Wollstonecraft fight for? p523 Equal rights for women Age of Enlightenment

Literacy increased dramatically during the Enlightenment. What two new reading materials developed in the 1700s? Magazines and newspapers Age of Enlightenment What was the name of the intellectual meeting rooms for the wealthy to discuss

the new ideas of philosophes during the Enlightenment? salons

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