ENLIGHTENMENT 1700-1800s Beginnings of the Enlightenment Foundation was laid by the Scientific Revolution. Edward Jenner developed a vaccine against smallpox, a disease that had killed people for centuries. People believed there were natural laws,
rules discoverable by reason that governed certain forces. Started to apply natural laws to human behavior. Important People and Ideas One of the favorite words of intellectuals was reason. Most of the leaders of the Enlightenment were French. Immanuel Kant- German
One of the 1st to use the term enlightenment Wasnt big on the idea of reason, but believed natural law could be used to explain humanity Thomas Hobbes- England (1588-1679) People are naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish. If not constricted they would fight, rob, etc. So people dont live in this brutish life people enter into a social contract, an agreement by which they gave up their freedom for an organized society. Need a powerful government to ensure an orderly society
John Locke- England (1632-1704) Believed people were reasonable and moral People had natural rights, rights that belonged to all humans from birth. (Life, Liberty, Property) People form governments to protect their natural rights. Government has an obligation to the people it governs. If the government fails that obligation people have the right to revolt. He believed in the consent of the govern. Ideas was used by Franklin, Jefferson and Madison.
Both men had key ideas for the Enlightenment, but disagreed on governments role Montesquieu- French (1689-1755) Sharply criticized absolute monarchy. Best way to protect liberty was to divide the government into 3 branches; legislative, executive, judicial (separation of powers). Each branch should be able to check on each other branch. (Checks and Balances) "In a true state of nature, indeed, all men are born equal, but they cannot continue in this equality. Society makes them lose it, and they recover it only by the protection of laws."
Voltaire- French (1694-1778) Supporter of religious freedom, freedom of speech, and critic of the slave trade. Diderot- French (1713-1784) Produced the first encyclopedia. Denounced slavery, promoted religious freedom and equal education. Jean-Jacques Rousseau- French (1712-1778) People were naturally good, but easily corrupted by evil People should have minimal control put on them. Only
governments freely elected should impose controls. The good of the community should be put above individual interests. (Social Contract) Hatred for political and economic oppression Adam Smith- Scottish (1723-1790) Believed in laissez faire, allow business to operate with little or no government interference. Everything in a market was related to supply and demand. Government had 3 basic roles: protect society from invasion, defend citizens from injustice, keep up certain public works. Rousseau vs. Voltaire
"I have received your new book against the human race, and thank you for it. Never was such a cleverness used in the design of making us all stupid. One longs, in reading your book, to walk on all fours. But as I have lost that habit for more than sixty years, I feel unhappily the impossibility of resuming it. Nor can I embark in search of the savages of Canada, because the maladies to which I am condemned render a European surgeon necessary to me; because war is going on in those regions; and because the example of our actions has made the savages nearly as bad as ourselves. Enlightenment Ideas Spread
Social justice was needed for a happy society Old institution waged a war of censorship, restricting access to ideas and information. Supporters of the Enlightenment began gathering at salons, informal social gathering, to discuss ideas. Art and Literature Reflects New Ideas
Began using the rococo style, which moved away from religion and was lighter and more elegant. Enlightenment composers: Classical music was created Operas and ballets began to be performed. Johann Sebastian Bach, George Handel and Mozart were the most recognizable. Enlightenment Leaders Embrace New Ideas Frederick the Great- leader of Prussia Reduced the use of torture and allowed free press and
religious freedom Catherine the Great- leader of Russia Reduced the use of torture and eliminated the use of serfdom Most well-known for expanded Russias empire Joseph II- leader of Austria Would travel in disguise to learn of his peoples problems Believed in religious tolerance and freedom of speech and also abolished serfdom.
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