ENT presentation

ENT presentation NICE. National Institute for Clinical Excellence 1 2 Aims and objectives Know how to assess and manage common ENT problems in primary care Know about watchful waiting and use of delayed prescriptions Know how and when to refer to ENT secondary

care for non-urgent referrals Know about ENT emergencies and how to refer 3 Ear 4 Acute otitis media (AOM) definitions AOM: Infection in middle ear, characterised by presence of middle ear effusion associated with acute onset of signs and symptoms of middle ear inflammation Recurrent AOM: 3 episodes in 6m or 4 in 1y with

absence of middle ear disease between episodes Persistent AOM (treatment failure): symptoms persist after initial management (no antibiotics, delayed antibiotics or immediate antibiotic prescribing strategy) or symptoms worsening 5 AOM: causes & complications Bacterial infection: most common- strep pneumoniae, h influenzae (only 10% due to type B and preventable by HIB vaccine), moraxella catarrhalis Viral infection: most common- respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus

Complications: hearing loss; chronic perforation and otorrhoea, CSOM, cholesteatoma, intracranial complications 6 AOM: diagnosis Mastoiditis Presents with earache (!) In younger children-non specific symptoms, e.g rubbing ear, fever, irritability, crying, poor feeding, restlessness at night, cough, or rhinorrhoea

AOM AOM 7 AOM Differential diagnoses Other URTI: may be mild redness of TM, self limiting Otitis media with effusion (OME)/ glue ear: fluid in middle ear without signs of acute inflammation of TM CSOM: persistent inflammation and TM perforation with exudate >2-6w. May lead to . . . . . . Acute mastoiditis (rare)- swelling, tenderness and redness over mastoid bone, pinna pushed forward

Bullous myringitis (rare)- haemorrhagic bullae on TM caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (90% spontaneous resolution) 8 Management of AOM: when to refer or admit? Advise a no antibiotic or delayed antibiotic strategy for most people with suspected AOM but: consider antibiotics in children < 3m, bilateral AOM systemically unwell high risk of complications e.g. immunosuppression, CF. For all antibiotic prescribing strategies: inform patient average

duration of illness for untreated AOM is 4 days. Admit: According to Feverish illness in Children NICE Guidance Adults and children with suspected complications e.g. meningitis, mastoiditis, or facial paralysis Amoxicillin or Erythromycin 9 Follow up of AOM Routine follow up not usually required Follow up if: symptoms worse or not settling within 4 days otorrhoea persists >2w perforation if hearing loss persists in absence of pain or fever, ie OME

Recurrent AOM: Second line co-amoxiclav http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG47Feverish illness in children http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG69Respiratory Tract Infections 10 Otitis media with effusion (OME) / Glue ear Definition: non-purulent collection of fluid in middle ear (must be > 2/52 after recent AOM to be classed as Glue ear) Causes: Eustachian tube dysfunction > 50% due to AOM especially in < 3 yrs Other: low grade bacterial/viral infections; gastric reflux; nasal allergies; adenoids or nasal polyps; CF; Downs

Pressure changes e.g. with flying or scuba diving (adults) Symptoms: hearing loss absence of earache or systemic upset can present with problems of speech/language development, behaviour or social interaction 11 Otitis media with effusion 12 Other causes of hearing loss (or perceived loss) Foreign body in EAC perforated TM SNHL

listening problems inc ADHD and learning difficulty Initial management of OME Ask about developmental delay or language difficulties Hearing test Drugs not recommended as OME usually self limiting but consider ICS if there is associated allergic rhinitis 13 Hearing Loss < 25 DB Hearing loss > 25 DB and/or Speech & Language delay

Rpt audiogram at 3/12 Refer If persistent OME refer Early intervention with grommets gives no benefit for long-term hearing, language and behaviour and increases risk of TM abnormalities. Subgroup with hearing loss > 25DB may benefit from early 14

grommet insertion. OME general advice: good prognosis, self-limiting and >90% get resolution within 6m; limited proven benefit from drugs OME in adults is unusual in adults and need referral to ENT (unilateral could mean nasopharyngeal ca) Grommets general points: usually stop functioning after 10m approx 50% require reinsertion within 5y conductive deafness after extrusion improves slowly Complications are otorrhoea, may need specialist input. most activities unaffected, i.e. can fly and swim but avoid immersion; re hearing loss should face child when speaking Adenoidectomy: is usually second line treatment for OME but no UK national guideline; conflicting evidence.

No evidence for Tonsillectomy in OME 15 Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) Symptoms persistent painless otorrhoea >2w May be preceded by AOM, trauma and grommets Differentials OE, FB, wax Assessment Exclude intracranial involvement, facial paralysis or mastoiditis- needs admission otherwise routine referral

16 Otitis externa (OE) Inflammation of EAC Localised OE: folliculitis that can progress to a furuncle Diffuse OE: more widespread inflammation e.g. swimmers ear OE defined as: acute if episode<3w; chronic if >3m Malignant OE: extends to mastoid and temporal bones resulting in osteitis. Typically in elderly diabetics. Suspect if pain seems disproportionate to clinical findings 17 Localised OE

Causes: usually infected hair root by staph aureus Symptoms: severe ear pain (compared to size of lesion); relief if furuncle bursts; hearing loss if EAC very swollen Signs: tiny red swelling in EAC (early); later has white or yellow pus-filled centre which can completely occlude EAC Management: analgesia; hot compress; antibiotic only if severe infection or high risk patient - flucloxacillin or erythromycin Refer: if needs I+D, no response to antibiotic or cellulitis spreading outside EAC 18 Acute diffuse OE Causes:

bacterial infection- pseudomonas or staph aureus seborrhoeic dermatitis fungal infection- usually candida contact dermatitis - meds (sudden onset) or hearing aids/earplugs (insidious onset) Symptoms: any combination of ear pain, itch, discharge and hearing loss Signs: EAC and/or external ear are red, swollen or eczematous serous/purulent discharge inflamed TM may be difficult to visualise pain on moving ear or jaw Investigations: rarely useful but if treatment fails, send

swab for bacterial and fungal culture 19 Management: Use topical ear preparation for 7 days; 2% acetic acid for mild cases antibiotic plus steroid e.g. Locorten-Vioform Gentisone HC (NB not if perforation) If wax/debris obstructing EAC or extensive swelling or cellulitis Pope wick Dry mopping (children) Microsuction (ENT PCC)

Advise re prevention of OE: keep ears clean and dry; treat underlying eczema/psoriasis Failure of topical meds: review diagnosis/compliance consider PO fluclox or erythromycin ?fungal (spores in EAC) Swab and refer 20 Chronic OE Causes: Secondary fungal infection- due to prolonged use of topical antibacterials or steroids Seborrhoeic dermatitis; contact dermatitis

Sometimes no cause can be found for OE Symptoms: mild discomfort; pain usually mild Signs: lack of ear wax; dry, hypertrophic skin leading to canal stenosis; pain on exam Assess risk /precipitating factors; severity of symptoms; signs of fungal infection- whitish cotton-like strands in EAC, black or white balls of aspergillus. Look for signs of dermatitis, evidence of allergy (ear plugs etc) or focus of fungal infection elsewhere, e.g. Skin, nails, vagina- can cause 2 inflammation EAC Investigations: only take swab for C+S if treatment fails as interpretation can be difficult:

sensitivities are determined for systemic use and much higher concentrations can be achieved by topical use; organisms may be contaminants, usually fungal overgrowth after using antibacterial drops due to suppressed normal bacterial flora 21 Chronic OE Management: advise general measures as for acute diffuse OE Treatment depends on cause - often requires more than one strategy: if fungal infection- top antifungal, refer if poor response seborrhoeic dermatitis- antifungal and steroid combined If no cause evident- 7d course top steroid +/- acetic acid spray.

If good response, may need to continue steroid but reduce potency/dose. If cannot be withdrawn after 2-3m, refer ENT. If poor response, try trial of top antifungal Refer ENT if contact sensitivity (re patch testing); if EAC occluded; if malignant OE suspected. 22 Foreign Bodies Management depends on what it is: Batteries immediate referral to ENT Inert FB e.g. retained grommet, beads, foam not so urgent Organic e.g. food, insects. May cause infection therefore should be dealt with sooner. For insects drown in olive oil first. Some FBs may resolve with syringing, but if not refer to PCC

Do not attempt to remove under direct visualisation as more likely to cause harm 23 Nose 24 Epistaxis Anterior or Posterior hx gives clues > 90% from Littles Area Age gives clue more likely posterior in Elderly Cause: Idiopathic, trauma (nose picking), dry mucosa, hypertension, coagulopathy, NSAID, Warfarin, tumour

CAN BE FATAL!!! First Aid: Compression & Ice 25 Avoid blowing their nose (1/52) Avoid hot drinks (1/52) Naseptin cream 1/52 Admit: If cannot control, elderly, warfarinised, low platelets, recurrent excessive bleeding PCC: If not settling with conservative rx AgNO3 cautery can be done in GP Packing, Electrocautery, Surgery (SPA ligation, ECA ligation, embolisation) 26

27 Cautery: What you need: A good lightsource Nasal speculum (or large aural speculum) Lignocaine (with adrenalin) Cotton wool Cautery sticks 28 Rhinosinusitis Causative factors allergic, viral, bacterial, fungal, autoimmune. Acute <12wks, Chronic >12wks, Recurrent (>4/yr)

15% population. 6 million lost working days / yr in the UK Presents as My cold wont go away persistant symptoms of URTI, without improvement after 10-14 days or worsening after 5 days Major: Nasal congestion/obstruction Purulent discharge Loss of smell Facial pain / ear pain or fullness 29 Minor: Tenderness over sinus area Fever Headache Halitosis Fatigue / Lethargy

Post nasal drip What to exclude on examination: Periorbital swelling, extraocular muscle dysfunction, decreased VA or proptosis Foreign bodies Concomitant otitis media (in children) CNS complications Polypoid changes or deviated septum What to expect on examination: Erythema / swelling of nasal mucosa Mucopurulent secretions Tenderness over sinuses 30 Differentials Allergic rhinitis (seasonal or perennial)

Usually just nasal symptoms and usually persistent Nasal FB unilateral blockage or discharge Sinonasal tumour chronic, unilateral blockage, discharge (bloody) Other causes of facial pain Tension Headache TMJ dysfunction or bruxism Neuropathic Dental pain (hot/cold drinks, chewing) Investigations Xrays / Bloods / Swabs = not required, only indicated if > 12 wks and failure to respond to Rx will probably refer at that stage (rigid endoscopy / coronal CT / allergy testing)

31 Consider emergency admission to hospital if symptoms are accompanied by: Systemic illness Swelling or cellulitis in face Signs of CNS involvement Orbital involvement Consider urgent ENT referral if: Persistant unilateral symptoms such as (suspecting sinonasal tumour): Bloodstained discharge Non-tender facial pain Facial swelling Unilateral polyps

Consider routine referral to ENT if: More than 3-4 episodes per year lasting > 10 days with no symptoms between episodes 32 Management of acute rhinosinusitis (guidelines on map of medicine) Viral is 200 times more common than bacterial Viral URTI usually precedes bacterial Bacterial usually has more severe and prolonged symptoms Strep pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Moraxella Catarrhalis

First line : Amoxicillin Doxycycline, erythromycin, clarithromycin (pen allergic) Second Line: Co-amoxiclav Azithromycin (pen allergic) 33 More than 7 days Fewer than 7 days Consider antibiotics Advice on self-care measures

-paracetamol or ibuprofen -intranasal decongestant (1 week max) +/- oral decongestant (limited evidence) -Saline douching -Warm face packs (5-10 mins, tds may help drainage) -Maintaining hydration & rest -(topical steroids if polypoid change) Follow up for complications, compliance, expect improvement after 72 hrs with first line Abx Follow up for complications & compliance Consider change of ABx Recurrent acute episodes Less than 6/52 between episodes

More than 6/52 between episodes Use second line antibiotics Use first line antibiotics 34 Management of chronic rhinosinusitis (referral toolkit) Initial Initial drug drug therapy therapy for for 2-3 2-3 months

months duration duration of of topical topical nasal nasal steroid steroid spray spray (nasonex/avamys) (nasonex/avamys) +/+/antihistamine antihistamine If If symptoms symptoms of of allergic allergic aetiology aetiology perform perform skin skin prick

prick or or immunoglobulin immunoglobulin assay assay Give Give PIL PIL http://www.patient.co.uk/health/Sinusitis-Chronic.htm http://www.patient.co.uk/health/Sinusitis-Chronic.htm Advice Advice re re smoking smoking (ENT would usually advocate (ENT would usually advocate daily

daily saline saline douching) douching) If If initial initial treatment treatment fails: fails: Commence topical nasal steroid drop for 4 weeks

(returning Commence topical nasal steroid drop for 4 weeks (returning to to steroid steroid spray spray afterwards) afterwards) Consider oral prednisolone 25mg od for 2 weeks Consider oral prednisolone 25mg od for 2 weeks Broad spectrum spectrum antibiotics

antibiotics only only if if purulent purulent nasal nasal discharge Broad discharge If If no no response response to to above above treatment treatment then then refer refer

35 Nasal Foreign Bodies Commonest in children aged 1-4 Rare in adults Potential risk to airway Suspect if persistant unilateral symptoms of blockage or foul smelling discharge Unless very easy to get at, and very compliant child, best not attempted in GP (sometimes only get one shot!) 36 Nasal Fracture

Best viewed from above looking at deviation of nasal bones difficult if swollen Exclude septal haematoma Requires immediate drainage to prevent abscess or permanent saddle nose deformity Otherwise refer to PCC for manipulation 7-10 days post injury. For old injuries routine ENT referral 37 Consider OSA

Nasal blockage will almost always be accompanied by snoring Have OSA in the back of your mind Defined as the presence of at least five obstructive events per hour during sleep Features Impaired alertness Cognitive impairment Excessive sleepiness (Epworth scale) Morning headaches Choking or SOB feeling at night Nocturia Unrefreshing sleep Sleep quality of partners affected (does he stop breathing at night?)

Refer to Respiratory in the first instance 38 Throat 39 Sore throat: causes Common infections: rhinovirus; coronovirus, parainfluenza virus; common cold (25% sore throats) GABHS causes 15-30% sore throats in children and 10% in adults Herpes simplex virus type 1 (more rarely type 2) = 2% Epstein Barr virus: infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever)- <1%. Suspect IM if sore throat persists >2w - do

FBC and IM screen. Non-infectious causes Physical irritation Hayfever Stevens Johnson syndrome Kawasaki disease Oral mucositis 2 chemo /radiotherapy 40 Sore throat: complications Complications of streptococcal pharyngitis are rare: Suppurative complications: OM acute sinusitis

peritonsilar cellulitis / peritonsillar abscess (quinsy) Pharyngeal abscess Retropharyngeal abscess, more common in children Non suppurative complications are rare: rheumatic fever post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis R sided quinsy showing displacement of uvula to L 41 Sore throat: when to refer

Admit if stridor or respiratory difficulty Trismus, drooling, dysphagia. Dehydration /unable to take fluids Severe suppurative complications, ie if abnormal throat swelling/suspected abscess Systemically unwell and at risk of immunosuppression Suspect Kawasaki disease Profoundly unwell and cause unknown 42 Sore throat: management in primary care Reassure sore throat usually self limiting and symptoms resolve within 3d in 40% cases, 1w in 85% (even if due to streptococcal infection) Advise see healthcare professional if symptoms do not improve, and

urgently if breathing difficulties, stridor, drooling, muffled voice, severe pain, dysphagia or unable to take fluids or systemically ill Symptoms of infectious mononucleosis usually resolve within 1-2w, mild cases within days. But lethargy continues for some time and rarely may continue for months or years. Advise re contact sport. Advise regular paracetamol, ibuprofen, fluids ++ but avoid hot drinks; saline mouthwashes; discuss role of antibiotics Consider delayed prescription or immediate antibiotics use Centor scoring - Antibiotic regime: Prescribe phenoxymethylpenicillin for 10d; or erythromycin or clarithromycin for 5d. Avoid amoxicillin (EBV) 43 Indications for tonsillectomy for recurrent acute

sore throat Sore throats are due to acute tonsillitis Episodes of sore throat are disabling and prevent normal functioning Seven or more well documented, clinically significant, adequately treated sore throats in the preceding year or Five or more such episodes in each of the preceding two years or Three or more such episodes in each of the preceding three years SIGN 2010, Management of sore throat and indications for tonsillectomy http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/qrg117.pdf 44 Vertigo Vertigo:

is a symptom and refers to a perception of spinning or rotation of the person or their surroundings in the absence of physical movement Peripheral vertigo = labyrinthine cause Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) Vestibular neuronitis: Menieres disease: Central vertigo = cerebellar cause Common Migraine Uncommon

stroke and TIA cerebellar tumour acoustic neuroma MS 45 Assessment of vertigo Most balance problems that present in primary care are not rotatory vertigo, but unsteadiness. A full time GP is likely to see 10-20 people with vertigo in 1y To determine vertigo rather than dizziness, ask: do you feel light-headed or do you see the world spin around you as if you had just got off a roundabout about timing, duration, onset, frequency and

severity of symptoms aggravating factors, e.g. head movement effect on daily activities associated symptoms: hearing loss, tinnitus (unilateral/bilateral), headache, diplopia, dysarthria /dysphagia, ataxia, nausea, vomiting 46 Assessment of vertigo: medical history Recent URTI or ear infection suggests vestibular neuronitis or labyrinthitis Migraine: inc likelihood of migrainous vertigo Head trauma/ recent labyrinthitis: BPPV

Trauma to ear: perilymph fistula Anxiety or depression can worsen symptoms or cause feelings of lightheadedness (e.g. from hyperventilation) Acute alcohol intoxication can cause vertigo Examination ENT incl. Weber and Rinnes tests Full Neuro incl cerebellar testing + gait. Particularly looking for nystagmus 47 Assessment of vertigo: specific tests Rombergs test: identifies peripheral or central cause of vertigo (but not sensitive for differentiating between them)

Ask patient to stand up straight, feet together, arms outstretched with eyes closed. If patient unable to keep balance- the test is positive (usually fall to side of lesion) A positive test suggests problem with proprioception or vestibular function. Hallpike manoeuvre: to confirm diagnosis of BPPV 48 Hallpike manoeuvre - demonstration Be cautious with patients with neck or back pathology or carotid stenosis as manouvre involves turning and extending neck http://northerndoctor.com/2010/09/27/dizziness-dix-hallpike-and-the-epley-mano

euvre/ Ask patient to: report any vertigo during test keep eyes open and stare at examiners nose sit upright on couch, head turned 45 to one side lie them down rapidly until head extended 30 over end of bed, one ear downward If neck problems- can be done without neck extension observe eyes closely for 30 sec for nystagmus- note type and direction support head in position and sit up Repeat with other side test is positive for BPPV if vertigo and nystagmus (torsional and beating towards ground) are present and nystagmus shows latency, fatigue and adaptation 49 Features of central causes of vertigo

severe or prolonged new onset headache focal neurological deficits central type nystagmus (vertical) excess nausea and vomiting prolonged severe imbalance (inability to stand up even with eyes open) 50 Features of peripheral causes of vertigo BPPV: vertigo induced by moving head position episodes last for seconds Vestibular neuronitis and labyrinthitis:

vertigo persists for days and improves with time no hearing loss or tinnitus with vestibular neuronitis in labyrinthitis, sudden hearing loss with vertigo and tinnitus may be present Menieres disease: ages 20-50y men> women vertigo, not provoked by position change episodes last 30 min to several hours symptoms of tinnitus, hearing loss and fullness in ear may be clusters of attacks and long remissions 51 Medication used in vertigo prochlorperazine cyclizine cinnarizine

promethazine 52 Tinnitus Unwanted perception of sound within head, in absence of sound from external environment Can be described as ringing, hissing, buzzing, roaring or humming. Classified as Subjective tinnitus: sound only heard by patient; assoc with abnormalities of auditory system Objective tinnitus: sound heard by patient and examiner; caused by physical

abnormality that produces sound near or within ear 53 Disorders associated with subjective tinnitus Two thirds people with tinnitus have disorder causing hearing loss; one third have idiopathic tinnitus Most commonly assoc with disorders causing sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL): age related noise induced Menieres disease Less commonly assoc with disorders causing

conductive hearing loss: impacted wax otosclerosis (rare) 54 Uncommonly, subjective tinnitus is associated with: Ototoxic drugs Cytotoxic drugs (e.g. Cisplatin, methotrexate) Aminoglycosides (gentamicin) macrolides, quinine, aspirin, NSAIDs and loop diuretics Ear infections: (OM, OME, CSOM) Neurological disorders: acoustic neuroma; schwannoma, MS Metabolic disorders: Hypothyroidism; diabetes Psychological disorders: anxiety and depression Trauma

55 Disorders associated with objective tinnitus Objective tinnitus is very rare Due to: Vascular disorders: AVMs; vascular tumours; High output states: anaemia; thyrotoxicosis; Pagets disease 56 Management of tinnitus in primary care Assess underlying cause

Refer to ENT: All patients with objective tinnitus Patients with subjective tinnitus, following hearing test, who have associated SNHL Tinnitus associated with conductive hearing loss when treatable causes not identified or managed in primary care Tinnitus secondary to head or neck injury Tinnitus of uncertain cause Tinnitus that is causing distress despite primary care management 57 Foreign Bodies Feeling of food (most commonly) stuck in

throat / oesophagus If complete dysphagia of acute onset, then very high chance of a FB obstruction If delayed onset of FB sensation after eating, and mild symptoms, could simply be abrasion, symptoms will go in 48 hrs. Refer if not resolved Oesophageal food bolus: coke or pineapple juice, buscopan (IM) or GTN (SL) can help 58 Other 59 VII

nerve palsy Lower motor neurone (involving forehead) Motor supply to the scalp, facial muscles & stapedius Taste to anterior 2/3 of the tongue 60 Possible causes: Traumatic

facial lacerations, blunt trauma ( BOS fracture), newborn paralysis Neoplastic parotid tumors, tumors of the external canal and middle ear, metastatic lesions, SCC, cholesteatoma, acoustic neuroma Infectious herpes zoster oticus (Ramsey-Hunt syndrome), AOM, CSOM, malignant otitis externa

Idiopathic Bell's palsy although traditionally defined as idiopathic it is thought to be associated with herpes simplex virus type 161 Characteristics of a peripheral facial paralysis include: Motor unable to wrinkle forehead unable to raise eyebrow unable to wrinkle nasolabial fold unable to purse lips or show teeth inability to completely close eye (classified using House-Brackmann scale)

Decreased taste sensation Hyperacusis Reduction of lacrimation 62 Need full head & neck examination If Ramsey-Hunt will give aciclovir All will get steroids (40mg prednisolone daily) Eye taping at night and lacrilube if cannot close eye Referral to PCC Will get hearing test on the day and subsequent follow up +/- Ophthalmology referral

Prognosis depends on cause 63 Salivary Gland Problems Sialolithiasis (calculi) Sialadenitis (inflammation) Acute Chronic Recurrent Tumours Other 64 Examination Inspect the enlarged gland and all others

Tender Sialadenitis / Sialolithiasis Non-Tender Tumour More than one gland affected autoimmune or viral (e.g. Mumps) Overlying inflammation might point towards infection Test facial nerve Inspect the oral cavity (bimanual) May be able to palpate a stone May be able to express pus from the duct 65 Sialolithiasis 80-95% in SMG, 5-20% in Parotid

Intermittent pain and swelling at meal times. Acidic or spicy foods cause worse symptoms Swelling appears before, and persists after the pain Most common in 3rd 6th decades Very rarely cause complete salivary obstruction 66 Palpation of SMG openings SMG duct (Whartons) Stone inside duct opening

67 Opening of Parotid Duct (Stensens) Adjacent to maxillary 2nd molar 68 Management Sour foods (sialogogues) to stimulate saliva flow Massaging the affected gland to promote saliva flow Artificial saliva products and/or frequent small

drinks Antibiotics may be required for episodes of acute inflammation (see Sialadenitis) Refer if not settling 69 Sialadenitis Most commonly affects the Parotid (Parotitis) Elderly, dehydrated, debilitated Pain & fever Tender swelling with redness, may be purulent discharge from the duct

70 Management Rehydration Staph aureus is most common organism Flucloxacillin Co-amoxiclav Refer for admission if: Fails to improve after 5/7 ABx Facial nerve involvement Requiring IV fluids 71

Prophylaxis Adequate fluid intake Avoidance of anticholinergics Good oral hygiene (gargles etc) Stimulation of salivation e.g. gum chewing Chronic Usually from partial duct obstruction Refer Recurrent Consider swabbing any duct discharge Refer 72 Tumours

Usually more insidious onset Usually painless Going to be referring under 2ww rules for neck lump 73 Other Autoimmune Sjogrens Metabolic Myxoedema, DM, Cushings, Bulimia, Alcoholism, Cirrhosis, Gout Drug induced OCP, Coproxamol Viral Mumps 74

Referrals (only 5 slides to go . . . . . . ) 75 Referrals Same day SHO Primary Care Clinic - SHO 2 week wait faxed Routine referrals Voice/Balance/General/Thyroid/Oncology written/C&B Audiology written/C&B Microsuction written/C&B ENT SHO through switchboard or bleep 585

Ward 15 (Adults) or Ward 17/18 (Children) 76 Primary Care Clinic Located in Head & Neck outpatients YDH Accessed through SHO AM & PM Mon, Tues, Thu, Fri Usually will get appt within a week, sooner if clinical need. SHO led with support from Staff Grades / SpR Have access to audiometry on the day 77 Otitis Externa

Nasal Fracture Epistaxis VII n palsy Recent parotid swelling (stones/infection) Sudden SNHL Foreign bodies Submandibular swellings usually go via max facs to exclude dental abscess 78 Two-Week-Rule NICE Guidance CG27 June 2005 Refer urgently patients with: an unexplained lump in the neck, of recent onset, or a previously

undiagnosed lump that has changed over a period of 3 to 6 weeks an unexplained persistent swelling in the parotid or submandibular gland an unexplained persistent sore or painful throat unilateral unexplained pain in the head and neck area for more than 4 weeks, associated with otalgia (ear ache) but a normal otoscopy unexplained ulceration of the oral mucosa or mass persisting for more than 3 weeks unexplained red and white patches (including suspected lichen planus) of the oral mucosa that are painful or swollen or bleeding For patients with persistent symptoms or signs related to the oral cavity in whom a definitive diagnosis of a benign lesion cannot be made, refer or follow up until the symptoms and signs disappear. If the symptoms and signs have not disappeared after 6 weeks, make an urgent referral. 79

Hoarseness > 3/52 CXR ENT if NAD Refer urgently patients with a thyroid swelling associated with any of the following: a solitary nodule increasing in size a history of neck irradiation a family history of an endocrine tumour unexplained hoarseness or voice changes

cervical lymphadenopathy very young (pre-pubertal) patient patient aged 65 years and older Do not delay referral with Ix (e.g. TFTs / USS) Request thyroid function tests in patients with a thyroid swelling without stridor or any of the features listed above. Refer patients with hyper-/hypo-thyroidism and an associated goitre, non-urgently, to an endocrinologist. Patients with goitre and normal thyroid function tests without any of the features listed above should be referred nonurgently http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG27 This guidance has been updated and replaced by NICE guideline NG12. 80

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