25 Year Review of Basic Education 28 November 2018 1 PRESENTATION OUTLINE 1. Introduction 1. 2. 3. 4. Purpose of the 25-year Review Thematic Areas: MTSF Priority Areas-Outcome 1 (DBE) Approach Pursued Consultations and Progress 2. Highlights from the report 2 PURPOSE To provide the Portfolio Committee: an update on the compiling of a 25 year review focused on basic education; and
to obtain feedback for incorporation into the final version. 3 PURPOSE OF THE 25-YEAR REVIEW Being conducted by DPME to provide an opportunity for government to pause and reflect on the journey since 1994 To assess the extent to which: o The Government (in partnership with civil society, private sector and other Non State partners ) has succeeded in delivering on the promise of a better life for South Africans o In the case of DBE, delivering on Quality Basic Education Inputs provided to DPME, but DBE plans on publishing our own comprehensive 25 year review of basic education 4
PURPOSE OF THE 25-YEAR REVIEW Report Structure o o o o o Problem Statement why is this a priority? What has the journey been since 1994? Achievement over the 25 years? What have been the challenges & how can they be overcome? Comparison with benchmark countries 5 Thematic Areas: Medium Term Strategic Framework (MTSF) Priority Areas 6 MTSF Priority Areas as chapters Output 1: Improved quality of teaching and learning through development supply and effective utilisation of teachers; Output 2: Improved quality of teaching and learning through provision of quality
Infrastructure and Learning and Teaching Support Material (LTSM); Output 3: Improving assessment for learning to ensure quality and efficiency in academic achievement; Output 4: Improved Grade R and planning for extension of ECD; Output 5: Strengthening accountability and improving management at school, community and district level; Output 6: Partnerships for Education Reform and Improved Quality. 6 APPROACH PURSUED Task Team established and discussed the guidelines Branches provided inputs on respective programs for consolidation coordinated by SPR Consolidation and analysis conducted by RCME Emphasis in the report o NDP 2030, Action Plan 2019, MTSF 2014-2019 o Equity and Redress o Access and Quality o Efficiency 7 CONSULTATION & PROGRESS DBE
o Consultations completed and inputs submitted in July 2018 o Inputs consolidated in August 2018 o Presentation to PME HEDCOM Subcom 3 Oct 2018, DBE Senior Management 5 Oct and Broad Management 25 Oct 2018 & 14 Nov 2018; HEDCOM in October and CEM in November 2018 Provincial Education Departments o HEDCOM Subcommittee members consulted in June 2018 o HEDCOM Subcommittee members updated in October 2018 Public Entities & Partners o Ad hoc direct consultation o Source documents used from entities continuously 8 OVERVIEW: TRENDS IN EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES 9 LONG TERM SCHOOLING OUTPUTS Numbers of matric passes since 1970 450000 401435 400000 350000
ACCESS TO SCHOOL National Primary and Secondary completion rates 100.0 90.0 80.0 Percentage 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Gr 7 Completion Gr 12 Completion 12 ACCESS TO SCHOOL Secondary completion rates 100
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 l a a a t a a o a y c r a ) a a n n r e d ti a a a n h a gi e iqu ha Hai iopi nd ine da des odi epa mbi mbi ibi gyp nisi fric egr yan gua ubli ado bi e of uci ub sta ista a m u L C kh n N b C th Ug Gu S gla mb N Za Ga Nam E Tu th A ten Gu ara Rep Ecu olo Stat int m a me E a
n Ca z n P C a l z u a a n o o B K ur k na S So M ca i M o T in ati
m n i Do ur l (P a i liv o 13 B EFFICIENCY Proportion of children having completed grade 1 by age 100.0 90.0 80.0 70.0 Percentage 60.0 50.0
2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 17 EQUITY Percentage of 5 to 6 year olds with disabilities (special educational needs) and those without disabilities attending educational institutions by province, 2014-2017 100.0 90.0 80.0 70.0 Percentage 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0
10.0 0.0 EC FS GP KZN LP MP 18 NW NC WC EQUITY Percentage of 7 to 15 year olds with disabilities (special educational needs) and those without disabilities attending educational institutions by province, 2014-2017
MP 19 NW NC WC EQUITY Percentage of 16 to 18 year olds with disabilities (special educational needs) and those without disabilities attending educational institutions by province, 2014-2017 110.0 100.0 90.0 80.0 Percentage 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0
10.0 0.0 EC FS GP KZN LP MP 20 NW NC WC Percentage of primary and secondary schools combined with a teacher who had received specialised training in LSEN (Indicator 11) by province, 2017
NW WC SA 21 School Monitoring Survey, 2017 Source: Percentage of primary and secondary schools combined with a teacher who had received specialised training in LSEN (Indicator 11) by quintile, 2017 100 90 80 Percentage 70 75 71
79 75 89 84 89 87 90 90 81 77 68 65 60 50
43 43 45 1 2 3 47 40 30 20 10 0 4 5
SA Quintile Formal/informal training LSEN qualification LSEN specialisation Source: School Monitoring Survey, 2017 22 NSC performance for learners with special needs 23 Support to LSEN (Recent achievements) 480 textbooks adapted into Braille; DBE has provided Grade R, Grades 1-6 Home Language, Grade 1-9 Mathematics Braille workbooks and Toolkits in all 11 languages to schools for the visually impaired; Numerous concessions have been granted to NSC candidates with special needs;
NSC examination now available in sign language 24 EQUITY Improvements in quality are being driven by non-fee schools and Black African children TIMSS improvements NSC improvements (passes, bachelor passes, high achievers in MST) Despite progress, the racial and socio-economic education inequalities remain unacceptable Gender Despite specific barriers facing females, gender parity has been achieved on virtually all measures PIRLS 2016: Girls about a grade level ahead of boys Boys repeat more In 2017, 217 387 females passed matric compared to 184048 males 66% more females complete a bachelor degree at university relative to males 25 OUTPUT 1: TEACHER DEVELOPMENT 26
INTRODUCTION/ PROBLEM STATEMENT In 1994 there was a need to develop policies and practice in teacher development, school leadership and teaching standards with a focus on: o Introducing equity and redress in the allocation of teacher posts to schools; o Building a strong collective bargaining culture; and o School and educator evaluation systems. Before 1994, teacher training in public institutions was generally goverment funded, from 1995 to 2005 bursaries were abandoned for teacher training resulting in financial barrier In 2002, the 110 teacher colleges merged into the 22 higher education institutions and tuition fees were increased, creating a further barrier. Result was fewer previously disadvantaged African teacher students due to unaffordability of teacher training. Unintended consequence of the college dissolution was that rural areas were no longer receiving teachers. 27 AVERAGE AGE OF EDUCATORS 2004 - 2017 28 KEY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS/ACHIEVEMENTS
Redistribution of available resources o educator rationalization - from areas of oversupply to areas of need o voluntary severance package to those not willing to be part of rationalization. Establishment of Education Labour Relations Council in 1994. o Negotiated post-Apartheid pay equalization for African teachers o Mid-1990s, 25% salary increase for most teachers African teachers with four years of post-secondary education Post Provisioning Norms evolved from focus on equality of inputs and poverty ranking to weighted learners ensuring fairness in the distribution of teacher posts 29 NUMBER OF EDUCATORS 1987 - 2007 30 KEY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS/ ACHIEVEMENTS
New and strengthened Integrated Strategic Planning Framework for Teacher Education and Development in South Africa, 20112025 Equitable distribution of educators by maintaining reasonable learner to educator (LER) ratios within the context of financial constraints Introduction of the Funza Lushaka Bursary Programme to attract greater numbers of students into initial teacher education FLBP awarded 120 511 bursaries from 2007 to 2017 at a cost of R7.21 billion. FLBP students constituting on average 15% of the total ITE student intake 31 ENTRY OF YOUNG TEACHERS
32 FILLING OF TEACHING POSTS The percentage of primary and secondary schools combined where allocated teaching posts were filled in terms of categories of compliance level by province Nationally, this value has improved from 69% in 2011 to 78% in 2017. Source: School Monitoring Survey, 2017 33 HOURS SPENT BY TEACHERS ON PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 100 90 80 76 Hours per year 70 60
40 30 51 50 50 44 38 34 39 35 33 28 26
35 37 29 33 37 36 35 40 24 20 10 0 EC FS GT
KZ LP MP Province 2011 NC NW WC Source: School Monitoring Survey, 2017 2017 34 SA CHALLENGES/OPPORTUNITIES Improve development, supply and effective utilisation of teachers. Several studies
reflect this as an area of improvement Professional Development: increases in some provinces but teacher on average spent 40 hours on professional development, half the specified target of 80 hours Filling of posts: improvement from 69% to 78% in 2017 still below the target of 95% in the MTSF 2014-19 Teacher absenteeism: Remained at 10% on average per day between 2011 2017 FLBP: Greater efforts needed for placement in rural areas and poor schools Sectoral response to free higher education in context of ITE 35 OUTPUT 2: RESOURCES Infrastructure and Learning and Teaching Support Material (LTSM) 36 INTRODUCTION/ PROBLEM STATEMENT Development of children is influenced by the physical and social environments they find themselves in NDP and Action Plan refer to this o Goal 24 is about the provision of adequate physical infrastructure and environments in every school
School Register of Needs 1996 provided a baseline database on the provision of school infrastructure and basic services in all schools o o o o 26,734 ordinary schools with an average learner classroom ratio of 43:1. 55% of learners (6.6 million) were in schools without toilet facilities Learner toilet ratio was 41:1 42 % of schools had access to electricity; 40% had access to telephones o Out of the 270 ELSEN schools surveyed, 20% of the schools were in good or excellent condition and only 33% had wheelchair ramps 37 INTRODUCTION/ PROBLEM STATEMENT In 1996 School Register of Needs o Textbook provisioning varied highest in Free State, 63%, and the lowest in Eastern
Cape,38%, and North West,39%. o 60% of schools in 6 PEDs without any materials. Worst at 78% in KwaZulu-Natal Goal 19 and Goal 20: minimum textbooks and workbooks and access to computers and other media (LTSM) Legal mandate in South African Humans Rights Council (SAHRC) charter of basic education rights, Ensures the provision of teaching and learning support materials and equipment. o Provide LTSM and equipment such as stationery and textbooks in a timely fashion to all learners, including appropriate materials for learners with disabilities. o Responsibility for delivering lies with the national and provincial departments 38 JOURNEY SINCE 1994 Introduction of 2 infrastructure programmes: o The Provincial Schools Building Programme through the Education Infrastructure Grant (EIG) o The DBE led Accelerated School infrastructure Delivery Initiative (ASIDI) through the Schools Infrastructure Backlogs Grant Introduction of 2006 National Education Infrastructure Management System (NEIMS),
an electronic planning and management tool 2008 Foundations for Learning Campaign, gazetted by the then DoE, Every teacher must have sufficient resources to ensure the effective teaching and learning of Literacy and Numeracy o Specific resources listed. e.g. wall charts, number and phonic friezes, textbooks, reading series, workbooks and writing materials. o Specified minimum resources for Grade 1 to 6, Literacy/Language and Numeracy/Mathematics. o Minimums were then extended to other grades. 39 KEY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS/ ACHIEVEMENTS Standardisation of architectural designs, focusing on maintenance and ensuring dedicated capacity for the management of infrastructure through 2 policies: 2008 National Policy for an Equitable Provision of an Enabling School Physical Teaching and Learning Environment. Promulgation of Minimum Uniform Norms and Standards for Public School Infrastructure 2013, published legally binding Norms and Standards for School Infrastructure, known as the Regulations Relating to Minimum Uniform Norms and Standards for Public School infrastructure. o Resulted from civil society pressure and engagement 40
KEY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS / ACHIEVEMENTS 989 new and replacement schools built since the inception of ASIDI Further 784 new and replacement schools through the PEDs Schools with electricity increased from 11,174 in 1996 to 99.1% of all schools in 2018 Schools without water decreased from 8,823 in 1996 to all schools having some form of access to water Schools without sanitation decreased from 3,265 in 1996 to 99 % of all schools having some form of sanitation in 2018 41
KEY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS / ACHIEVEMENTS Introduction of the revised NCS with CAPS in 2011, with the national catalogue for Grades 1-3 and 10; Grades 4-6 and 11, in 2012 and, lastly, Grades 7-9 and 12, in 2013. Introduction of national catalogue of textbooks and LTSMs 2011 DBE developed and delivery of workbooks for Grade 1 to 9 and Siyavula textbooks for Grade 10 to 12 in Mathematics and Physical Science. Independently evaluated with positive outcomes Economies of scale from central procurement. Average 200 catalogue cost 2011 of R74.00 in the Foundation Phase, R60.62 for the Intermediate Phase, R96.54 for the Senior Phase and R132.89 for the FET Phase. 42 43 Percentage of Grade 3 learners with Mathematics and Home Language workbooks 1 and 2 by quintile, 2017 100 90 92 95
Source: School Monitoring Survey, 2017 44 Percentage of learners with access to school or mobile library facilities by province, 2011 and 2017 100 90 80 72 70 Percentage 88 84 75 79 77 67
66 62 59 60 52 50 43 45 42 49 43 48 45
40 30 22 20 15 10 0 EC FS GT KZ LP MP
Province 2011 NC NW WC SA Source: School Monitoring Survey, 2017 2017 45 46 CHALLENGES/OPPORTUNITIES 2012 poor delivery of LTSM especially in Limpopo. Verified by Presidential Task Team. Findings: o Poor communication and coordination between different stakeholders including schools, PEDs and DBE o A lack of comprehensive monitoring and recording of LTSM provisioning and the lack of capacity to manage national procurement and provisioning.
Subsequent developments and policies that have supported LTSMs were developed or strengthened following the 2012/13 challenges. Graded readers in African languages need detailed work and standards for provisioning 47 CHALLENGES/OPPORTUNITIES Extensive civil society pressure and court cases before introduction of Infrastructure Norms Strengthening the Infrastructure norms in response to 2017/18 court cases. o Implementation plans received from PEDs should be made public Sanitation audit showed there is still a challenge with unsafe pit toilets Need to build new facilities Need to destroy old unsafe facilities Poor maintenance of school infrastructure contributing to the early deterioration of new school infrastructure, especially sanitation
Vandalism and crime within communities 48 INFRASTRUCTURE FUNCTIONALITY BY PROVINCE 2017 Province EC FS GT KZ LP MP NC NW WC SA Running water 74.2% 78.4% 95.9% 54.6% 87.4% 80.2%
96.3% 79.9% Source: School Monitoring Survey, 2017 49 OUTPUT 3 : ASSESSMENT 50 INTRODUCTION/ PROBLEM STATEMENT 1994, racially differentiated education system with 19 different departments of education, each maintaining different standards and administering its own examinations. Only systemic assessment instrument in the pre-Apartheid system was the Grade 12 (matriculation) examination with inconsistent quality and little emphasis on school-based formative assessments Grade 12 exam and was administered in different forms in the various departments using a fragmented curriculum framework. Measuring progress in learning outcomes is, essential for monitoring development at a country-level. It provides the rationale for strengthening measurement through assessment
51 JOURNEY SINCE 1994 A single national Department of Education was tasked with establishing a single national examination system - with common content and common standards for examinations, administration, moderation, analysis, and certification. From 1994, the provincial administration of the Grade 12 summative assessment was effected as a feature of the education system Extensive discussion of Assessments in Action Plan and NDP. Assessment data availability underpins several Action Plan Goals 52 KEY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS / ACHIEVEMENTS Standard of the NSC has improved. DBE benchmarked the NSC question papers and qualifications against international institutions. Consensus among these institutions that the questions are well designed by international standards and assess what they purport to assess. o 2007, 10 NSC subjects were benchmarked against those of the Scottish Qualification Authority (SQA), Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) and the Board of Studies in New South Wales (BSNSW) Australia.
o 2011, 7 subjects were benchmarked with the SQA, CIE, BSNSW and Higher Education South Africa (HESA) o 2016, 10 NSC subjects were benchmarked with Universities South Africa (USAF) o 2017, 6 subjects were benchmarked with CIE. 53 THE NUMBER OF STUDENTS OBTAINING THE MATRIC, 1994 2016 54 KEY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS / ACHIEVEMENTS
Matric passes increased by 50% between 1994 -2017 Bachelors-level passes grew by around 100%. An increase in the number of learners reaching critical performance thresholds, such as marks of 50, 60 and 70 percent in Maths and Science Increase in the number of black learners obtaining a mark of 60 in mathematics increased by as much as 65%, 55 KEY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS / ACHIEVEMENTS Participate in 3 regional/ international assessments Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) in Grade 8 mathematics and science conducted in 1995 and 1999, Grade 8 and 9 in 2002, and Grade 9 2011 and 2015 Participated in TIMSS Numeracy in Grade 5 in 2015;
Southern and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) for Grade 6 reading and mathematics conducted in 2000, 2007 and 2013; Progress in International Reading and Literacy Study (PIRLS) in Grade 5 in 2006, 2011, and included Grade 4 in 2011 and 2016 in 56 KEY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS / ACHIEVEMENTS Introduction of systemic evaluations on a 5-year cycle on random samples of public schools at either Grade 3, 6 or 9. Introduction of the Universal and Verification ANAs from 2011 2015 especially in primary schools Grade 1-6 and Grade 9 Initial introduction of the National Assessment Integrated Framework with 3 distinct tiers: o Systemic Assessment, sample-based, and administered in Grades 3, 6 and 9, once every three years
o Diagnostic Assessment, administered by teachers in the classroom for learning o Summative Assessment, as a national examination, administered in selected grades and subjects. It will also be used for promotion/progression purposes. 57 CHALLENGES/OPPORTUNITIES Need for a streamlined and coordinated system of assessments that teachers implement Reduce the administrative burden Fulfils key objectives for formative and diagnostic assessment Measurement of learning in a system oriented around learning as the core business The ANA experience A new redesigned Systemic Evaluation In time (2021?) this may include a universal assessment in at least one grade, though it is not certain whether it will happen in a primary school grade (to encourage mutual accountability between schools and communities as envisaged in the NDP); 58 OUTPUT 4: IMPROVED GRADE R AND PLANNING FOR EXTENSION OF ECD
59 OUTPUT 4: PROBLEM STATEMENT The early years of a childs life are critical for the acquisition of concepts, skills and attitudes that lay the foundation for lifelong learning. SDG Target 4.2: Ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education. 60 ECD: JOURNEY SINCE 1994 The 1995 White Paper on Education and Training prioritised the development of a strategic plan for inter-sectoral collaboration; National Early Learning Development Standards (NELDS), 2009 National Curriculum Framework (NCF) for children from Birth to Four, 2015 National Integrated Policy for Early Childhood
Development, 2015 61 ECD: ACHIEVEMENTS Expansion of the Grade R programme 241 525 enrolments in 2001 to 839 515 in 2017 Nearly 95% of children entering Grade 1 have attended Grade R Education participation amongst young children has increased substantially E.g. 40% of 5 year-olds in 2002 increased to nearly 90% in 2017 62 CHALLENGES: QUALITY OF SERVICE PROVISION Grade R impact evaluation (2013) On average, the effect found was equivalent to only 6% of a year of learning in mathematics and 25% for home language Effects concentrated in stronger provinces and wealthier schools An extra year of schooling at a weakly functioning schools adds little benefit
Two main quality drivers: Practitioner qualifications (slow to change) Pedagogical knowledge (better in-service support) 63 CHALLENGES: QUALITY OF SERVICE PROVISION ECD Practitioner Qualifications by Province (not including Grade R at schools) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% ee r F e
at t S ng e ut a G rn e t s Ea pe a C < Grade 12 th r No
W t es Grade 12 rn e t es W pe a C rn e rth o N ABET Level
pe a C Other al ga t n a N ala ul m u u Z p a M Kw po
o p iL m 64 Post-matric al n tio a N Source: ECD Audit, 2013 Degree OUTPUT 5: ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT AT SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND DISTRICT LEVEL 65 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Quality of governance and administration matters (Gustafsson & Taylor, 2018) Concurrent functions are part of the challenge Curriculum and assessment management and delivery. Supply, monitoring and professional development of education personnel. Provision of teaching and learning support materials and equipment. Leadership and management at school, district and head office level. Financial management at school and provincial level. Provision and management of physical infrastructure. School leadership and management is a strategic issue 66 JOURNEY SINCE 1994 & ACHIEVEMENTS A divided and racially fragmented administration 13 departments Substantial policy development in the early years Education Policy Act of 1996 (NEPA) South African Schools Act of 1996 (SASA) Employment of Educators Act of 1998 (EEA).
Journey towards pro-poor education spending Development of an effective EMIS IQMS Development of a credible outcomes planning system NDP, Action Plan 67 Percentage The percentage of primary and secondary schools that could produce each individual school management document, 2017 99 99 99 100 90 80 70 60
82 69 Type of school management document Primary schools Secondary schools Source: School Monitoring Survey, 2017 68 78 81 73 Percentage of schools with the required SGB effectiveness (Indicator 7) by province, 2011 and 2017 100 90 80 72
Percentage 70 60 56 65 60 50 64 54 58 54 60 52 72
71 62 61 57 47 43 50 54 40 29 30 20 10 0
EC FS GT KZ LP MP NC NW Province 2011 2017 Source: School Monitoring Survey, 2017 69
WC SA Percentages of primary and secondary schools having received at least two visits from district officials by quintile, 201795 97 98 97 99 100 94 93 90 80 91 81 76 80
Primary Schools Secondary Schools Source: School Monitoring Survey, 2017 70 SA CHALLENGES SGBs Weaknesses identified in Volmink Report Yet improving SGB functionality according to School Monitoring Survey (2011 to 2017) Appointments of Principals Aging population means we are going through a phase of high numbers of new appointments South African standard for school principals (NB achievement) Competency assessments still delayed (recommended in NDP and Action Plan) 71 CHALLENGES
District-level support A high proportion of principals feel satisfied with district support (84%) But the frequency of curriculum-related visits is low, especially in the FP Substantial across-district inequalities in expenditure, especially in EC (some districts are less successful than others in the filling of posts) PEDs AG reports indicate financial mismanagement in several PEDs Undue union influence partly a consequence of weak PED administration Budget pressures in the sector 72 OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE STATE CAPACITY Better monitoring and guidance to PEDs from DBE Performance and expenditure trends Implementation of PPNs Implementation of other Norms & Standards Partly to be achieved through improving data systems and extending connectivity to schools
Better planning, piloting and evaluating of new policy and programmes 73 OUTPUT 6: PARTNERSHIPS 74 PROBLEM STATEMENT Education in South Africa is founded on the premise of a social compact: The different spheres and departments of government Higher education institutions Teacher unions Parents and School Governing Body (SGB) organisations Business and civil society organisations International agencies, governments and donors. 75 THE JOURNEY SINCE 1994 South Africa has a long history of corporate, civil society
and international partnerships in education, partly emanating from the Struggle. E.g. Urban Foundation projects in response to Soweto Uprisings Three organisations stand out in the early years: JET South African Grant-Makers Association (SAGA) National Business Initiative Overseas Development Aid NECT 76 ACHIEVEMENTS & CHALLENGES Coordination Partnerships directorate established NECT Evaluation of programmes to inform wider implementation 77 RECOMMENDATION The Portfolio Committee discusses the approach
and content of the 25 year review and makes suggestions for strengthening. 78 79
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