EOC Review - Leon County Schools

EOC Review - Leon County Schools

EOC Review See the Escambia County Website for what you need to know for each standard, sample questions, and tutorials. http://ecsd-fl.schoolloop.com/BiologyEOCReview Other review, Jefferson Lab website

https://education.jlab.org/solquiz/ Biology EOC Test Information 60-66 items 160 minutes

Biology 1 End-of-Course Assessment Content Reporting Category Percentage: -Molecular and Cellular Biology 35% -Classification, Heredity, and Evolution 25% -Organisms, Populations, and Ecosystems 40%

Scientific Methods There is more than one way to test a hypothesis, such as through a/n experiment or a/n observational study In order for a controlled experiment to be valid, it must consist of several parts such as a/n

independent variable, (also known as a test variable), the dependent variable (also known as a outcome variable), constants, and possibly a control group. When the results of an experiment are not what was originally expected, we say the results do not support the hypothesis. When the results are as expected, we say the results support the hypothesis.

When the results of an experiment fail to support the hypothesis, the results are still valuable because they lead to further investigation Replication is repeating another scientists experiment to verify results Repetition is repeating your experiment to verify results

Scientific Methods

Both replication and repetition are important because they make an experiment valid. Models can be used when something is too big, small, dangerous, expensive etc. Give an example of technology that is used from science: drones, robots, computers, calculators The word empirical means from data-experiments or observations

An example of scientific knowledge changing in history is: atomic model, def. of planets, solar system (helio vs geocentric) A law is a rule that describes a pattern of nature. Laws do not change. A theory is an explanation of observations or events that is based on knowledge gained from many observations and investigations. Theories can change with new information.

Give some examples of scientific laws you have learned: Newtons Laws, Keplers Laws, Law of Conservation of Mass, Thermodynamics Give some examples of scientific theories you have learned: Big Bang, Continental Drift, Evolution Questions

1. Students made an electromagnet by wrapping a wire in loops around an iron nail and attaching the wire to a battery, as shown below. Number of wire loops Number of paper clips held

10 2

20 4 30

7 40

9 The students conducted a test to learn how the number of wire loops affected the number of paper clips held by the electromagnet. The table below shows the results of the test.

Based on the information from the table, which of the following is the outcome (dependent) variable in this experiment? a.The number of wire loops wrapped around the nail. b.The number of paper clips held by the electromagnet. c.The material the nail was made of. d.The size of the battery.

After seeing these results, Ella wrote four questions in her lab notebook. Question 1: Why did the water level in the test tube go down?

Question 2: Is light needed to change the water level in the test tube? Question 3: Did light cause the water level in the test tube to go down? Ella set up an experiment to investigate one of her questions. She set

up one test tube to look like Figure 1. She set up another test tube similar to Figure 1 but without a lamp, and placed it in a dark closet. A day later, Ella checked the water level in each test tube. Which question could best be answered with Ellas experiment? A.

B. C. D. Question 1

Question 2 Question 3 Question 4 Question 4: Would a different type

of plant change the water level in the test tube? Researchers grew some bacteria in a lab and tested them in several trials. The results are shown in the table.

In this experiment, which trial served as the control? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4

6. Keesha did an experiment to study the rate of photosynthesis in the water plant Elodea. She placed a piece of Elodea in a beaker of water and set the beaker 10 centimeters (cm) from a light source. Keesha counted the bubbles released from the plant every minute for five minutes (min). She repeated the process two more times. First, she moved the light to 20 cm

from the beaker, and then she moved the light to 30 cm from the beaker. Keeshas setup and data are shown below. Number of Bubbles Time (min)

Distance (cm) 10 20

30 1

30 5 1

2 29

5 1 3

31 5

3 4 31

4 2

5 30 4

2 What is the outcome variable (dependent variable) in this experiment?

A. the number of bubbles produced B. the type of plant placed in the beaker C. the amount of time the bubbles were counted D. the distance of the light source from the plant

9. Which of the following best explains how a scientific theory might be changed? a.All scientists agree to change the theory. b.Data from new experiments could lead to revisions of the theory.

c.Several scientists propose a new theory. d.Theories do not change because they are based on well-tested hypotheses .

13.Scientific knowledge may change as new evidence or information is discovered. Which of the following would NOT be a result of new scientific research and information? A. binomial nomenclature is assigned to a recently identified plan species

B. an endangered monkey species is put in a reserve for protection from extinction C. A newly discovered chemical element will be added to the periodic table of the elements D. a nonnative plant species will begin to reproduce rapidly after

being introduced into a swamp ecosystem. Properties of Water WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW You need to know the specific properties of water that contribute to

Earth's suitability as an environment for life. These include: cohesive behavior ability to moderate temperature expansion upon freezing versatility as a solvent

hydrogen bonding and polarity Polarity of Water Macromolecules and Enzymes

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW You need to know the basic molecular structure and primary functions of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. You need to know the role of enzymes as catalysts that lower the activation energy of biochemical reactions.

You need to know how factors such as pH and temperature affect enzyme activity. Enzymes and Activation Energy

Questions Review Sample Questions in packet (#1, 20, 22) Do questions from Escambia website Review workbook questions, Unit 1

Food Webs and Energy Transfer WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW You need to know how to use a food web to identify producers, consumers, and decomposers. You need to know the pathway of energy transfer through trophic

levels and the reduction of available energy at successive trophic levels. You need to know how matter and energy move through the water and carbon cycles.

Energy is transferred from the organism being consumed to the consumerarrows show

energy transfer Carbo n Cycle

Populations WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW You need to know how population size is determined by births, deaths, immigration, emigration and limiting factors.

You need to be able to use data about population dynamics, abiotic factors, and biotic factors to explain a change in carrying capacity and population size in an ecosystem. You need to know that different types of organisms exist within aquatic systems due to chemistry, geography, light, depth, salinity, and/or temperature. You need to know the potential changes in an ecosystem resulting from seasonal

variations, climate changes and/or succession. You need to know the positive or negative consequences that result from a reduction in biodiversity. Population-Limiting Factors

Density independent-Any factor in the environment that does not depend on the number of members in a population per unit area Ex) weather, fire, pollution Density dependent- Any factor in the environment that depends on the number of members in a population per unit area

Ex) biotic factors, disease, competition, parasites Exponential Growth All populations grow exponentially until limiting

factors slow the populations growth Logistic Growth The populations

growth slows or stops following exponential growth, at the populations carrying capacity.

Reproductive Patterns r strategists Smaller

Shorter life span Many offspring k strategists Larger

Longer span Fewer offspring Water Ecosyste

ms Questions Review Sample Questions in packet (#17, 18, 19) Do questions from Escambia website

Review workbook questions, Unit 2 Cell Theory WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW... You need to know the cell theory and how continuous investigations

and/or new scientific information influenced the development of cell theory. You need to know how scientific claims are evaluated through scientific argumentation, critical and logical thinking and consideration of alternative explanations, in the context of cell theory.

You need to know the difference between theories and laws and be able to explain how a theory is developed. Cells WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW...

You need to know the general structures of plant and animal cells and how plant and animal cells are alike and different. You need to know the general structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and how they are alike and different. You need to know how the structure relates to the function for the components of

plant or animals cells. Structures you need to know are the cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, plasmids, ribosomes, flagella, nucleus, nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, microtubules, microfilaments, vacuoles, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, chloroplasts, lysosomes, and cilia You need to understand the role of the cell membrane as a highly selective barrier

that carries out passive and active transport. Plant/Animal Cells-see chart on TB pggs. 258-259

Transport in membrane Photosynthesis and Cellular

Respiration WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW You need to know how photosynthesis and cellular respiration are related (that the products of one are the reactants of the other). You need to know the reactants, products and basic functions of

photosynthesis, aerobic, and anaerobic respiration. You need to understand how ATP is connected with energy transfers within the cell. You need to know that photosynthesis stores energy while cellular respiration releases energy.

Mitosis and Meiosis WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW... You need to know the differences and similarities in the processes of mitosis and meiosis and relate these to the processes of sexual and asexual

reproduction. You need to know how mitosis and meiosis lead to genetic variation. You need to know the relationship between mutation, cell cycle, and uncontrolled cell growth potentially resulting in cancer. You need to know the cell cycle, including the process of mitosis and be able

to explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during sexual reproduction. Cell Cycle

Genetics WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW You need to know how to use Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment to analyze patterns of inheritance. You need to know how dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked,

polygenic, and multiple allele modes of inheritance cause observed inheritance patterns. Monohybrid Cross Punnett Squares

help us to predict possible outcomes of specific crosses of alleles

We can determine possible genotypes (alleles) and phenotypes (trait expressed)

Sex Linked Traits

Blood Types and Genetics Blood types show codominanceno type is dominant to other types

Dihybrid Crosses DNA Replication WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

You need to know the basic process of DNA replication and how it relates to the transmission and conservation of genetic information. You need to know that mutations in the DNA sequence may or may not result in phenotypic change and how mutations in gametes may result in phenotypic changes in offspring.

You need to know the basic processes of transcription and translation and how they result in gene expression. You will also need to know that the basic processes of DNA are universal in organisms. You need to know that similarities in the genetic codes of organisms are due to common ancestry and the process of inheritance.

DNA Replicatio n

Using the genetic code to make proteins: Transcription

and Translation Biotechnology What You Need to Know

You need to understand how biotechnology impacts individuals, society, and/or the environment. You will be given scenarios with specific examples and asked to determine the impact. Immune System and Pathogens

(Bacteria/Viruses) What You Need to Know You need to know the basic functions of the human immune system. You need to understand specific and non-specific immune responses. You need to know how the human immune system responds to

vaccines and/or antibiotics. You need to know how genetic factors, environmental factors, and pathogenic agents affect both individual and public health. Origins of Life

What You Need To Know You need to know the scientific explanations of the origin of life on Earth. Miller-Urey Experiment

Demonstrated how organic molecules could have formed under the conditions of early Earth

Endosymbiont Theory-how eukaryotic cells evolved Natural Selection

What You Need To Know You need to know the conditions required for natural selection to occur. These include: overproduction of offspring, inherited variation, and the struggle to survive, which result in differential reproductive success.

You need to understand genetic drift and gene flow. You need to know how mutation and genetic recombination increase genetic variation. H-W equilibrium (Hardy-Weinberg)

Evolution What You Need to Know You need to know how the theory of evolution is supported by evidence from the fossil record, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography, molecular biology, and

observed evolutionary change. You need to know trends in hominid evolution from early ancestors to modern humans including brain size, jaw size, language and manufacture of tools. This benchmark will be assessed together with nature of science benchmarks. You will need to draw scientific conclusions based on the evidence or scenario given.

You need to know the differences between a theory and a law and know how a theory is developed over time. You need to know how specific scientists (Darwin, Lyell, Malthus, Mendel, Wallace) contributed to the theory of evolution. (see https://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/history_14)

Embryology Human Evolution-see chart in EOC notebook

Note changes in the skull shape and size, jaw and chin The Brain-see your diagram in EOC notebook What You Need to Know

You will be asked to identify the major parts of the brain on a diagram. Items are limited to the following: cerebrum cerebellum pons

medulla oblongata brain stem frontal lobe parietal lobe occipital lobe

temporal lobe Plant Structures-see handouts/flower lab What You Need to Know

You need to know how the structures of plant tissues and organs are directly related to their roles in physiological processes. Plant organs are limited to roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruit and cones. Physiological processes are limited to photosynthesis, cellular respiration, transpiration, and reproduction.

Plant tissues are limited to meristematic, ground, dermal and vascular tissues. Plant structures are limited to cambium, guard cells, phloem, seed, stomata and xylem.

Flower Structures-used for reproduction Classification: Domains and Kingdoms

What You Need To Know You need to know the distinguishing characteristics of the domains and kingdoms of living organisms. You need to know how organisms are classified based on evolutionary relationships.

You need to explain the reasons for changes in how organisms are classified. Phylogeny

Derived Characteristics Human Reproductive System What You Need to Know You need to know the basic anatomy and physiology of the human

reproductive system. You need to know the process of human development from zygote to birth. For the male reproductive system, you will need to know the seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deferens, urethra, epididymis, scrotum,

penis, and testes. For the female reproductive system, you will need to know the ovaries, oviduct (fallopian tube), uterus, cervix, and vagina. Female Reproductive System

Cardiovascular System What You Need to Know You need to know the factors that affect blood flow through the cardiovascular system: blood pressure, blood volume, resistance,

disease and exercise. You need to know how these factors affect blood flow. Blood Vessels Types:

Arteries-carry oxygen rich blood from heart to body, thick and durable-high pressure from heart (aorta is the largest artery) Capillaries-microscopic blood

vessels, thinner-allows for substance exchange-can change size if higher blood flow needed Veins- largest vessels, carry oxygen poor blood back to heart, not thick

like arteries Human Impact What You Need to Know You need to know how the actions of humans may impact

environmental systems and affect sustainability. You need to know the costs and benefits of renewable and nonrenewable resources. You need to know that environmental policy decisions should be made after adequate monitoring of environmental parameters.

You need to know how the environment and personal health are related.

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