Erection , Lubrication, and Orgasm Where is erectile tissue located? Once these tissues are stimulated, parasympathetic nerve impulses release nitric oxide (a vasodilator). What effect would a vasodilator have? If stimulation is sufficient, vestibular glands secrete mucus into the vagina. (WHY??) Erection , Lubrication, and Orgasm,
continued.. The muscles of the perineum (area b/t the anus and external accessory organs) and walls of the uterus and uterine tubes contract rhythmically. Why would all these areas need to contract? Contractions help transport sperm to the upper ends of the uterine tubes. Hormonal Control of Female
Reproduction Functions Hormones are secreted by: Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary gland Ovaries Functions: Control development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics Maturation of female sex cells
Changes during monthly reproductive cycle Female Sex Hormones About age 10, hypothalamus begins secreting GnRH, which stimulates _____________ to release _______ and _______. Female sex hormones belong to 2 basic groups: Estrogens (estradiol, estrone, and estriol) Progesterone
Estrogens Produced primarily in the ovaries Stimulate enlargement of ALL accessory organs Develop secondary sex characteristics: Development of breasts and ductile system of mammary glands Increased deposits of adipose tissue subcutaneously and in breasts, thighs, and
buttocks Increased vascularization of the skin Progesterone Also produced primarily in the ovaries Promotes changes in the uterus during reproductive cycle Affects mammary glands Helps regulate secretion of gonadotropins from _________ gland
Female Reproductive Cycle AKA, menstrual cycle Regular, recurring changes in the uterine lining Ovarian cycle: changes in the ovaries (occurs along with menstrual cycle) Menarche: females first menstrual cycle Female Reproductive Cycle, continued..
Hypothalamus secretes ____________, which stimulates the _________ to secrete _______ and ______. FSH stimulates maturation of an ovarian follicle. LH stimulates ovarian cells to produce testosterone, which is used to produce estrogens. Female Reproductive Cycle, continued..
Follicular cells produce estrogens: Maintain secondary sex characteristics Cause uterine lining to thicken While follicle matures (1st 14 days of cycle), the estrogens secreted INHIBIT release of LH by the anterior pituitary gland. Once follicle is mature, LH is released. Female Reproductive Cycle, continued..
The released store of LH weakens and ruptures the bulging follicular wall, releasing the oocyte from the ovary. (What is this step called?) The empty follicle fills with blood, clots, and forms a temporary glandular structure called the corpus luteum. Corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogens.
Female Reproductive Cycle, continued.. Corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogens: Progesterone causes the endometrium to become more vascular and glandular. Estrogens and progesterones inhibit release of LH and FSH from _______, so no new follicles develop while corpus luteum is active.
Female Reproductive Cycle, continued.. If egg is unfertilized, corpus luteum begins to degenerate on about day 24 of cycle, becoming a corpus albicans What would happen to estrogen and progesterone levels when the corpus luteum dies? What do you think is the main source of
estrogen and progesterone in a pregnant female? Female Reproductive Cycle, continued.. In response to decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone, blood vessels in the endometrium constrict: No more nutrients and oxygen to thickened uterine lining Tissues die and slough off
Blood escapes from damaged capillaries Female Reproductive Cycle, continued.. Because estrogen and progesterone levels are low, the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary glands are no longer inhibited, and cycle starts anew.
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