Ethical Issues

Ethical Issues

EVOLVING ETHICAL ISSUES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE Connie M. Ulrich, PhD, RN Lillian S. Brunner Chair Professor of Nursing and Bioethics University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing and Perelman School of Medicine Thank You! Dean Kirschling and Dr. Mary Etta Mills Cynthia Sikorski

UMD and Interdisciplinary Mentorship at NIH 2 It is no surprise that nurses face some of the most complex and challenging ethical issues in clinical care by virtue of their bedside presence and the time they spend directly with patients and their families. The everyday stress and strain of caring for ill patients within complex medical institutions raises significant concerns for the health and well-being of nurses and

their retention within these institutions. The ethical issues they encounter are many, and although they are not often seen as prominent, they are significant nonetheless." Ulrich, C. (2015). Testimony to the Presidential Bioethics Commission under President Barack Obama. On Any Given Day

Informed Consent Medical Mistakes Advance Directives; Endof-Life; Palliative Care Angry Patients and Families Disparities in Care Resource Allocation Issues (Access) Religious/Cultural

Concerns Aggressive Measures Truth-telling

Competency of Coworkers Genetics, Precision Science Privacy and Confidentiality Research Recruitment and Retention Cognitively Impaired Opioid Overdoses Gun Violence and Other Types of Violence Infectious Diseases Ethical Issues

5 Troubling Scenario Modern scientific capability has profoundly altered the course of human life. People live longer and better than at any time in history. But scientific advances have turned the processes of aging and dying into medical experiences, matters to be managed by health care

professionals. And we in the medical world have proved alarmingly unprepared for it. Want big impact? Usethat bigher image. And I think suffering, for me, is worse than her passing. That is the hardest thing to think about that could occur in the future. [When asked if anyone has helped to talk about this] I dont think weve weve gone near that topic yet.

7 Who Will Help And Can We Afford It? 98,000,0 00 45 ,00 0,0 0 0 n

llio Tri . 3$3 3. 5 AGING AND COSTLY SOCIETY 8 Costs Of Chronic Illness

9 End-Of-Life Issues 33% of health expenditures are for hospital care. https :// alHealthExpendData/downloads/highlights.pdf More than 40% of U.S. patients who die with cancer are admitted to the ICU in the last six months of life.

Bekelman JE, Halpern SD, Blankart CR, Bynum JP, Cohen J, Fowler R, Kaasa S, Kwietniewski L, Melberg HO, Onwuteaka-Philipsen B, Oosterveld-Vlug M, Pring A, Schreygg J, Ulrich CM, Verne J, Wunsch H, Emanuel EJ; International Consortium for End-of-Life Research (ICELR). Comparison of Site of Death, Health Care Utilization, and Hospital Expenitures for Patients Dying With Cancer in 7 Developed Countries. JAMA. 2016 Jan 19;315(3):272-83. 10 Advance Directives in CCTs 38% and 33% of those who are Stage IV and Stage III do not

have an AD. Do You Have an AD? 2.62% 55% and 62% of those diagnosed as Stage I and Stage II do not have an AD.

Of those who indicate they have no other options, 48% have no AD. 33% of participants indicate no discussions with healthcare providers on other options. [53% of those who have no discussion do not have ADs].

38.03% Yes No 59.35% Unsure Ulrich CM, Grady, C, Gordon T, Hanlon A, Knafl K, Mao J, Naylor M, Ratcliffe S, Schapira M, Richmond T, Wallen G, Zhou P. Retention in Cancer Clinical Trials: Modeling Patients' Risk Benefit Assessments. National Cancer Institute, Grant #R01CA196131; 2014-2019.

A doctor in California used a video-link robot to tell a patient he was going to die. The man's family is upset .CNN, March 10, 2019 12 Missed Care Ethics and the Use of

Artificial Intelligence Do nurses need help? If so, what tasks would be amenable to this type of technology? What would be the risks and benefits? How would we ensure ethical behavior? How would we secure the publics trust? How would we ensure that information is

communicated effectively and in a clear manner? Majeed, ABA. (2017). Roboethics- Making sense of ethical conundrums. Procedia Computer Science 105 (2017) 310 315 14 Aid-In-Dying 15

What Is Our Role? Maryland House approves aid-indying bill after emotional debate (March 7th, 2019) Does an individual with an incurable disease and intolerable pain and suffering have a right to request death and assistance in doing so? If so, do we have an obligation to assist them? Honesty/Ethics in Professions Code Of Ethics

Nurses should provide interventions to relieve pain and other symptoms in the dying patient consistent with palliative care practice standards and may not act with the sole intent to end life (ANA, 2015, p. 3). 18 NPs and Aid-in-Dying New York Bill No A10059, the Medical Aid in Dying Act, proposes to allow NPs to participate in PAD if he or she qualifies as a mental health professional by

training, clinical expertise, or certification. If deemed as a qualified mental health professional, the NP could be eligible to provide a determination of capacity in cases in which the capacity of the PAD patient is questioned by the attending physician, provided that the NP does not have a collaborative agreement with the attending or consulting physician. Health And Well-Being Of Clinicians Headlines

Why Americas nurses are getting 'hangovers' from their work Nurses face burnout, a high turnover and patient safety errors as unsafe staffing has become the standard, advocates say Moral Distress 22 Kutney-Lee, A., Sloane, DM, Bowles, KH, Burns, LR, Aiken, A. (2019). Electronic Health Record Adoption and Nurse Reports of Usability and Quality of23 Care: The Role of Work Environment . Appl Clin Inform 2019;10:129139 By nature of our vocation we are held to a higher standard than nonmedical professions, and patients

insist we remain unblemished to gain and maintain their trust. We are expected to be both human (akin to our patients) and simultaneously superhuman heroes (capable of saving lives). Alysa Burgart, MD, MA & Katherine E. Kruse, MD Many physicians find themselves well trained in medicine, but woefully underprepared emotionally for its stressors. At the core of our calling to be doctors, sometimes lies both our

greatest strength and the seed of our undoing. Our drive to be the very best clinicians leads us to spend long hours caring for patients, voluntarily cutting into time with our families and personal interests. We have to remember that not all physicians or health providers are burnt out. Many of those who are burned out do recover. But nonetheless, theres a serious issue thats

facing health professionals. Liselotte Dyrbye, MD, MHPE Professor of Medicine and Medical Education, Mayo Clinic; Associate Director, Mayo Clinic Program on Physician Well-Being; Consultant, Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Other Evolving and Broad Areas of Ethical Concern Research (Informed Consent) Global Emergencies (Ebola) Social Media (Facebook, Google, Twitter; Privacy and Confidentiality of Data) Nurses Role In Countering

Misinformation to the Public (Vaccinations, Social-Societal Issues) Genetics 27 TIME, 2002 Duke settles research misconduct case, agrees to pay U.S. government $112.5 29

Therapeutic Misunderstanding We worry about Therapeutic Misunderstanding in Clinical Research Misunderstanding: Conflating research with treatment Misestimation: Over or underestimate the benefits and over or underestimate the risks Optimism: Unduly hopeful or excessively optimistic about ones outcomes What Are Our Responsibilities?

31 Facebook staff had access to hundreds of millions of people's passwordsMarch 21, 2019 32 Some Common Genetics Topics Pre-symptomatic genetic testing Genetic discrimination Testing of minors Disclosure of incidental

findings Conflicting and/or interdependency of goals/actions within family units Privacy vs. duty to warn Prenatal & Preconception testing Genetic Determinism vs. Uncertainty Newborn Screening Legal status of DNA ownership Perlmutters vs. Peerenboom

Labs & Hospital profit from selling DNA Courtesy Shana Merrill, Lacks Genetic Counselor, UPenn ofHenrietta Disclosure of consanguinity & nonpaternity Direct to consumer marketing Gene patenting Resource allocation and

usage Health equity, race, & genetics Confounding of research and clinical testing Reproductive duty & identity Conflicted interest of providers & labs Duty to return research results Duty to re-contact Gene editing

preconception, prenatal, and post-natal The research and experience of others is the best place to start when looking for your answers. Thank You!

---Gary Keller, 2012 34 Acknowledgements Patients and Families Funding Mechanisms R21 [Grant # 1R21NR010259] National Institutes of Health R01 [Grant # R01CA196131] National Cancer Institute New Courtland Center for Transitions in Health [Caregiver supplement] Research Team of Colleagues and Consultants [Penn, UNC, NIH, UMass, GWU, Duke, UVA, Sloan Kettering]; special thank you to Sarah Ratcliffe and Tianhao Wang

for their statistical support; and my project manager, Debbie Tiller.

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