Ethics - Philosophy Stuff

Introduction to Philosophy PA R T I V Introduction to Ethics What is Ethics Morality & Ethics Moral Philosophy/Ethics Some Classic Moral Problems Some Moral Questions Ethical Assessment & Value Focus of Ethical Assessment Value Introduction to Ethics Spectrum of Morality Introduction Absolutism Objectivism

Relativism Subjectivism Moral Nihilism Moral Skepticism Introduction to Ethics IV Ethics & Other Normative Areas Introduction Ethics Religion Law/Rules Etiquette Aesthetics Distinct Introduction to Ethics Moral Theories Aretaic/Virtue Theory Cognitivism Cultural Relativism Divine Command Theory

Deontology Ethical Egoism Ethical Relativism Emotivism Error Theory Hedonism Introduction to Ethics Intuitionism Moral Anti-Realism & Realism Moral Skepticism Natural Law

Naturalism Prescriptivism Subjectivism Teleology Utilitarianism Introduction Defined Utility Relevant Beings Act & Rule Utilitarianism Proponents Appeal

Costs & Benefits Democracy Moral Intuitions John stuart mill Background Background Education Life Works Utilitarianism

What Utilitarianism Is Foundation of Morals Ends The Pig Objection The Objection Mills Reply Difference in quality of pleasures Basis of the difference in quality of pleasures Preference Higher Faculties Happiness & Contentment

Objection Competent Judges Utilitarianism Standard, End & Scope Standard End & Scope Proof of the Principle of Utility Questions of Ultimate Ends The Analogy All Possible Proof John Stuart Mill Objection

People desire things other than happiness Virtue & Happiness Love of Money Love of Power & Fame Virtue contrasted with love of money, power or fame Happiness Proof of the Principle of Utlity John Stewart Mill Internal Problems Formulation Consequences Response External Problems

Unreasonable Expectations The Rights of Minorities Nothing is Forbidden Absurd Implications Integrity Deontology 13 Introduction Defined Rule-Deontological Theories Defined Rules Proponents Appeal

Kantian Ethics 14 Introduction Theoretical Reason Practical Reason Ethical Works Emphasis Rationalism Categorical imperative 15

The Good Will The Good Will & Qualities Worthiness of Happiness Virtues The Goodness of the Good Will Moral Worth, Maxim & Universal Law Moral Worth The Good Law Example Determining the Good Duty Categorical imperative 16 The Categorical Imperative Law & Will Imperatives Examples

Suicide Lying Promises Rusting Talents Helping Others Categorical Imperative 17 Ends

Rational Beings Objects of the Inclination Rational Beings Supreme Practical Principle Kingdom of Ends Rational Beings as Legislators Three Postulates of Morality Introduction Freedom Immortality God Problems 18 Problems

Duty Inflexibility Rationality Terrible Maxims seem to pass the test Kingdom of Ends Aesthetics 19 Aesthetics Defined Problems Questions Aestheticians, Critics & Artists

Oscar Wilde 20 Background (1864-1900) Life Poetry Plays Prose New Aesthetics 21 First Part Vivian Position

Mirror Cyrils Challenge to Vivian Nature & life imitate art Vivians Case Nature & Art Change in Londons climate is due to a school of art. Nature is our creation New Aesthetics 22 Looking & Seeing

Things are because we see them. The influence of the arts. Looking is different from seeing. One does not see anything until one sees its beauty Example: fog Natures Imitation of Art Effects

Nature Sunset Life Art New Aesthetics 23 What Art Expresses Cyril Imitative instinct Art expresses Temper of its age Spirit of its time Moral & social conditions

Vivian Art never expresses anything but itself Vanity Crowd Not so Art is not symbolic of any age Ages are the symbols of art. New Aesthetics 24 Imitative Art Vivian

Cyril The more imitative art is, the less it represents the spirit of the age. Example The more abstract & ideal, the more it represents the spirit of the age. Architecture or music The spirit of the age. Arts of imitation reveal the spirit of the age.

Vivian: Middle Ages Imitative arts Middle Ages No great artist ever sees things as they really are. New Aesthetics 25 Vivian: Japan

Japanese people as presented in art do not exist. No resemblance. Nothing extraordinary Japan is a pure invention. Painter See a Japanese effect At home Vivian: Ancient Greeks Greek art Athenian women Art has never told us the truth New Aesthetics

26 Vivian: Doctrines of the New Aesthetics First Doctrine: Art never expresses anything but itself Independent Age Opposes History Does not reproduce its age To pass from the art of a time to the time itself is the great mistake all historians make. Second Doctrine: All bad art comes from returning to Life and Nature and

elevating them into ideals. Life & nature Realism is a complete failure Avoid modernity The only beautiful things Hecuba Modern Romanticism New Aesthetics 27

Third Doctrine: Life Imitates Art for more than Art imitates life. Fourth Doctrine: Lying, the telling of beautiful untrue things, is the proper aim of art. Political Philosophy 28 Introduction Social & Political Philosophy Classic problems in social philosophy Some questions in social philosophy Liberty Introduction

Questions Liberty Positive & Negative Liberty Who/What Determines Liberty? Liberty & Security Other Grounds for Limiting Liberty Benito Mussolini Background Life Fascism

Fascism Peace Only War Life Fascism & Other Views Marxism & Fascism Fascism Denies Democracy & Fascism Predictions Fascism Foundation of Fascism Fascism The Fascist State Empire

Liberty Goal & History of Liberty Mills Goal Liberty & Rulers Liberty as Limiting Power History of Limiting Power of Rulers The Tyranny of the People The Will of the People The Tyranny of the Majority Liberty Limits. Rules & Principles The Limit of Legitimate Interference The Basis of Rules No Principle Mills Principle Rightful Exercise of Power Limits in Application: Children & Those in Need of

Care Limit in Application: Barbarians Liberty Utility as the Foundation of Liberty Utility Punishment Compelling Accountability Sphere of Action & Regions of Liberty Sphere of Action 1st Region of Liberty: Inward Domain of consciousness 2nd Region of Liberty: Tastes & Pursuits 3rd Region of Liberty: Liberty of Combination

Liberty Opposition Opposes Ancient Commonwealths Modern Commonwealths Tendencies Against Liberty Emma Goldman Background (1869-1940) Life Activities Works Anarchism Anarchisms Opposition

Objections to anarchism Reply to the First Objection Impractical Stands for violence & destruction Oscar Wilde Existing conditions True criterion Anarchism is more practical

Reply to Second Objection The most violent element in society is ignorance. Anarchism only destroys parasitic growths. Anarchism Anarchism Nature of Anarchism Anarchism Two elements: Individual & Social Instinct

New social order All governments rest on violence. Not foreign Battled Anarchism Only philosophy Anarchism Anarchism Pernicious Influences-Religion Liberator

Strongholds of Enslavement Anarchism liberates War on pernicious influences Religion Property Government Religion Dominates mans mind

Kingdom Anarchism Rid of dominion Anarchism Pernicious Influences-Property Property Property is Robbery Dominion of mans needs

Anarchism Proudhon Monopolizing Productivity exceeds demand Demand Real Wealth Utility Gray & Hideous Things Anarchism Rid of dominion Anarchism Machine & Centralization

Machine subservience Anarchism Anarchism & Property Anarchism Oscar Wilde Perfect Personality Anarchisms Ideal Economic Arrangements

Anarchism Pernicious Influences: The State The Three Government Religion Property State

Emerson Absolute subordination Thoreau Injustice Greatest offense Ouida on the State Demands obeyed & treasury filled Clockwork Destroys State requires Anarchism Bakunin on the State

The state State as protector of property & monopoly. Law & Order Fatal Belief that the state Rests on natural laws Maintains social order & harmony Diminishes crime Prevents the lazy from fleecing his fellows Natural Law

Natural law Machinery of government Obey Violence Blackstone Anarchism Order

Diminishing Crime Order Terror Social harmony Society Authority responds Arsenal of government Absurd apology State is greatest criminal

Failed to destroy Crime is misdirected energy Wrong channels Laziness Free Laziness Present system Anarchism Anarchism

Strip labor Making work Government must be done away with Destroying government & laws Only in freedom Human Nature Horrible crimes The greater the charlatan Cannot speak of human nature John Burroughs: experimental animals

Freedom Anarchism Anarchism stands for Liberation of the mind Liberation of the human body Liberation from the shackles of government Social order Order Methods

Political Machinery Anarchism opposes the use of political machinery Thoreau on voting History Laws Anarchism Representatives Representatives

Corruption Direct Action Stirner Anarchism Defiance Illegal Free Anarchism More on direct action

Universal suffrage American independence John Brown Trade unions Direct action

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