ETHNIC AMERICA Seminar 1 Basic terms and concepts White Anglo-Saxon Protestantthe historical majority Ethnicity: a geography or culture-defined concept (Americans, Hungarians, French, etc) Race: biologically defined, based upon skin color, bone structure, hair texture Prejudice: preformulated judgment about an

ethnic group or individualtheoretical level DEFINITION OF CRUCIAL TERMS Discrimination: practical level, distinction based on prejudice Stereotype: a distorted image, a simplification or distortion of human features for manipulative purposes DEFINITION OF CRUCIAL TERMS

Basic question: what happens to ethnic groups, how do they interact, function in the industrial, technological society? Major force behind immigration process: industrialization What did the industrial world offer: free enterprise, appreciation of individual effort, competition, private property THEORIES OF IMMIGRATION Circumstances,

conditions that drive the individual away from his or her home country: Poverty (Irish, potato famine) Repression of individual, political rights (post 1956 Hungarian immigration to North America) Religious persecution (Pilgrims, Jews) Lack of opportunitiesmost immigration is economically motivated PUSH FACTORS Economic

prosperity Political freedom Religious tolerance Personal advancement PULL FACTORS Robert Park: Immigrants come in contact with new society, enter assimilation cycle Progress from contact to accommodation or fusionleast resistance

Progress from contact to conflict and competition more resistance Amalgamation: conformity to a dominant group ASSIMILATION-ACCULTURATION Milton Gordon: Assimilation in American Life, 1964 Assimilation is a combination of several subprocesses Cultural assimilation: incoming group accepts dress,

language of host sciety Structural assimilation: the extent of which immigrants enter the social institutions of the host country (politics, schools, and the degree of their acceptance) Marital assimilation: large scale intermarriage with host society

MODIFIED ASSIMILATION Attitudinal assimilation: absence of prejudice from host society, lack of nativism Behavior receptional assimilation: absence of discrimination Civic

assimilation: absence of value and power conflict MODIFIED ASSIMILATION The merging or intermingling of cultures was not fully realized Multicultural pluralism: Distinct groups live side by side in relatively harmonious co-existence Horace Kallen: Culture and Democracy in the U.S. (1924)

MODIFIED PLURALISM Four waves of immigration 1607-1787: Colonial Period: WASP, slaves 1820-1860: Old Immigration, still WASP dominated 1880-1924: New Immigration: Non-Wasp,

Southern, South Eastern Europe 1945:-present: Major source: Latin America, South East Asia FORMATION OF MULTICULTURAL AMERICA 1492: Columbus landfall

1519-1521: Cortez conquers the Aztecs in present day Mexico Main goals of the colonization process : finding gold, spreading Christianity Other explorers: Hernan de Soto, Francisco de Coronado SPANISH COLONIZATION Army and clergy works together for

colonization Nueva Espana not as successful as English colonization Why? Tansplanting feudal institutions into the New World: encomienda, Spanish commander gave land to veteran soldiers, Indians owed forced labor to land ownersimilar to European serfdom SPANISH COLONIZATION

1524: Giovanni da Verrazano 1534: Jacques Cartier establishes Montreal New France: Territory of Canada, Midwest, (from Great Lakes to Gulf of Mexico) Early 17th century: Samuel de Champlain expands Southward, clash with Iroquois FRENCH COLONIZATION Main goal:. Fur trade and religious conversions

Jesuits participate in both, converting the Hurons Jesuit Relations: Collection of Official Reports submitted to Provincials Lack of religious tolerance, settlements are Catholic 1643: Captivity of Father Isaac Jogues, captured, tortured by Mohawk, freed by the help of Dutch FRENCH COLONIZATION 1584:

Roanoke Cause of settlement: religious persecution, population explosion 1497: John Cabot: New Foundland Puritans: followers of Calvin ENGLISH COLONIZATION Sense of nationhood Mission concept Chosenness Common law

PURITAN HERITAGE 1607: Jamestown 1620: Plymouth 1630: Massachussetts 1681: Pennsylvania Most successful colonization, business venture Contiguous settlement Friendly terrain

FORMATION OF COLONIES Anglo Conformity: Immigrants should conform in anyway possible to host society 1850: Know Nothings 1890s American Protection Association 1915: Revival of the Ku Klux Klan Melting pot:Crevecoeur, Emerson, Turner Cultural

pluralism VIEWS ON IMMIGRANTS A nation of nations Society of Immigrants A

nation of people with a fresh memory of old traditions, who dare to explore new frontiers DESCRIPTIONS OF AMERICA Melting Salad pot: loss of original culture bowl: ethnic enclaves live side by

side Symphony: : polivocality Rainbow: : Many colors Kaleidoscope: constant change METAPHORS APPLICABLE TO AMERICAN CULTURE BASIC

PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES OF AMERICAN CULTURE AND IMMIGRATION SEMINAR TWO What is the difference between race and ethnicity? What are the different levels of assimilation? What is the difference between the melting pot and the salad bowl?

How does the stage of New Immigration differ from the previous one? REVIEW QUESTIONS Identify push factors and potential pull factors in the text below: In a bloody feud between the Chang family and the Oo Shak village we lost our two steady workmen. Eighteen villagers were hired by Oo Shak to fight against the huge Chang

family, and in the battle two men lost their lives protecting our pine forests. Our village, Wong Jook Long, had a few resident Changs. After the bloodshed, we were called for our mens lives, and the greedy, impoverished villagers grabbed fields, forest, food and everything, including newborn pigs, for payment. We were left with nothing, and in disillusion we went to Hong Kong to sell ourselves as contract laborers. Source Leaves from the Life History of a Chinese Immigrant, Social Process in Hawaii, 2 (1936), 39-42. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1795

Naturalization Act restricts citizenship to "free white persons" who reside in the United States for five years and renounce their allegiance to their former country. 1798 The Alien and Sedition Acts permit the President to deport any foreigner deemed to be dangerous. 1808 The importation of slaves into the United States is prohibited MAJOR MILESTONES IN IMMIGRATION HISTORY 1840s

Irish Potato Famine; crop failures in Germany; the onset of industrialization; and failed European revolutions begin a period of mass immigration. 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, concluding the Mexican War, extends citizenship to approximately 80,000 Mexican residents of the Southwest. 1849 California Gold Rush spurs immigration from China. 1850s Know Nothing political party unsuccessfully seeks to increase restrictions on naturalization MAJOR MILESTONES IN

IMMIGRATION HISTORY 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act restricts Chinese immigration. Immigration Act of levies a tax of 50 cents per immigrant and makes several categories of immigrants ineligible to enter the United States, including "lunatics" and people likely to become public charges. 1892 Ellis Island opens; serves as processing center for 12 million immigrants over the next 30 years. 1924 The Johnson-Reed Act limits annual European immigration to 2 percent of the number of

nationality group in the United States in 1890. MAJOR MILESTONES IN IMMIGRATION HISTORY 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act repeals the national origins quota system and gives priority to family reunification. 1986 The Immigration Reform and Control Act gives amnesty to approximately three million undocumented residents and provides punishments for employers who hire undocumented workers.

1996 The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act strengthens border enforcement and makes it more difficult to gain asylum. The law establishes income requirements for sponsors of legal immigrants. MAJOR MILESTONES IN IMMIGRATION HISTORY Definition of culture: Fernando Coronl: The production of Self and the Other Self: subject, power of expression, agency,

dominant Other: object, muted, dominated, lack of agency, objectified A continuous shift between Self and Other THE MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY Constant shifting of Self and Other via cultural projection Defined by Richard Merelman as: the conscious or unconscious effort by a social group and its allies to place new images of

itself before other social groups and the general public Via cultural production a given minority group struggles against stereotyping CULTURAL PROJECTION Hegemonical : the dominant group describes the dominated one Counterhegemonical: the dominated describes itself to the dominant Syncretization: the combination of both

elements in the description of a given minority culture Polarization: rejection of the presented image on both sides TYPES OF CULTURAL PROJECTION Prejudiced and discriminatory: bigot, open racist Non-prejudiced and discriminatory: institutional discrimination: non-intentional,

school has high admission fees Prejudiced and non-discriminatory: most people, person does not allow his prejudices influence his actions Non-prejudiced and non-discriminatory: full integrationist MERTONS SCALE OF DISCRIMINATION AND PREJUDICE Only a very few Chinese could find houses in American districts, for most house owners do

not want Chinese tenants. They are forced to live in close quarters. The buildings aredark and gloomy, with no bath rooms and no privacy. Source Esther Wong, The History and Problem of Angel Island, Survey of Race Relations, Stanford University, Hoover Institution Archives, 1924. What type of discrimination is described here? EXAMPLES OF DISCRIMINATION Mary Tape San Francisco did not establish a segregated

school for Chinese pupils until 1885. Mary Tape protests the refusal of San Francisco to admit her daughter Mamie to a school nearer her home. Year 1885 Text To the Board of EducationDear Sirs: I see that you are going to make all sorts of excuses to keep my child out off the Public schools. Dear sirs, Will you please to tell me! Is it a disgrace to be Born a Chinese? Didnt God make us all!!! What right have you to bar my children out of the schools because she is a Chinese Descend. Do you call that a Christian act to compel my little children to go so far to a school that is made in purpose for them. My children dont dress like the other Chinese. Her playmates is all Caucasians ever since she could toddle around. If she is good enough to play with them! Then is she not good enough to be in the same room

and studie with them? It seems no matter how a Chinese may live and dress so long as you know they Chinese. Then they are hated as one. There is not any right or justice for them. Source Alta, April 16, 1885 EXAMPLES OF DISCRIMINATION I used to go to Marysville [California] every Saturday. One day a drunk ghora (white man) came out of a bar and motioned to me saying, Come here, slave! I said was no slave man. He told me that his race ruled

India and America, too. All we were slaves. He came close to me and I hit him and got away fast. Source Bruce La Brack, The Sikhs of Northern California (Ph.D. diss., Syracuse University, 1980), 130. RESPONSE TO PREJUDICE Total identifiers: immigrants staying with the original community Partial identifiers: in between two cultures Disaffiliates: liminality, rejected by old

community, not fully accepted by the new Hybrids: fully integrated MANNS THEORIES ON ACCULTURATION Julian Ilar, a Filipino student at the University of Chicago, describes the prejudice that he and others faced. Try as we will we cannot become Americans. We may go to the farthest extreme in our effort to identify ourselves with the ways of the Americans, straightening our noses, dressing like the American in the latest fashion, pasting our faces

with bleaching cream, and our hair with stacomb---but nevertheless we are not able to shake off that tenacious psychology. Always we remain sensitive, always we retain at least a subconscious fear that we are being slighted because we are Filipinos. Always there lurks over us a suspicion that perhaps after all, we do not belong. Source Julian Ilar Who Is the Filipino?, Filipino Nation, November 1930, 13. WHICH CATEGORY DOES THE FOLLOWING REPRESENT? Separation Self-doubt Reaffirmation

A three phase evolutionary process DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN CULTURE SEMINAR THREE THE MACROCULTURAL CONTEXT What is the definition of culture according to Coronl?

Define cultural projection What types of cultural projection are there? Identify the following milestones in immigration history: 1798 1808 1849 1882 1986 REVIEW QUESTIONS American

culture consists of a primary and secondary core (Virgos) Primary core: tangible, and intangible elements Tangible elements: manifestations of an unmistakably American culturesacred documents, artistic output, iconography Intangible elements: four layers Icon: culture specific image PRIMARY CORE OF AMERICAN CULTURE AMERICAN ICONOGRAPHY

Philosophical Americanism: acceptance of the American ideology, reverence of the sacred documents Affective Americanism: Emotional identification with the American past Volitional Americanism: a national commitment to pluralistic multiculturalism Mythological Americanism: Ideological explanations for Americas domestic and global roleAmerican exceptionalism, chosen nation

PRIMARY CORE Separation: 1776, Declaration of Independence Self-doubt: Thomas Paine, The Crisis, 1776 These are the times that try mens souls Rising Glory school at the end of the 18th century George Templeton Strong: We are so young a people, that we feel the want of nationality 1854

EVOLUTION OF THE PRIMARY CORE Reaffirmation: 1837, Emersons The American Scholar: Its time we stop listening to the courtly muses of Europe 1855: Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass, Song of Myself Existence of a patriotic iconography:Liberty Bell, flag Sacred documents: Mayflower Compact, Declaration of Independence, Constitution Hagiographies: George Washington, Patrick Henry canonization

Father, I cannot tell a lie EVOLUTION OF THE PRIMARY CORE 1845: Narrative of Frederick Douglass, an American slave Slave narrative: cultural and physical independence Slave writes himself into being, a quest for being Authentic description of the slaves life Slavery is immoral both for the owner and

the slave OTHER COMPONENTS OF THE PRIMARY CORE-AFRICAN-AMERICANS W. E. B. DuBois: The Souls of Black Folk (1903) //an American Negro, two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings, two warring ideals in one dark body// Langston Hughes: The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain (1926) //We younger Negro artists who create now intend to express our

individual-dark skinned selves without fear or shame. If white people are pleased, we are glad. If not, it does not matter// OTHER COMPONENTS OF THE PRIMARY CORE-AFRICAN-AMERICANS Alexander Crummel, The Destined Superiority of the Negroa chosen race Nat Turner, leader of a slave rebellion in 1831 compared to George Washington Black Manifest Destiny: //Africa for the

African race and black men to rule them// AFRICAN AMERICAN CULTURAL ICONOGRAPHY 1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1859: Proclamation of Mexican-Americans of South Texas (1859) Juan N. Cortina 1929: League of United Latin American Citizens Aztln, ancient land of the Mexica, demanding the return of the Southwest

Cultural figures: pinto: prisoner, pachuco: young rebel, migrant worker HISPANIC, LATINO ELEMENTS African-Americans Separation: slave narrative Self-doubt: DuBois on the souls of blacks Reaffirmation: Harlem Renaissance 1925 Latino Separation: partial Self-doubt: 1920

Reaffirmation: 1965,United Farmworkers Strike led by Csr Chavez EVOLUTIONARY PHASES Therapeutic self-justification-destruction of stereotypes, search for identity, assigning art a political functionculture is a gun Essentialismglorification of Otherness, Black is Beautiful Conation, conativity: belief in the power of

the written world to will social changes into being--Declaration of Independence TECHNIQUES OF IDENTITY BUILDING Versus patterns: black artist v. white artist, White Manifest DestinyBlack Manifest Destiny Myth-making: self justifying intellectual constructs fusing falsehood and validity Functions of myths: explanatory,

projecting, legitimizing TECHNIQUES OF IDENTITY BUILDING I cannot tell a lie Explanatory: Washington close to everyday people Legitimizing: honesty is a model to follow Projective: promoting national unity WASHINGTON AND THE CHERRY

TREE SEMINAR FOUR AFRICANAMERICANS Describe the elements of the primary core What evolutionary stages can you identifiy in American culture? What did DuBois say about the soul of blacks? What are the main cultural figures of Mexican-American literature? What types of identity building techniques

can we mention? REVIEW QUESTIONS 1619:On Aug. 20, a Dutch ship with 20 African slaves aboard arrives in the English colony of Jamestown, Va. 1619 The first black legal protest in America,11 blacks successfully petition the government of New Amsterdam for their freedom 1676:

Nathaniel Bacons Rebellion 1739 the Stono Rebellion (one of the earliest slave insurrections) leads to the deaths of at least 20 whites and more than 40 blacks west of Charleston, S.C. MILESTONES IN AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY 1773

Phyllis Wheatley, the first notable black poet in America Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral 1790: President Washington appoints Benjamin Banneker, a mathematician and surveyor to the District of Columbia Commission 1787: Constitutional Convention, 3/5 compromise, ban on slave trade after 1808 MILESTONES IN AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY The

Negro slaves of the South are the happiest, and, in some sense, the freest people in the world. The children and the aged and infirm work not at all, and yet have all the comforts and necessaries of life provided for them. They enjoy liberty, because they are oppressed neither by care nor labor. The women do little hard work, and are protected from the despotism of their husbands by their masters. The Negro men and stout boys work, on the average, in good weather, not more than nine hours a day....Besides they have their Sabbaths and holidays. The free laborer must work or starve. He is more of a slave than the Negro, because he works longer and harder for less allowance than the slave, and has no holiday, because the cares of life with him begin when its labor end. He has no liberty, and not a single right.

George Fitzhugh, Cannibals All or Slaves Without Masters, 1857 What type of pro-slavery arguments can we discern? THE SLAVERY DEBATE The hands are required to be in the cotton field as soon as it is light in the morning, and, with the exception of ten or fifteen minutes, which is given them at noon to swallow their allowance of cold bacon, they are not permitted to be a moment idle until it is too dark to see, and when the moon is full, they often times labor till the middle of the night. They do not

dare to stop even at dinner time, nor return to the quarters, however late it be, until the order to halt is given by the driver.... Solomon Northrup How does this view differ from the previous one? THE SLAVERY DEBATE 1820: Missouri Compromise 1831: Nat Turner Rebellion 1850: The Fugitive Slave Act-all escaped slaves had to be returned to the South regardless where captured

1863: Emancipation Proclamation 1865: Thirteenth Amendment MILESTONES IN AFRICANAMERICAN HISTORY Distorted images, manipulation of human features Good stereotypes (ST1 by Virgos) Ensure cultural continuity, culture specific automatisms helping to read and interpret cultural products: regular characters and story turns in soap operas Bad stereotypes (ST2) bad knowledge, rupturing the organic unity of personal features by emphasizing

biological, physical attributes ST2 reaffirms Ralph Ellisons observation that the purpose of stereotyping of blacks was not so much to crush the African American as to console the white man STEREOTYPICAL IMAGES OF BLACKS Collective term: SAMBO Childlike, irresponsible, affectionate, and happy Helpless, ridiculous clown, innocent, naive

entertainer Lack of violence, or physical threat STEREOTYPICAL IMAGES OF BLACKS SAMBO SAMBO The wretched freedman-Gone With the Wind The natural slave

The brute negro-black man as a threat The tragic mulatto-product of miscegenation, passing Jim Crow: umbrella image of all blacks after the Civil War Cotton Jim: negligence, carelessness Jim Dandy: foppish, interest in white women STEREOTYPICAL IMAGES OF BLACK males JIM CROW Mammy-surrogate

mother to white children (to Scarlett in Gone with the Wind) asexual, deeply religious, maternal Aunt Jemima, everyones favorite aunt, nurturing, protective, de-sexualized character Marilyn Yarbrough with Crystal Bennett, Cassandra and the "Sistahs": the Peculiar Treatment of African American Women in the Myth of Women as Liars Journal of Gender, Race and Justice 626-657, 634-655 (Spring 2000) STEREOTYPICAL IMAGES BLACK

females MAMMY IMAGES MAMMY IMAGES Jezebel-black temptress Originally wife of King Ahab Main elements: seduction, lust, lack of trust, unreliability, dishonesty Excuse and pretext for abuse of black women

Gives rise to tragic mulatto, offspring of miscegenation ADDITIONAL STEREOTYPES OF BLACK FEMALES Matriarch: undermining the black males manhood, Granny in Richard Wrights Native Son, emasculating black men Sapphire: Stubborn, hateful, contemptuous of black men Promotes subjugation of black women

BLACK FEMALE STEREOTYPES Fight against triple jeopardy, or the triple-bind of oppression: gender, race, and class based subordination. Discriminated for being a woman Discriminated for being black Discriminated for being poor BLACK FEMALES IN SOCIETY

Part of the myth of origination of American culture Slavery as a test for the chosen people of God The Almighty seizes upon superior nations and by mingled chastisement and blessing, gradually leads them to greatness Alexander Crummell The slave thrown into Heideggerian nothingness (Houston Baker) and natal alienation (Orlando Patterson) writes himself into being Apart from captivity narrative the most important aspect of autobiographical literature (John Barbour) Role of religion, race, individuality, and healing Via writing the slave establishes his identity, a quest for

being, description of the life of Africans in an alien world THE SLAVE NARRATIVE Vivid description of suffering, slave as Christ Connections to sentimental literature, luxury of sorrow Briton Hammon (describes Indian captivity) Olaudah Equiano, James Albert Gronniosaw. Educated black Noble Afric An authentic description of the slavery

experience THE SLAVE NARRATIVE An effort to refute and destroy stereotypical images of blacks Exotic primitive Brutal savage Natural slave Wretched freeman Tragic mulatto Autobiographical acts: transfer from object to

literate subject (Elizabeth Bruss) Ownership, control of the slavery experience via writing THE SLAVE NARRATIVE Olaudah Equiano:O, ye nominal Christians! might not an African ask youLearned you this from your God, who says unto you, Do unto all men as you would men should do unto you? (318). Harriet Jacobs Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861) : A human being sold in the

free city of New York! The bill of sale is on record, and future generations will learn from it that women were articles of traffic in New York, late in the nineteenth century of the Christian religion (1748). THE SLAVE NARRATIVE THE NARRATIVE OF THE LIFE OF FREDERIC DOUGLASS, AN AMERICAN SLAVE THE NARRATIVE

It is the wish of masters to keep their slaves ignorant Not able to tell his birthday Mother: Harriet Bailey: darker complexion Father: white man, miscegenation Refuting the Hamian curse Description of the whipping of Aunt Hester CHAPTER ONE I

have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it. By far the larger part of the slaves know as little of their ages as horses know of theirs, and it is the wish of most masters within my knowledge to keep their slaves thus ignorant. I do not remember to have ever met a slave who could tell his birthday. They seldom come nearer to it than planting-time, harvest- time, cherry-time, spring-time, or fall-time. A want of information concerning my own was a source of unhappiness to me even during childhood. The white children could tell their ages. I could not tell why I ought to be deprived of the same privilege. I was not allowed to make any enquiries of my master con- cerning it. He deemed all such enquiries on the part of a slave improper

and impertinent, and evidence of a restless spirit. Every year brings with it multitudes of this class of slaves. It was doubtless in consequence of a know- ledge of this fact, that one great statesman of the south predicted the downfall of slavery by the inevitable laws of population. Whether this prophecy is ever fulfilled or not, it is nevertheless plain that a very different- looking class of people are springing up at the south, and are now held in slavery, from those originally brought to this country from Africa ; and if their in- crease will do no other good, it will do away the force of the argument that God cursed Ham, and therefore American slavery is right. If the lineal descendants of

Ham are alone to be scripturally enslaved, it is certain that slavery at the south must soon become unscrip- tural ; for thousands are ushered into the world, annu- ally, who, like myself, owe their existence to white fathers, and those fathers most frequently their own masters. w stood fair for his infernal purpose. Her arms were stretched up at their full length, so that she stood upon the ends of her toes. He then said to s over. After crossing her hands, he tied them with a strong rope, and led her to a stool under a large hook in the joist, put in for the purpose. He made her get upon the stool, and tied her hands to

the Hook. She now stood fair for his infernal purpose. Her arms were stretched up at their full length, so that she stood upon the ends of her toes. He then said to her, Ci Now, you d d b h, I'll learn you how to disobey my orders !" and after rolling up his sleeves, he commenced to lay on the heavy cowskin, and soon the warm, red blood (amid heart-rending shrieks from her, and horrid oaths from him) came dripping to the floor. I was so terrified and horrorstricken at the sight, that I hid myself in a closet, and dared not venture out till long after the bloody transaction was over. The dehumanizing impact of slavery The fatal poison of irresponsible power was

already in her hands, and gradually commenced its infernal work. That cheerful eye, under the influence of slavery, eventually became red with rage ; that voice made all cf sweet accord, changed to one of harsh and horrid discord ; and that angelic face gave place to that of a demon. Thus is slavery the enemy of both the slave and the slaveholder. CHAPTER 6 Very soon after I went to live with Mr. and Mrs, Auld, she very kindly

commenced to teach me the A, B, C. After I had learned this, she assisted me in learning to spell words of three or four letters. Just at this point of my progress, Mr. Auld found out what was going on, and at once forbade Mrs. Auld to instruct me further, telling her, among other things, that it was unlawful, as well as unsafe, to teach a slave to read. To use his own words, further, he said, " If you give a nigger an inch, he will take an ell. A nigger should know nothing but to obey his master to do as he is told to do. Learning would spoil the best nigger in the world. Now/' said he, " if you teach that nigger (speaking of myself) how to read, there would be no keeping him. It would forever unfit him to be a slave, He would at once become unmanageable, and of no value to his master. As to himself, it could do him no good, but a great deal of harm. It would make him discontented and unhappy."

I LIVED in Master Hugh's family about seven years. During this time, I succeeded in learning to read and write. In accomplishing this, I was compelled to resort to various stratagems. I had no regular teacher. My mistress, who had kindly commenced to instruct me, had, in compliance with the advice and direction of her husband, not only ceased to instruct, but had set her face against my being instructed by any one else. It is due, however, to my mistress to say of her, that she did not adopt this course of treatment immediately. She at first lacked the depravity indispensible to

shutting me up in mental darkness. CHAPTER SEVEN In the same book, (The Columbian Orator) I met with one of Sheridan's mighty speeches on and in behalf of Catholic eman- cipation. These were choice documents to me. I read them over and over again with unabated interest. They gave tongue to interesting thoughts of my own soul, which had frequently flashed through my mind, and died away for want of utterance. The moral of AMERICAN SLAVERY. which I gained from the

dialogue was the power of truth over the conscience of even a slaveholder. What I got from Sheridan was a bold denunciation of slavery, and a powerful vindication of human rights. Symbolic death: I often found myself regretting my own existence, and wished myself dead; and but for the hope of being free, I have no doubt but that I should have killed myself, or done something for which I should have been killed. The desire to learn: During this time my copybook was the board fence, brick wall, and pavement ; my pen and ink was a lump of chalk.

With these, I learned mainly how to write. I then commenced and continued copying the italics in Webster's Spelling Book, until I could make them all without looking on the book. Religious sanction for cruelty:In August, 1832, my master attended a Methodist camp-meeting, held in the Bay-side, Talbot county, and there experienced religion. I indulged a faint hope that his conversion would lead him to emancipate his slaves, and that if he did not do this, it would, at any rate, make him more kind and humane, I was disappointed in both these respects. It

neither made him to be humane to his slaves, nor to emancipate them. If it had any effect on his character, it made him more cruel and hateful in all his ways ; for I believe him to have been a much worse man after his conversion CHAPTER NINE I lived with Mr. Covey one year. During the first six months of that year, scarce a week passed without his whipping me You are loosed from your moorings and are free, I am fast in my chains and am a slave! You move merrily before the gentle gale

and I sadly before the bloody whip! You are freedoms swift winged angels, that fly round the world, I am confined in bands of iron! You have seen how a man was made a slave; you shall see how a slave was made a man This battle with Mr. Covey was the turning-point in my career as a slave. It rekindled the few expiring embers of freedom, and revived within me a sense of my own manhood. My long crushed spirit rose, cowardice departed, bold defiance took its place and I now, resolved that, however long I might remain a slave in form, the day had passed forever when I could be a slave in fact CHAPTER TEN

Chiasmic statements: verbal pattern in which the second half of an expression is balanced against the first with the parts reversed (antithesis) Individual, personal declaration of independence Conativity: belief in the power of the written word to change reality, willing a new world into being SEMINAR FIVE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE

1619, 1676, 1808, 1820, 1831 Name the most important stereotypical images of black males Name the most important stereotypical images of black females Explain the concept of the triple bind of opression REVIEW QUESTIONS 1865:

Thirteenth Amendmentabolishment of involuntary servitude 1868: Fourteenth Amendmentright of citizenship for blacks 1868: Right to vote for black men Black Codes limiting former slaves freedom The formation of the Ku Klux Klan Poll tax, literacy or understanding tests Grandfather clause AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE AFTER THE CIVIL WAR

A legally justified separation of the races Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Separate but equal Jim Crow laws Psychological, social, economic crisis Paul Lawrence Dunbar: caged bird syndrome I know why the caged bird sings [] It is not a carol of joy or glee/But a prayer that he sends from his hearts deep core AFRICAN AMERICAN CULTURE AFTER THE CIVIL WAR

Booker T. Washington Accommodationist, slave mother, white father Up from Slavery Black should not antagonize whites, cast down your bucket where you are[]cast it down in agriculture, mechanics, in commerce, in domestic service and in the professions AFRICAN AMERICAN CULTURE

AFTER THE CIVIL WAR W. E. B. Dubois Free parents Insistence on professional education Talented Tenth AFRICAN-AMERICAN CULTURE AFTER THE CIVIL WAR Black

face theatre Emerges in 1830s, after worsening of the slavery crisis, reaction to the Nat Turner rebellion (1831) Described blacks as unreliable, bragging, licentious, promiscuous, superstitious people MINSTRELSY Coalblack RoseMammy Cotton Jimnatural slave

Dandy Jim Expression of a power relationship---the wearer of the mask implies his domination over the object of his ridicule Crossing the color line, masking own identity MINSTREL FIGURES A logonomic system, a coded discourse of dominance Reverse minstrelsy: Douglas Turner Ward:

Day of Absence (1966) Black actors wear white mask Sexual references Covert homoeroticism MINSTRELSY French Vogue does blackface Not a traditional blackface, no intent to ridicule or to objectify No exxaggerated features

A CURRENT CONTROVERSY Jim Crow segregation Disenfrachisement 1883: Civil Rights Casesprotection afforded by the Fourteenth Amenment does not extend to individual actionindividuals can discriminate, states cannot 1896: Homer Plessy, an octoroon (one eighth black ancestry) challenges segregated transportation Supreme Court develops the doctrine

SEPARATE BUT EQUAL Equality de jure 1900: Richmond Times: It is necessary that segregation be applied in every relation of Southern life. God Almighty drew the color line and it cannot be obliterated Lynchings, 1890-1899 187 per year SEGREGATION

Attacking segregation laws at the court system. Congress was dominated by Southerners, best option: Supreme Court First successful challenges: ending segregation in professional schools (law schools, other post-graduate education) 1954: Brown v. Board of Educationelimination in public schools, with all deliberate speed, 9:0 in the field of public education the doctrine of separate but equal has no place---citing psychological, sociological evidence Segregation damages children psychologically and

socially CHALLENGES TO SEGREGATION 1955: Rosa Parksmy feets is tired Montgomery Bus Boycott Rise of Martin Luther King Baptist minister, provides the movement with an ideology Non-violent resistancebased on the Gospel, Thoreau, Ghandhi INJUSTICE ANYWHERE IS A THREAT TO

JUSTICE EVERYWHERE THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT Segregation is an unjust law One should fight against unjust laws Fight with the power of love against the power of hate Segregation converts the I-thou relationship to an I-it relationship (Martin Buber) Segregation objectifies blacks

THEORY OF NON-VIOLENCE I HAVE A DREAM-the emotional climax of the Civil Rights Movement Inspired by the Declaration of Independence Dream of a colorblind society The speech is made in the style of a sermon Civil Rights Act of 1964 segregation is outlawed in all public facilites Voting Rights Act of 1965the right to vote cannot be denied, or restricted

THE MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT SEMINAR 6 CHICANO CULTURE Define segregation and give examples What was the role of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois in the development of the black community after the Civil War? In what sector of the American political system were the first challenges made

against segregation and why? What is the theoretical basis of non-violent resistance? REVIEW QUESTIONS Virgin of Guadalupe (fusion of Virgin Mary and Tonantzin) Aztln, imaginary homeland of Mexican people The migrant Armando Rendon: Chicano culture has

two traditions: continuous revolt and the Native American element THE CHICANO CULTURAL CONTEXT 1598: A lost play by Marcos Farfn Chicano culture was overlooked Primary reasons: dating everything from Jamestown Oral expression was not highly valued Literary forms not invented in Europe were looked down upon

ORIGINS OF CHICANO CULTURE VIRGIN OF GUADALUPE, TONANTZIN 1550-1810 Spanish colonization, military and church goes hand in hand Spanish explorers Hernan de Soto East to West from Florida Francisco Coronado North from Mexico towards California

1730 Spanish rule in Texas 1763: Spain controls the Louisiana Territory 1769 Spain controls California 1781 establishment of Los Angeles PHASES IN CHICANO HISTORY Mexican era 1810-1848 1809: Miguel Hidalgo y Costillo revolt Mexico gains independence 1821: New Spain collapses

1836 Texas becomes independent 1846-48 Mexican-American War Mexican cession PHASES IN CHICANO HISTORY Anglo-American Conquest 1848-1910 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Southwest is annexed to U.S. Clash of cultures in the Southwest Opposing system of law codes and property rights 1859: Juan Nepomuceno Cortinas rebellion

Clashes with the Texas Rangers Proclamation to the Mexican-Americans of South Texas Mexican people are described as: possessing inward sweetness, lovely disposition towards all that is good and useful in the line of progress Forerunner of ethnic pride movements PHASES IN CHICANO HISTORY 1910-1940 1910: Mexican Revolution Escape from Porfirio Diazs corrupt and brutal

regime Central figure: immigrant working in agriculture, mining, railroad 1929: Manifesto of the League of Latin American Citizens, promotes assimilation, Acquisition of the English language, development of the best, purest, most perfect type of a true and loyal citizen of the United States of America PHASES IN CHICANO HISTORY 1940-1970 Political

identification with the Third World Ethnic self-awareness Bronze Power Movement 1943 Zoot Suit Riot The term Chicano appears 1951-1965 Bracero program, Government sponsored seasonal agricultural labor importation scheme 1965: Delano grape picker strike led by Csr Chvez Aim: better pay, more human working conditions PHASES IN CHICANO HISTORY Chihuahua

+ (Northern Mexico) Mexicano =Chicano Becomes widely used after the Delano grape strike Original meaning: someone suspended between the Anglo and Mexican world CHICANO Spain has been tried and convicted in the forum of history, her religion has been bigotry, her statesmanship has been

infamy, her diplomacy hypocrisy, her wars have been massacres, her supremacy has been a blight and a curse, condemning continents to sterility and their inhabitants to death THE BLACK LEGEND ZOOT SUITERS BANDIDO, LA MALINCHE Stereotypical

images Greaser, promoter Jeremiah Clemens, Villa Cather, George Emery male Elements: ignorance, cowardice, dirt, indolence, laziness Pancho: jovial sidekick parallel to comic negro Latin lover: suave, romantic Bandido: cowardly, violent, attacks from behind with a knife STEREOTYPICAL IMAGES The

people look greasy, their houses are greasy, everywhere grease and filth hold divided dominion (Jeremiah Clemens) Mexican: greaser of the nation (O.Henry) New Mexico: Land of poco tiempo (Charles Fletcher Lummis) Inbred and isolation shrunken descendants of the Castilian world-finders, living almost as much against the house as in it, ignorant as slaves, and more courteous than kings, poor as Lazarus and more hospitable than Croesus GREASER

Female Tricultural person in a triple-bind oppression (European, Native American, Mexican heritage) economic, racial, gender-based oppression dominant image La Malinche (traitor)----Virgen de Guadalupe (pure, angelic female) STEREOTYPICAL IMAGES

Aztln Imaginary homeland of ancient Mexicans (Nahuas, Toltecs, Aztecs, Chicimecas) 820: Travel South to Tenochtitln The land of Seven Caves 1969: El Plan Espiritual de Aztln El Movimiento: ethnic pride movement Rudolfo Anaya: national unity, collective ethnic identity,search for a homeland 1848: Chicano in King Arthurs Court-imposition of AngloSaxon archetype over communal memory Usable past

AZTLN v=vGNnV53q-rM Foundation: Black Nationalism Third World nations Mexican-American awareness of racism Zoot Suit Riot Delano Grape Strike

CHICANO AESTHETIC Brotherhood: hermandad Cultural empowerment Sympathy with the oppressed Emphasis of the spiritual Formation of the New World Person I am a Mexican, and I am an American, there is no reason in the world why I cant be both (Clemente Chacn by J. A. Villareal)

MAIN ELEMENTS OF CHICANO AESTHETIC 1969 Alberto Alurista El Pln Espiritul de Aztln 1971 Armando Rendon Chicano Manifesto 1972 Rudolfo Anaya Bless Me Ultima Curandera Antonio Marez Vaquero MAIN TEXTS OF CHICANO

AESTHETIC -the incorporation of the barrio (Chicano area and culture) into American culture -the re-examination of Mexicos role in American society and culture -to promote the historical awareness of Chicano people -cultural liberation through the elimination of stereotypical images MAIN OBJECTIVES OF CHICANO

AESTHETIC Pre-Chicano period: Hispano Indian synthesis , descriptions of the Southwest Historia de la Nueva Mexico (Gaspar Perez de Villagra) Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca Corridos: fast paced narrative ballads Background: Anglo-Mexican cultural conflict Kiansis: cattle drive from Texas to Kansas Vaquero defeats the cowboy Gregorio Cortez: clash with the Rinches Appears in the Chicano movement: Ballad of Csr

Chvez PHASES IN CHICANO LITERATURE 1849-1910 Transformation of homeland into borderland Cultural, political, economic deterritorialization Cultural conflict, using Spanish language, frequent references to Spanish culture 1910-1940s: corrido 1943: pachuco: breaking the law as a social

protest TIME OF TRANSITION Delano grape strike Ethnic awareness of the 1960s Third World movements of the 1950s Rude awakening of Mexican-American soldiers returning from World War Two Delano movement: defeats the image of the docile Mexican Use of Native American and Pre-Cortesian

images El Plan de Delano: demanding land and justice CHICANO RENAISSANCE Why poetry? Modern form of the corrido More cost-effective than drama or novel Oral readings provide instant audience feedback Characteristics: Myth of Aztln

Cultural disposession Code switching CHICANO POETRY Traditional literary forms Imperative style Prosaic elements Impassioned style Rodolfo Corky Gonzalez: Yo soy Joaquin (1967)

CHICANO POETRY Sweat day long dripping into open space/Sun blocks the sky (Tino Villanueva) Brotherhood with the oppressed Appreciation of nature Economic actor, providing for mainstream America Symbol of economic dislocation, cultural dislocation MIGRANT

Prisoner Migrant: struggle to enter America, pinto: ensnared by America Ricardo Sanchez: Soledad Loser in the cultural conflict Multicultural hero at the faultline between the colonizer and colonized PINTO Rebel,

juvenile delinquent Emerges from the barrio Unique style of apparel, language, and link with Mexican past Jose Montoya El Louie, eulogy for the death of a vato loco PACHUCO Mario Suarez: Senor Garza (1947) Jose Antonio Villareal: Pocho I dont want

to be somebody, I am (1959) Rudolfo Anaya: Bless me Ultima (1972) Antonio: caught between two conflicting desires: vaquero tradition, becoming a priest Ultima, curandera: shows him the way to become a writer EVOLUTION OF THE CHICANO NOVEL Luis Valdez: El Teatro Campesino

Promotion of ethnic awareness, education of field workers Actos: short sketches of the life of the migrant community Mitos: myths invoking Aztln RISE OF CHICANO THEATRE

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