# Every curve has a radius - U of T Physics

PHY131H1F - Class 13 Harlows Last Class this semester on Monday Prof. Meyertholen takes over! Today, Chapter 8 Sections 8.1-8.3: Dynamics in Two Dimensions Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion Banked Curves

NOTE: We will not cover sections 8.4 and 8.5 in this Orbits course. Clicker Question Last day at the end of class I asked: A ball is whirled on a string in a vertical circle. As it is going around, the tension in the string is

A.greatest at the top of the motion B.constant. C.greatest at the bottom of the motion D.greatest somewhere in between the top and bottom. Class 13 Preclass Quiz on MasteringPhysics This was due this morning at 8:00am 835 students submitted the quiz on time 74% of students answered correctly: Circular motion is best analyzed in a

coordinate system with r-, t- and z- axes. If you use x- and y- axes, the x- and y- components are constantly changing! http://uoft.me/rtzcoord Clicker Question retry this mornings pre-class reading question. Class 13 Preclass Quiz on MasteringPhysics 45% of students answered correctly: The diagram shows three points of a motion diagram. The particle changes direction with no change of speed. What is the acceleration at point 2?

Clicker Question retry this mornings pre-class reading question. 39% of students answered correctly: A string is attached to the rear-view mirror of a car. A ball is hanging on the other end of the string. The car is driving around in a circle, at a constant speed. Which of the following lists gives all of the forces directly acting on the ball? A. Tension B. Tension, gravity, the centripetal force and friction C. Tension and gravity D. Tension, gravity and the centripetal force

Class 13 Preclass Quiz on MasteringPhysics Student feedback: I found banked curves to be the most confusing part of the reading. centripetal force is not a force caused by any agent right? it is just a net component of gravity and normal force right? Harlow answer: right. Centripetal force is what you call the net force when the object is traveling in uniform circular motion. whats the point of the z component in circular motion? Harlow answer: Ya, its true you can forget about the z.. Its just there for

completeness. I'm still not totally clear on what the rho (p-looking constant) is and how to use it, in air resistance calculations. Harlow answer: rho = = density of a fluid in kg/m3. ie for air just use 1.2 Class 13 Preclass Quiz on MasteringPhysics Student feedback: All the mid terms are finished and my life is finished. Happy birthday Vanessa T! Guess you could say this was a pretty r(i)tz-y chapter.

what day is the exam on? Thanks! Harlow answer: Monday Dec. 15 at 2pm we have over thousand students registered to this class but usually only around 700 students answer the clicker questions, which mean around 300 students missing from the lecture or doesn't answer clicker questions. is this normal? Harlow answer: The 1000 includes the 200 students in the evening section.

Class 13 Preclass Quiz on MasteringPhysics Student feedback: How do you pronounce the new professors last name? Harlow answer: My - er - thow len Is Prof. Meyertholen as easygoing as you are? Tell us something about him!

Something that he will never tell us would be better! Harlow answer: Yes. He is awesome. Uniform Circular Motion Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

Every curve has a radius r = 730 m r = 75 m r = 410 m Intersection of Highway 427 And Highway 401 Unbanked Curve

Clicker Question Top View r Back View What horizontal force acts on the car to keep it on the

curved path? A.Gravity B.Normal C.Kinetic Friction D.Static Friction E.Rolling Friction Class 13 Preclass Quiz on MasteringPhysics Student feedback:

In the previous chapter, you say the acceleration is zero for the horizontal component, and now, it seems the acceleration is not zero anymore. why is this the case? how do i know when the acceleration for the horizontal component will be zero or not? Harlow answer: Thats true! If the object is on a circular path (as viewed from above) then you know that a = v2/r sideways. Banked Curve Example 8.5, pg. 197

A highway curve of radius 70.0 m is banked at a 15 angle. At what speed v0 can a car take this curve without assistance from friction? Class 13 Preclass Quiz on MasteringPhysics Student feedback: Experimentally, I know that driving around a corner too fast causes the car to skid up the hill. But why? Which part of our formula suggests that increasing

the velocity too much will change the direction of the centripetal acceleration? Harlow answer: to get Fnet = mv2/r, you solve for fs and n. If fs > sn, then thats impossible, and the car cant stay on the circular path of radius r. I don't really understand how centripetal force can be the net force. What forces are cancelling to have a net force that points inwards? Harlow answer: All the actual forces add to give the inward pointing net force. Clicker Question

A car is rolling over the top of a hill at speed v. At this instant, FG mg A. n > FG. B. n < FG. C. n = FG.

D.We cant tell about n without knowing v. Clicker Question A car is driving at the bottom of a valley at speed v. At this instant, FG mg

A. n > FG. B. n < FG. C. n = FG. D.We cant tell about n without knowing v. Projectile Motion In the absence of air resistance, a projectile has only one force acting on it: the gravitational force, FG = mg, in the downward direction. If we choose a coordinate system with a vertical yaxis, then

The vertical motion is free fall, while the horizontal motion is one of constant velocity. Clicker Question A girl throws a ball in a horizontal direction (dashed line). After the ball leaves the girls hand, 1.0 seconds later it will have fallen A. B.

C. D. 9.8 meters. 4.9 meters below the dashed line. less than 4.9 meters below the straight-line path. more than 4.9 meters below the straight-line path. The Curvature of the Earth Earth surface drops a vertical distance of 5 meters for every

8000 meters tangent to the surface. Class 13 Preclass Quiz on MasteringPhysics Student feedback: I don't really understand how an orbiting spacecraft is actually constantly in free fall...then wouldn't it fall down? Harlow answer: As it falls, it is moving so fast sideways, that the Earth curves away below it. It is moving at the exact right sideways speed so that the Earth is curving away at 9.8 m/s2, so as it falls, it actually never gets closer to the surface!

Vomit Comet Physicist Stephen Hawking. Circular Satellite Orbits Satellite in circular orbit Speed must be great enough to ensure that its falling distance matches

Earths curvature. is constantonly direction changes. is unchanged by gravity. Example How fast would you have to drive in order to be weightless ie, no normal force needed to support your car? How long would it take to drive around the

world at this speed? Circular Orbits An object moving in a circular orbit of radius r at speed vorbit will have centripetal acceleration of That is, if an object moves parallel to the surface with the speed then the free-fall acceleration provides exactly the centripetal acceleration needed for a circular orbit of radius r.

An object with any other speed will not follow a circular orbit. Why are communications satellites typically launched with rockets to heights of more than 100 km? A. To get outside Earths gravitational pull so the satellite doesnt fall down B. To get closer to the Sun in order to collect more

solar power C. To get above the Earths atmosphere in order to avoid air resistance D. To get away from radio interference on Earth Image from http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/special-report-the-usas-transformational-communications-satellite-system-tsat-0866/ Clicker Question Image from http://www.zatznotfunny.com/2009-02/sirius-xm-headed-for-bankruptcy/ ]

Circular Satellite Orbits Positioning: beyond Earths atmosphere, where air resistance is almost totally absent Example: Low-earth orbit communications satellites are launched to altitudes of 150 kilometers or more, in order to be above air drag But even the ISS, as shown, experiences

some air drag, which is compensated for with periodic upward boosts. Before Class 14 on Monday Please read the first three sections of Knight Chapter 9, and/or watch the Pre-Class Video, now on portal MasteringPhysics Problem Set 6 is due on Monday evening. Its been a lot of fun you are an excellent class! Ill be back! You will see me again in January for PHY132! I hope you keep coming to my office hours T12-1 and F10-11 Id love to

help! The next test is Nov. 11 on Chs. 4-9, which includes forces and momentum! And I will definitely see you at the Final Exam Dec. 15 2:00pm! Image from http://wifflegif.com/tags/211457-i-ll-be-back-gifs

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