Evidence Based Medicine: An Overview

Evidence Based Medicine: An Overview

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Whole spectrum of the medical profession From 2000 to 2006 we had more than 200 lectures in EBM, MDM, Methodology From 2006 to 2007 we had more than 50 lectures in Critical Thinking More than 7000 slides have been prepared 10 books have been compiled www.soltaniebm.com OR www.ebm.ir OR www.avicennact.ir www.soltaniebm.com www.avicennact.ir

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What is Critical Thinking/P4C? What is the best way of walking? What is the best way of thinking? P4C: Philosophy for children : : : ( ()1956 .1 .2. .3. .4.

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Is inference logical? It is informal induction Fallacious? Yes slippery slope Premise/evidence? 1. Adequate? no 2. Relevant? no 3. Acceptable? May be Find and evaluate assumptions: multiple assumptions make achieving implications unlikely Accept, reject, or suspend judgment?

"" "" . Judgment based on standards to accept, reject, or suspend judgment about a claim and the degree of confidence with which we accept or reject it. 2

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(informal logic) informal logic) ) Socrates Plato Francis Bacon ,. Replaced formal logic in universities from 1941

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Informationprocessing Enquiry Reasoning Creative thinking Evaluation Thinking skills involved in the decision making process Teaching for, of, and about thinking Teaching for:

Changing condition conductive for thinking Teaching of: Cognitive skills, operations, and disposition teach directly Teaching about: Brain function Metacognition Great thinkers Epistemic cognition Arthur Costa, thinking mind2001

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/ Humans routinely draw conclusions in situations. Those conclusions are based on assumptions that usually operate at an unconscious level. 36 555 feet Washington

Monument A Year of MEDLINE indexed journals Humans routinely draw conclusions in situations. Those conclusions are based on assumptions that usually operate at an unconscious level. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. Ad Hominem (Argument To The Man) Affirming The Consequent

Amazing Familiarity Ambiguous Assertion Appeal To Anonymous Authority Appeal To Authority Appeal To Coincidence Appeal To Complexity Appeal To False Authority Appeal To Force Appeal To Pity (Appeal to Sympathy, The Galileo Argument) Appeal To Widespread Belief (Bandwagon Argument, Peer Pressure, Appeal To Common Practice) Argument By Emotive Language (Appeal To The People) Argument By Fast Talking Argument By Generalization Argument By Gibberish (Bafflement) Argument By Half Truth (Suppressed Evidence) Argument By Laziness (Argument By Uninformed Opinion) Argument By Personal Charm

Argument By Pigheadedness (Doggedness) Argument By Poetic Language Argument By Prestigious Jargon Argument By Question Argument By Repetition (Argument Ad Nauseam) Argument by Rhetorical Question Argument By Scenario Argument By Selective Observation Argument By Selective Reading Argument By Slogan Argument From Adverse Consequences (Appeal To Fear, Scare Tactics) Argument From Age (Wisdom of the Ancients) Argument From Authority Argument From False Authority Argument From Small Numbers Argument From Spurious Similarity Argument Of The Beard

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. Argument To The Future Bad Analogy Begging The Question (Assuming The Answer, Tautology) Burden Of Proof Causal Reductionism (Complex Cause) Changing The Subject (Digression, Red Herring, Misdirection, False Emphasis) Cliche Thinking Common Sense Complex Question (Tying) Confusing Correlation And Causation

Disproof By Fallacy Equivocation Error Of Fact Euphemism Exception That Proves The Rule Excluded Middle (False Dichotomy, Faulty Dilemma, Bifurcation) Extended Analogy Failure To State Fallacy Of Composition Fallacy Of Division Fallacy Of The General Rule Fallacy Of The Crucial Experiment False Cause False Compromise Genetic Fallacy (Fallacy of Origins, Fallacy of Virtue) Having Your Cake (Failure To Assert, or Diminished Claim) Hypothesis Contrary To Fact

Inconsistency Inflation Of Conflict Internal Contradiction Least Plausible Hypothesis Lies Meaningless Questions Misunderstanding The Nature Of Statistics Moving The Goalposts (Raising The Bar, Argument By Demanding Impossible Perfection) Needling Non Sequitur Not Invented Here 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. Outdated Information Pious Fraud

Poisoning The Wells Psychogenetic Fallacy Reductio Ad Absurdum Reductive Fallacy (Oversimplification) Reifying Short Term Versus Long Term Slippery Slope Fallacy (Camel's Nose) Special Pleading (Stacking The Deck) Statement Of Conversion Stolen Concept Straw Man (Fallacy Of Extension) Two Wrongs Make A Right (Tu Quoque, You Too) Weasel Wording Recently added or modified fallacies: Ad Hominem (Argument To The Man) modified. Equivocation modified. Fallacy Of The Crucial Experiment added.

Needling added. Pious Fraud added. Statement Of Conversion added. Some other Web sites: Critical thinking vs. Specious arguments The Nizkor Project Propaganda Techniques Related to Environmental Scares Logical Fallacies Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project The Atheism Web: Logic & Fallacies South Shore Skeptics Introductory Logic Elementary Logic Practical skepticism Bruce Thompson's Fallacy Page Critical Thinking On The Web

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. Evidence Based Fallacy Humans routinely draw conclusions in situations. Those conclusions are based on assumptions that usually operate at an unconscious level. 2 /

1

/ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. anchoring anthropic bias anthropocentric bias androocentric bias attribution, attributional bias availability error

Barnum effect base rate neglect behavioral confirmation belief perseverance bias blind spot clustering illusion confirmation bias conjunction fallacy contrast effect cultural bias dilution effect disconfirmation bias egocentric bias endowment effect expectancy effect experimenter's regress false consensus effect

framing effect fundamental attribution error gambler's fallacy group-serving bias group attribution error halo effect hindsight bias hostile media effect hyperbolic discounting illusion of control illusion of validity illusory correlation 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. impact bias inequity aversion infrastructure bias

ingroup bias just-world phenomenon Kuleshov effect Lake Wobegon effect logical fallacy loss aversion media bias memory bias mere exposure effect misinformation effect negativity effect negative perception of the color black notational bias outgroup homogeneity bias overconfidence effect pathetic fallacy peak-end rule

physical attractiveness stereotype planning fallacy picture superiority effect positivity effect preference reversal primacy effect priming projection bias pseudocertainty effect pseudo-opinion publication bias recency effect regression fallacy 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

reporting bias risk-aversion rosy retrospection sample bias selection bias selective perception self-deception self-serving bias spacing effect statistical bias status quo bias sunk cost effects tunnel vision trait ascription bias valence effect Von Restorff effect

wishful thinking worse-than-average effect Zeigarnik effect <90, ok When more than 400 senior HR (human resource) professionals were asked in a survey to name the most important skill their employees will need in the next five years, critical thinking ranked the highest surpassing innovation or the application of information technology. Are They Really Ready to Work? Employers Perspectives on the Basic Knowledge and Applied Skills of New Entrants to the 21st Century US Workforce (2006). Study conducted by The Conference Board, Partnership for 21st Century Skills

2 Hagemann, B. and Chartrand, J.M. (2009). 2009 Trends in Executive development: A Benchmark Report (Technical Report). Oklahoma City: Executive Development Associates. Just because you are intelligent or have great knowledge does not mean you can think critically. A profound genius may have the most irrational of beliefs or the most unreasonable of opinions. Critical thinking is about how we use our intelligence and knowledge to reach objective and rationale viewpoints. Richard Paul 2006 ( )

11.9 13.6 13.4. . What Critical Thinking Is Not Thinking critically is not thinking negatively with a predisposition to find fault or flaws. It is a neutral and unbiased process for evaluating claims or opinions, either someone elses or our

own. Critical thinking is not intended to make people think alike. Additionally, there will always be differences in perception and basic emotional needs which prevent us from all thinking the same way. 53 Humans routinely draw conclusions in situations. Those conclusions are based on assumptions that usually operate at an unconscious level.

55 :

Richard Paul

part-2 Argument : . . . .. . ( . ) () .. Conclusion Premise 2008

Reasoning and Argument Reasoning is thinking directed toward reaching a conclusion. Ideally, it is structured by logic, as defined earlier. For example, one may say to oneself, "This 70-year-old patient of mine has lung cancer, so he should stop smoking," thus inferring the conclusion that the patient should stop smoking from the diagnosis of lung cancer. Persuasion Claim ?opinion? belief? Fallacy approach

Using reasons/ argument Using other techniques Analytic approach Counter example, Absurd example, counter argument Conclusion, premises Valid ,relevant , sufficient

Persuasion Claim ?opinion? belief? Fallacy approach Using reasons/ argument Using other techniques Analytic approach Counter example, Absurd example,

counter argument Conclusion, premises Valid ,relevant , sufficient // ... . .. ...

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. background information . evidence ... ... ... ... ...

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Kinds of Reasons different kinds of reason depends on the kind of issue. Descriptive argument Prescriptive argument descriptive argument evidence : specific information that someone uses to furnish "proof" for something she is trying to claim is true Prescriptive arguments no evidenc) e is presented o Reasons are typically either

general, prescriptive statements, or descriptive beliefs or principles . Note that no evidence is presented The reasons are general principles that indicate the writer's view prescriptive issues: Ethical, or moral. raise questions about what is right or wrong, desirable or undesirable, good .or bad Social controversies are often

prescriptive issues. . . References The Foundations Of Analytic Thinking How To Take Thinking Apart And What To Look For When You Do;By Dr. Linda Elder and Dr. Richard Paul Critical Thinking: Teaching College and University Students to Think Critically and Evaluate; By G.Haskin

Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts; By Peter A. Facione1998 Critical Thinking; By Robin Wood 2002 Critical Thinking Skills in the College Curriculum; The Academic Senate for California Community Colleges April 1988 83

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