Evolution - Weebly

Evolution - Weebly

Copy the following questions onto a sheet of paper. Leave space for answers! 1. 2. 3. 4. Describe the valley of fire.

What determined the dominant coat color in mice? How did a new coat color arise? Does evolution occur quickly? How long did it take for the pocket mice population to evolve? 5. Define natural selection. Is this process random? 6. How did scientists prove natural selection to be a specific change? 7. If a volcanic eruption were to occur again and cover all sandy

parts of the valley of fire how might the pocket mice population change? INTRODUCTION INTO EVOLUTION (CLICK PICTURE) EVOLUTION NOTES

What can account for the diversity of life? I. Evolution accounts for the diversity of life on Earth Evolution = change in gene frequency within a population over time process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms

II. Theories of Evolution A. Scientific theory a well supported testable explanation of natural phenomena ex: theory of gravity, plate techtonics NOT a guess or hunch B. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck theory of evolution 1809

Lamarcks theory: by selective use or disuse of organs, organisms acquired or lost traits during their lifetime; these traits could then be passed on to their offspring Problem: Lamarck did not know how traits were inherited ex: giraffe acquired long neck by

stretching for food You inherit blue eyes or curly hair from your parents. You acquire athletic skills or the ability to play a musical instrument C. Charles Darwin contributed more to our

understanding of evolution than anyone Darwins theory: Over time, natural selection results in changes in inherited traits of a population III. Ideas that shaped Darwins thought on evolution A. Made observations, collected evidence in Galapagos Islands off coast of S. America; voyaged

on a boat called HMS Beagle in 1831 -observed similar species well suited to the environment they inhabited -traits of similar species varied noticeably among different islands of the Galapagos ex: tortoises and finches -hypothesized that animals adapted to local conditions on

islands after their arrival B. James Hutton and Charles Lyell studied geology in the early 1800s helped scientists recognize that Earth is many millions of years old; older than anyone believed

C. Thomas Malthus and human population growth 1798 if the human population continued to grow unchecked sooner or later there would be insufficient living space and food creating a struggle to survive

D. Farmers and artificial selection -- nature provides the variation humans select those variations they find useful ex: cows and milk production, hogs and muscle, horses and speed Ticket Out

Describe how the following scientists influenced Darwin: Malthus Lamarck Hutton and Lyell IV. Evolution by natural selection proposed by Darwin in On the

Origin of Species, 1859 A. Struggle for existence more offspring are produced than can survive; members of each species compete to obtain food, living space and other necessities of life B. Survival of the Fittest = Natural Selection (mechanism for evolution)

individuals with an adaptation that makes them more fit for a certain environment will survive and reproduce at a higher rate adaptation -- inherited characteristic (trait) that increases an organisms chance of survival Ex: hibernation allows body metabolism to slow so animal can survive long periods with limited

food available fitness ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment C. Descent with modification - each living species has descended, with changes, from a common ancestor Common descent:

-- all species (extant and extinct) were derived from common ancestor -- a single tree of life links all living things V. Evidence of evolution A. Fossil record - examples of many species that have

lived for a time and then became extinct B. Geographical distribution of living specieslooking at similar environments on different continents, animals

had similar anatomies and behavior because of adaptation Ex: beaver (N. America) and capybara (S. America) muskrat (N. America) and coypu (S. America) Beaver

Beaver Muskrat Muskrat Beaver and Muskrat

Coypu Capybara Coypu and Capybara Capybara Coypu

C. Homologous (similar or corresponding) body structuresstructures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissues; strong evidence that all four-limbed vertebrates have descended from a common ancestor Homologous Body Structures

Turtle Alligator Ancient lobe-finned fish Bird

Mammal D. Vestigial organsorgans so reduced in size that they are just vestiges (traces) of homologous organs in other species ex: tail bones, appendix (?), tiny leg bones in boas and pythons, wisdom teeth, hip bones in whales

WARM UP 1/6/2016 What is the definition of evolution? Who is the major contributor to Evolution? How was his idea different than Lamarck? E. Similarities in

embryologyearly stages (embryos) of many vertebrate animals are very similar Which of these is an example of evolution and why?

A year or 2 of drought occurs in which a population of beetles have few plants to eat. The beetles in this population are a little smaller than the preceding generation. 90% of the beetles in a population have a gene for bright color, but 10% have a gene from brown color. Some number of generations later brown beetles comprise 70% of the population.

VI. EVOLUTION OF POPULATIONS (Chapter 16 p. 392-410) A. Population a group of individuals of the same species that interbreed Gene pool all the genes of all the members of a particular population (all alleles) Evolution (in genetic terms) -any change in the relative frequency of alleles in a population

B. Sources of genetic variation within a population 1. Mutationschange in the sequence of DNA; if beneficial mutation trait will increase in the population 2. Recombination genes combining in new ways during production of gametes and crossing over

(meiosis) 3. Gene flow transfer of genes between populations ex: people moving from one country to another; migration of animals to another population When U.S. soldiers had

children in Southeast Asia with Vietnamese women during the Vietnam War, they altered the gene pool frequencies of the Vietnamese population.

VII. Evolution as genetic change A. Evolution by Natural selection: -acts on entire populations not just individual organisms. -never acts directly on genes entire organisms survive to reproduce, or die and do not reproduce. Natural Selection alters phenotypes in 3 ways

1. Directional Selection 2. Stabilizing Selection 3. Disruptive Selection a. directional selection individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness ex. anteaters with long tongue better for capturing ants

b. stabilizing selection individuals near center of curve have higher fitness ex. Human baby weight at birth too small low survival, but too large difficult birth c. disruptive selection upper and lower ends of curve have higher fitness

ex. large and small seeds common birds beaks are large or small C. Evolution by Genetic Drift a random change in allele frequency Certain individuals may leave more descendants than others, and over time this can cause an allele to become common in the

population. Caused by chance, not natural selection. Genetic Drift: B. Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium 1. Gradualism: change that occurs in a species at a slow steady pace

2. Punctuated equilibrium: rapid sudden change in a species ex: light brown and black pocket mice after volcanic eruption in New Mexico VIII. Speciation formation of a new species Species group of organisms that breed with each other and produce fertile offspring in the natural environment

A. How do new species arise? 1. Reproductive isolation = when members of two populations cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring. 2. How does reproductive isolation occur? When there are barriers to gene flow. -behavioral isolation courtship rituals or other

behaviors are different ex: Eastern meadow lark will not respond to Western meadowlark mating songs Western meadowlark Eastern meadowlark

-geographic isolation population separated by geographic barrier like river changing course, mountains rising ex: one population of squirrels divided into 2

or more smaller populations by formation of Grand Canyon -temporal isolationpopulations reproduce at different times can be different seasons or time of day

ex: plant species that flower at different times of the year; toad species that live in the same area, but one species mates in early summer and other in late summer. 3. Darwins finches an example of speciation - descended from a common ancestor from mainland S. America

- natural selection shaped beaks as they adapted to different foods on different islands B. Divergent Evolution process of 2 or more related species becoming more and more dissimilar ex: red fox and kit fox --red fox lives in forest where red color blends with trees; kit fox lives in deserts where its light brown color

blends in with sandy environment --similarity in structure indicates a common ancestor, but as they adapted to different environments the appearance of 2 species diverged C. Convergent Evolution unrelated species become more and more similar as they adapt to same kind of

environment ex: cactus growing in American desert resembles cactus which grows in African desert. Both have fleshy stems for storing water and spines to ward off predators. Aloe cactus in Africa Saguro cactus in

Arizona Understanding PhylogeniesEvolutionary Classification Darwins ideas about descent with modification have given rise to the study of phylogeny, or evolutionary relationships among organisms.

Understanding a phylogeny is a lot like reading a family tree. The root of the tree represents the ancestral lineage, and the tips of the branches represent the descendents of that ancestor. As you move from the root to the tips, you are moving forward in time. When a lineage splits (speciation), it is represented as

branching on a phylogeny. When a speciation event occurs, a single ancestral lineage gives rise to two or more daughter lineages. Speciationto form a new biological species from an existing one Misconceptions about Humans The phylogeny of living species most

closely related to us looks like this: It is important to remember that: Humans did not evolve from chimpanzees. Humans and chimpanzees are evolutionary cousins and share a recent common ancestor that was neither chimpanzee nor human. Is a rose more closely related to tomato or an orchid?

Is the Bonnethead Shark more closely related to the Scoophead Shark of the Winghead Shark? DOMAIN ARCHAEA DOMAIN

EUKARYA Kingdoms DOMAIN BACTERIA Eubacteria Archaebacteria

Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia

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