Explanations of attachment Bowlby's Theory

Explanations of attachment Bowlby's Theory

Starter On your post-it Explain how classical or operant conditioning explains attachment Explanations of attachment

Bowlbys Theory Objectives: To be able to explain Bowlbys monotropic theory including the critical period and an internal working model. To evaluate Bowlbys monotropic theory,

using research. Two explanations of attachment That you need to know Learning Theory Conditioning Bowlbys Evolutionary

Theory Nurture Nature Your behaviour is based on how you were brought up by the people around you

Your behaviour is based on your biology. Your behaviour is a result of innate characteristics - survival Bowlby rejected the learning theory he said if this were true, an infant of a year or two should

take readily to whomever feeds him and this is clearly not the case Bowlbys Theory of Attachment Bowlby (1958) proposed that human in infants have an innate tendency to form attachments to their primary care giver, most often their mother.

Evolutionary Theory What is evolution? Evolution is the process whereby USEFUL FEATURES are introduced into a species. Features are useful if they help the animal SURVIVE long enough to successfully REPRODUCE. To survive and reproduce, animals need to be WELL ADAPTED to their environment. For this reason, useful

features are said to be ADAPTIVE. ASCMI Bowlbys theory of attachment has a number of parts, which can be broken down into the following A: Adaptive S: Social Releasers C: Critical Period

M: Monotropy I: Internal Working model Bowlby (1958) Attachments are Adaptive. This means they give our species an adaptive advantage, making us more likely to survive. This is because if an infant has an attachment to a caregiver, they are kept safe, given food, and kept warm.

Bowlby (1958) Babies have Social releasers, which unlock the innate tendency of adults to care for them. These Social releasers are both: Physical the typical baby face features and body proportions Behavioural e.g. crying, cooing Critical Period

This is the idea that babies must form an attachment within the first within the first 2 years If they do not achieve this then they will be damaged for life Physically Intellectually Emotionally Socially Critical period = around 2 years (sensitive period) A child is maximally sensitive at the age of two but, if an

attachment is not formed in this time, a child will find it much harder to form one later. Social Releasers and the critical period Read page 82 Summarise social releasers and the critical period to

your partner Monotropy This is the ideas that babies form one special attachment with their mother (monotropic) Bowlby emphasised the importance of the mother over the fathers role This special, intense attachment is called monotropy

If the mother isnt available, the infant could bond with another ever-present, adult, mother-substitute Mono means one think of monobrow Monotropy Law of continuity more constant and predictable a childs care, the better

quality of attachment Law of accumulated separation the effects of every separation from the mother add up The safest dose is therefore the zero dose Mono means one think of monobrow

Internal Working Model Infant forms a mental representation of their relationship with their primary caregiver called an internal working model, models future relationships. Powerful effect on the nature of the childs future relationships Loving relationship = loving and reliable relationships later on & bring these qualities to

future relationships Poor relationship = treat others that way or expect to be treated badly. Internal Working Model Internal model affects a childs later ability to be a parent themselves People base their

parenting behaviour on their own experiences of being parented Internal working model adult relationships Hazan and Shaver (1987): 620 responses to love quiz asking about 1. Current attachment experiences. 2. Attachment history.

3. Attitudes towards love. Findings: Positive correlation between attachment type + current experiences. Securely attached adults described their relationships as happy, trusting and more enduring (average 10 years compared to 5 or 6 years for insecure). Evolutionary Theory - Evaluation Complete the love quiz! P There is evidence that shows the existence of the Internal

Working model (continuity hypothesis) E Hazan and Shaver and they found E This support the existence of the IWM because the attachment types as a baby was found to influence relationships as an adult, which is what Bowlby suggests. (Problem with sample bias) L Therefore, there is evidence to suggest that Evaluation of Bowlbys Theory (AO3)

Complete page 22 of your booklet Work in groups to complete the evaluation points. Essay Question Describe and evaluate Bowlbys monotropic theory of attachment

(12 marks) Bowlby (1958) On your handout, draw a simple picture on the front that will help you remember it. E.g. What is this demonstrating? MONOTROPY

Come up with a mnemonic that will help you remember the Plenary Draw a picture representing the three explanations

of Bowlbys theory of attachment

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