Extreme Inbreeding at Beltsville, 1912-1949

Extreme Inbreeding at Beltsville, 1912-1949

Extreme Inbreeding at Beltsville 1912-1949 Paul M. VanRaden Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD [email protected] Experimental Design 8 consecutive generations of mating sires

to their daughters, and dams to their sons Highest inbreeding coefficients ever obtained in cattle (maximum F = 75.1%) Foundation Guernsey sire (Prince Billy) imported from the Isle of Guernsey in 1910 Foundation Holstein sire (Lad 11th) purchased from Minnesota in 1912 Pictures From The Study Early matings within the Guernsey and the

Holstein lines The 8 Holstein herd sires used. Sire 1 was the sire, maternal grandsire, and maternal great grandsire of sire 2. Further inbreeding led to sire 8 with coefficient F = 62.5% Pedigree of an example cow with F = 64.6% Pedigree of the highest cow with F = 75.1% Early Matings in the Guernsey Line

USDA Tech. Bulletin No. 339 Early Matings in the Holstein Line USDA Tech. Bulletin No. 339 Eight Herd Sires Used

USDA Tech. Bulletin No. 927 Sire 1 Appears 50 Times (64.6% F) Most inbred cow ever (F = 75.1%) 6 2

6 3 A2 6 A2 6 1

2 A2 6 6 1 1 1

1 Other Highly Inbred Lines Prospector line of Herefords, max F = 66.3% in 1984 at Colorado State Anxiety 4th line of Herefords, F > 50% in 1980 at North Dakota State Duchess family of Shorthorns, mean F of 40% in 1800s by Thomas Bates, England Current maximum F in each dairy breed

is 4050% in USA Conclusions Guernsey line died due to lethal recessive and Brucellosis epidemic Holstein birth weights decreased from 37 kg to 29 kg Milk yield decreased by 7% and fat yield by 17% with inbreeding levels near 50% Continued inbreeding of whole herds, however, is almost certain to be disastrous.

References Woodward, T.E. and R.R. Graves. 1933. Some results of inbreeding grade Guernsey and grade Holstein-Friesian cattle. USDA Tech. Bulletin No. 339 Woodward, T.E. and R.R. Graves. 1946. Results of inbreeding grade Holstein- Friesian cattle. USDA Tech. Bulletin No. 927 Swett, W.W., C.A. Matthews, and M.H. Fohrman. 1949. Effects of inbreeding on body size,

anatomy, and producing capacity of grade Holstein cows. USDA Tech. Bulletin No. 990 Acknowledgements Max Paape rediscovered the original records at the Beltsville research farm. Batchimeg Tseveenjav, Mike Bishop, and Mike MacNeil supplied information on inbred beef lines. Kim Fletcher-Carroll arranged the graphics.

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