Faculty of Medicine Introduction to Community Medicine Course ...

Faculty of Medicine Introduction to Community Medicine Course ...

Faculty of Medicine Introduction to Community Medicine Course (31505201) Unit 2 Nutrition and Nutrition Assessment and Diet Assessment of Nutritional Status. Anthropometric Assessment. By

Hatim Jaber MD MPH JBCM PhD 4-10-2017 1 Attention!!!!!!!! Sun 25-9 Introduction and Terminology used in nutrition Tue 27-9 The Nutrients & their Categories

Thu 2 -10 Spectrum of public nutrition problems: Malnutrition & its Ecology and Common nutritional disorders in Jordan Tue 4-10 Assessment of Nutritional Status. Anthropometric Assessment. Thu 9-10 Breast feeding & Breast milk. Formula feeding ???? Wed 11-10 from 8:00-10:00am 2 Presentation outline

Time Nutritional Status in Jordan 08:00 to 08:10 What is Nutritional assessment and Why? Tools and Methods of Nutritional Assessments

Anthropometric Assessment : Obesity 08:10 to 08:40 08:40 to 09:00 09:00 to 09:15 3

?????? 15-11-2017 4 5

Quiz 2 minutes Main difference between kwashiorkor Marasmus

6 7 Nutritional Status in Jordan 8 9

10 11 12 13 14

15 16 Trends in Per Capita Supply of Proteins (g) 1962-2002 17

Trends in Per Capita Supply of Calories 19622002 18 Trends in Per Capita Supply of Fats (g) 1962-2002 19 The 2007 Jordan Population and Family

Health Survey (JPFHS) 20 21 22 23

INTRODUCTION The nutritional status of an individual is often the result of many inter-related factors. It is influenced by food intake, quantity & quality, & physical health. The spectrum of nutritional status spread from obesity to severe malnutrition 24

What is Nutritional Assessment? the evaluation of nutrition needs of individuals based upon appropriate biochemical, anthropometric, physical, and dietary data to determine nutrient needs and recommended appropriate nutrition intake including enteral and parenteral nutrition - American Dietetic Association 25

The purpose of nutritional assessment Identify individuals or population groups at risk of becoming malnourished To obtain precise information about the prevalence and geographic distribution of nutritional problems of a community To develop health care programs that meet the community needs To measure the effectiveness of the nutritional

programs & intervention once initiated 26 How to measure malnutrition 1. Anthropometry a. b. c.

2. Weight and height must be compared to age or to each other and therefore are turned into indices a. b. c. 3.

Weight Length or height Middle upper arm circumference Weight for age called underweight. Includes both wasting and stunting Weight for length or body mass index, measure of wasting and obesity Height for age, measure of stunting Other signs or measures

a. b. c. Oedema (water retention) of feet, hands, face Blood test for anemia (iron deficiency in particular) Blood test for certain micronutrients: Vitamin A or zinc 27 Anthropometry

Height Weight Weight history / pattern (% weight change) Weight for Height BMI Growth Pattern, head circumference (paediatrics)

MAMC TSF Waist circumference Hip circumference

WHR Be aware of fluid status, presence of oedema. 28 Nutritional Assessment Tools 29

Nutritional Assessment Tools No single / standard way of assessing nutritional status Various validated assessment tools developed some disease specific some age specific 2 examples Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) 30

Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) Screening and Assessment tool for the identification of malnutrition in the elderly Considers: Dietary Intake foods, patterns Weight change, BMI, Muscle circumferences Functional impairment, Independence, Living arrangements Psychological issues, Self assessment

31 Subjective Global Assessment Valid assessment tool Strong correlation with other subjective and objective measures of nutrition Highly predictive of nutritional status in a number of different patient groups Quick, simple and reliable

32 Subjective Global Assessmentfeatures Medical History Weight change Dietary intake GI symptoms Functional impairment Physical Examination

Loss of subcutaneous fat Muscle wasting Oedema and ascites 33 Subjective Global Assessment Classifications A B

C Well nourished Moderately malnourished or of malnutrition suspected Severely malnourished 34

Full Nutrition Assessment Step Data collection Systematic Approach Assessment based on clinical/psychosocial/physical information

Dietary Anthropometric Biochemical Physical Including Subjective (eg. signs/symptoms of nutritional problem, appetite) Objective (eg. Lab results)

35 Data Collection An Example A B C D E A B C D E

Anthropometry Biochemical Data Clinical signs and symptoms, medical condition Dietary Intake Exercise (Energy balance expenditure) Consider current level, history and changes 36

Methods of Nutritional Assessment 37 Methods of Nutritional Assessment Nutrition is assessed by two types of methods; direct and indirect. - The direct methods deal with the individual

and measure objective criteria, - while indirect methods use community health indices that reflects nutritional influences. 38 Direct Methods These are ABCDE

Anthropometric methods Biochemical, laboratory methods Clinical methods Dietary evaluation methods E Exercise (Energy balance expenditure) 39

Indirect Methods These include three categories: Economic factors e.g. per capita income, population density & social habits Vital health statistics particularly infant & under 5 mortality & fertility index Ecological variables including crop production 40

Anthropometric Methods (from Greek anthropos, "human", and metron, "measure") 41 Anthropometric Methods Anthropometry is the measurement of body

height, weight & proportions. It is an essential component of clinical examination of infants, children & pregnant women. It is used to evaluate both under & over nutrition. The measured values reflects the current nutritional status & dont differentiate between acute & chronic changes . 42

Anthropometry for children Accurate measurement of height and weight is essential. The results can then be used to evaluate the physical growth of the child. For growth monitoring the data are plotted on growth charts over a period of time that is enough to calculate growth velocity, which can then be

compared to international standards 43 Other anthropometric Measurements Mid-arm circumference Skin fold thickness Head circumference Head/chest ratio Hip/waist ratio 44

45 46 47 48 49

50 51 Measurements for adults Height: The subject stands erect & bare footed on a stadiometer with a movable head piece. The head piece is leveled with

skull vault & height is recorded to the nearest 0.5 cm. 52 WEIGHT MEASUREMENT Use a regularly calibrated electronic or balanced-beam scale. Spring scales are less reliable. Weigh in light clothes, no shoes

Read to the nearest 100 gm (0.1kg) 53 Nutritional Indices in Adults The international standard for assessing body size in adults is the body mass index (BMI). BMI is computed using the following formula: BMI = Weight (kg)/ Height (m) Evidence shows that high BMI (obesity level) is associated

with type 2 diabetes & high risk of cardiovascular morbidity & mortality 54 BMI (WHO - Classification) BMI < 18.5 = Under Weight BMI 18.5-24.5= Healthy weight range

BMI 25-30 = Overweight (grade 1 obesity) BMI >30-40 = Obese (grade 2 obesity) BMI >40

=Very obese (morbid or grade 3 obesity) 55 Waist circumference Waist circumference is measured at the level of the umbilicus to the nearest 0.5 cm. The subject stands erect with relaxed abdominal muscles, arms at the side,

and feet together. The measurement should be taken at the end of a normal expiration. 56 Waist circumference Waist circumference predicts mortality better than any other anthropometric measurement. It has been proposed that waist measurement alone can be used to assess obesity, and two levels of risk have

been identified MALES FEMALE LEVEL 1 LEVEL2 > 94cm > 80cm > 102cm > 88cm 57 Waist circumference/2

Level 1 is the maximum acceptable waist circumference irrespective of the adult age and there should be no further weight gain. Level 2 denotes obesity and requires weight management to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes & CVS complications. 58 Hip Circumference

Is measured at the point of greatest circumference around hips & buttocks to the nearest 0.5 cm. The subject should be standing and the measurer should squat beside him. Both measurement should taken with a flexible, non-stretchable tape in close contact with the skin, but without indenting the soft tissue. 59

Waist/Hip Ratio 60 Interpretation of WHR High risk WHR= >0.80 for females & >0.95 for males i.e. waist measurement >80% of hip measurement for women and >95% for men indicates central (upper body) obesity and is considered high risk for diabetes & CVS

disorders. A WHR below these cut-off levels is considered low risk. 61 Anthropometry Body Composition Muscle, Fat, Bone, Water Body Mass: LBM Body mass that contains small % (~3%)

essential fat [Essential fat + Muscle + Water + Bone] Fat Free Mass (FFM) Fat Store: Essential Fat for physiological function, eg. fat stored in muscle, liver, heart

Storage fat in adipose tissue visceral fat and subcutaneous fat 62 ADVANTAGES OF ANTHROPOMETRY Objective with high specificity & sensitivity Measures many variables of nutritional significance (Ht, Wt, MAC, HC, skin fold thickness, waist & hip ratio & BMI).

Readings are numerical & gradable on standard growth charts Readings are reproducible. Non-expensive & need minimal training 63 Limitations of Anthropometry Inter-observers errors in measurement Limited nutritional diagnosis Problems with reference standards, i.e. local

versus international standards. Arbitrary statistical cut-off levels for what considered as abnormal values. 64 DIETARY ASSESSMENT 65 DIETARY ASSESSMENT

Nutritional intake of humans is assessed by five different methods. These are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 24 hours dietary recall Food frequency questionnaire

Dietary history since early life Food dairy technique Observed food consumption 66 24 Hours Dietary Recall A trained interviewer asks the subject to recall all food & drink taken in the previous

24 hours. It is quick, easy, & depends on short-term memory, but may not be truly representative of the persons usual intake 67 Food Frequency Questionnaire In this method the subject is given a list of around 100 food items to indicate his or her intake (frequency & quantity) per day, per

week & per month. inexpensive, more representative & easy to use. 68 Food Frequency Questionnaire/2 Limitations: long Questionnaire Errors with estimating serving size. Needs updating with new commercial food

products to keep pace with changing dietary habits. 69 DIETARY HISTORY It is an accurate method for assessing the nutritional status. The information should be collected by a trained interviewer. Details about usual intake, types, amount,

frequency & timing needs to be obtained. Cross-checking to verify data is important. 70 FOOD DAIRY Food intake (types & amounts) should be recorded by the subject at the time of consumption. The length of the collection period range

between 1-7 days. Reliable but difficult to maintain. 71 Observed Food Consumption The most unused method in clinical practice, but it is recommended for research purposes. The meal eaten by the individual is weighed and contents are exactly calculated. The method is characterized by having a high degree of

accuracy but expensive & needs time & efforts. 72 Interpretation of Dietary Data 1. Qualitative Method

using the food pyramid & the basic food groups method. Different nutrients are classified into 5 groups (fat & oils, bread & cereals, milk products, meat-fish-poultry, vegetables & fruits) determine the number of serving from each group & compare it with minimum requirement.

73 Interpretation of Dietary Data/2 2. Quantitative Method The amount of energy & specific nutrients in each food consumed can be calculated using food composition tables & then compare it with the recommended daily intake.

Evaluation by this method is expensive & time consuming, unless computing facilities are available. 74 Biochemical-Laboratory Assessment

75 Initial Laboratory Assessment Hemoglobin estimation is the most important test, & useful index of the overall state of nutrition. Beside anemia it also tells about protein & trace element nutrition. Stool examination for the presence of ova and/or intestinal parasites Urine dipstick & microscopy for albumin,

sugar and blood 76 Specific Lab Tests Measurement of individual nutrient in body fluids (e.g. serum retinol, serum iron, urinary iodine, vitamin D) Detection of abnormal amount of metabolites in the urine (e.g. urinary

creatinine/hydroxyproline ratio) Analysis of hair, nails & skin for micronutrients. 77 Advantages of Biochemical Method It is useful in detecting early changes in body metabolism & nutrition before the appearance of overt clinical signs. It is precise, accurate and reproducible. Useful to validate data obtained from dietary

methods e.g. comparing salt intake with 24hour urinary excretion. 78 Limitations of Biochemical Method Time consuming Expensive They cannot be applied on large scale Needs trained personnel & facilities 79

CLINICAL ASSESSMENT 80 CLINICAL ASSESSMENT It is an essential features of all nutritional surveys It is the simplest & most practical method of

ascertaining the nutritional status of a group of individuals It utilizes a number of physical signs, (specific & non specific) associated with malnutrition deficiency of vitamins & micronutrients. 81 CLINICAL ASSESSMENT Good nutritional history should be obtained General clinical examination, with special

attention to organs like hair, angles of the mouth, gums, nails, skin, eyes, tongue, muscles, bones, & thyroid gland. Detection of relevant signs helps in establishing the nutritional diagnosis 82 CLINICAL ASSESSMENT ADVANTAGES Fast & Easy to perform

Inexpensive Non-invasive LIMITATIONS Did not detect early cases 83 Clinical signs of nutritional deficiency

HAIR Protein, zinc, biotin deficiency Spare & thin Protein deficiency Easy to pull out

Vit C & Vit A deficiency Corkscrew Coiled hair 84 Clinical signs of nutritional deficiency

MOUTH Riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, B12 , pr. Vit. C,A, K, folic acid & niacin Glossitis Bleeding & spongy gums

B 2,6,& niacin Angular stomatitis, cheilosis & fissured tongue Vit.A,B12, B-complex, folic acid leukoplakia & niacin Vit B12,6,c, niacin ,folic acid & iron

Sore mouth & tongue 85 Clinical signs of nutritional deficiency EYES Vitamin A deficiency Night blindness,

exophthalmia Vit B2 & vit A deficiencies Photophobia-blurring, conjunctival inflammation 86

Clinical signs of nutritional deficiency NAILS Iron deficiency Spooning Protein deficiency

Transverse lines 87 Clinical signs of nutritional deficiency SKIN Folic acid, iron, B12

Pallor Vitamin B & Vitamin C Follicular hyperkeratosis Flaking dermatitis PEM, Vit B2, Vitamin A, Zinc & Niacin

Niacin & PEM Vit K ,Vit C & folic acid Pigmentation, desquamation Bruising, purpura 88 Clinical signs of nutritional deficiency Thyroid gland

in mountainous areas and far from sea places Goiter is a reliable sign of iodine deficiency. 89 Clinical signs of nutritional deficiency Joins & bones

Help detect signs of vitamin D deficiency (Rickets) & vitamin C deficiency (Scurvy) 90 Clinical issues to consider: Medical history, treatment and medications Significant factors affecting nutritional intake

Fluid balance input and output, Bowel habits Physical assessment of nutritional status Clinical signs and symptoms 91 Clinical Signs and Symptoms Signs Symptoms Subjective, impression

Recall, report by subjects Descriptive, Descriptive observation Appearance Eg nausea, itchiness, diarrhea, anorexia Visual examination Needs clinical judgment Eg muscle wasting, malnutrition

92 Obesity 93 Potential Negative Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity gative Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity 94

Assessment of obesity Relative Weight (RW)

Body Mass Index (BMI) Waist Circumference (WC) Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MAC) Triceps Skin Fold Thickness (TSF) Growth Monitoring Chart infants and young children. 95 Assessing Body Weight and Body

Composition Body Mass Index (BMI) Index of the relationship between height and weight BMI = weight (kg)/height squared (m2) BMI of 18.5 to 25 kg/m2 indicates healthy weight Youth and BMI Labeled differently, as at risk of overweight and overweight

96 Body Mass Index (BMI) 97 98

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