Fairy Tales - 2014-15 School Year

Fairy Tales - 2014-15 School Year

Folk & Fairy Tales History and Interpretation Vulnerability, Imagination, and the Transition from Childhood to Adulthood Myth vs. Folktales & Fairytales As myths were told and retold over generations, they transformed. Not only did their specific details, but also the purposes they served in their cultures, changed. One of the storytelling forms that arose from the myth was the folktale. A folktale is a story created by common folk and passed along

from generation to generation, but differs from a myth in that: A myth is a cultural story which is often used to explain something such as the reason we have a moon. As such, myths often have a religious basis. Folktales were created to teach social or moral values or entertainment Folktale heroes tend to be common, everyday folk who dont have special powers but survive by luck, using their wits, and relying on their own natural goodness History of Fairy Tales A.D. 100-200

The myth, Cupid and Psyche, is written by Apuleius. Some scholars consider this to be the first literary fairy tale, very similar in nature to Beauty and the Beast. A.D. 200-300 A Hindu collection of tales, the Panchatantra, is written. Some of these tales are thought to be forerunners to a few European fairy tales. 850-860 The first known literary version of Cinderella in the world is written in China.

Circa 1300 Gesta Romanorum, a Latin work, is produced. It is a collection of tales and anecdotes thought to have influenced William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queen. Circa 1500 One Thousand and One Arabian Nights first recorded History of Fairy Tales & Children In medieval times After infancy, children were seen as little adults and not shielded from adult

activities (hard labor, public executions, etc.). They recognized that children were smaller and less intelligent but not to the extent that we see them today. History of Fairy Tales, cont. 1690-1710: France The French Salons are filled with fairy tale writing, primarily by women writers. The most prolific and influential is Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy.

1696-1698: France Marie-Catherine D'Aulnoy, the foremost fairy tale author of the French Salons, publishes four volumes of fairy tales. They are translated into English in 1699. 1697 Charles Perrault's Histoires ou Contes du temps passe, also known as Mother Goose Tales, is published in Paris. The tales enjoy instant success. Some of the tales included in this collection are Cinderella, The Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, and Puss in Boots

History of Fairy Tales & Children Then, in the 16th and 17th centuries: People started to see childhood as not only a social status but a psychological, developmental one. It mostly began to affect the upperclass boys first then their sisters. 1815: Germany Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm publish volumes one (1812) and two

(1815) of Kinder und Hausmarchen (Childhood and Household Tales). Popular tales from the collection include The Frog King, Hansel and Gretel, Rumpelstiltskin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. 1889: England

Andrew Lang publishes the first of his twelve fairy books, The Blue Fairy Book. Most of the illustrations in the books are drawn by H. J. Ford. The books remain popular for gathering tales from numerous sources, essentially presenting multicultural fairy tale collections long before multicultural becomes a buzz word a hundred years later. 1890: Russia Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty premieres in St. Petersburg, Russia on January 15, 1890. Choreography is by Marius Petipa and the book is by Marius Petipa and Ivan Vsevolojsky. Some of Tchaikovsky's score will later appear in Walt Disney's adaptation of the story.

1893: Great Britain Marian Roalfe Cox publishes her book, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes. The book discusses many tales which have not yet appeared in English and indirectly nominates Cinderella as the most common fairy tale theme around the world. Entertainment Late 1800s ballets incorporate fairy tales Swan Lake, Capellia, Sleeping Beauty,

Cinderella Operas Hansel and Gretel, Cinderella, Mozarts The Magic Flute 1937: United States Walt Disney's first feature length animated film is released, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The film is a commercial success and leads to the creation of several more Disney fairy tale adaptations. The seven dwarfs now have names, thanks to Walt Disney.

1945: Russia The premiere of Sergei Prokofiev's ballet, Cinderella, is presented by the Bolshoi Ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on November 15, 1945. The libretto is by Nikolai Volkov and choreography by Rotislav Zakharov. 1946: France Jean Cocteau's film, La Belle et la bte (Beauty and the Beast) is released. 1950: United States Walt Disney's Cinderella is released.

Fairy Tales: Purpose Fairy tales are primer to the early education into a specific culture. Children learn key social mores*, gender expectations and morality from these stories. Like creation myths, they emerged from a largely oral tradition since most children could not read particularly the poor or female ones. *mores = customs, conventions, practices

Fairy Tales: Key Elements and Purpose 1. To pass along information about how the world and society works 2. To remind people of the need for morals and values 3. To make it easy to pass info around in a world that was void of a sufficient number of literate people 4. To entertain 5. To give children ways to cope with growing up a. stories include a childhood fear b. stories include a fantastical element (magic, fairies, supernatural events) c. stories have a moral point or lesson (sometimes

spiritual, but never religious) d. stories have a happy ending Changes Censored tales for adults to read to children Added a clear sequential structure Made tales more lively by adding adjectives, old proverbs, direct dialogue

Made tales reflect middle class values Eliminated erotic and sexual content Added Christian expressions and references Emphasized traditional roles of men and women according to the dominant patriarchal code of that time Added lessons for childreneven harsh ones

Their primary method of gathering stories was to invite storytellers to their home and have them tell the tales aloud Most were educated young women from the middle class or aristocracy who retold stories of their nursemaids, governesses, or servants Didactic Intended for instruction.

Stories with a didactic tone aim not only to entertain, but also to inform or instruct the listener or reader Fairy Tale ConventionsStock Characters

Wicked stepmother Fairy godmother Clever orphan Curious children Slave or servant girl or boy Damsel in distress Prince Charming

Mother Figure Fairy Godmother (surrogate mother) comforts and directs child Represents powers that can be called on for help when it is needed. Helps young person to solve own problems (Knapp 71). Earth Mother fulfillment, abundance, and fertility offers spiritual and emotional nourishment to those who she contacts; often depicted in earth

colors, with large breasts and hips http://youtu.be/ppGMNRNgYrg 21 Stepmother/parent Stepmother Often attractive Usually evil Jealous of beauty or power of the protagonist

Deceives the biological parent about motives http://youtu.be/_bhopXy8hBw 22 Examples Stepmother in Cinderella Briar Rose, Mythology: Persephone, Demeter, Hercate, Gorgon, Medusa Literature: Gladriel from Lord of the Rings, Glinda from the Wizard of Oz, Dantes Beatrice

Movies: Rons mom 23 Female Soul Mate represents goodness, innocence, purity; may be a princess who is beautiful, sought after and remote. http://youtu.be/zSVNOzXJuIY 24

Cinderella Archetype What kind of characteristics does Cinderella have? What about the stepmother and stepsisters? 25 The Great Teacher/Mentor Wise old men/women protects or helps main character when he or she faces challenges. Sometimes they work as role models and often serve

as father or mother figure. They teach by example the skills necessary to survive the journey and quest. Examples : http://youtu.be/71_p8P_PVXo 26 The Companion/Sidekick the companion: Befriends and helps the hero; may be unusual http://youtu.be/jJGeeryk0Eo

27 The Innocent Child/Youth or inexperienced adult Strength is their trust and optimism. Others like them and support their quest. May be blind to or deny their obvious weaknesses. 28

Double Doppelganger It is the double or mirroring or split personality or good/evil It is the duplicate of an individual or part of a divided individual Can have many names including the Other, the alter ego, the second self Examples Frankenstein Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

29 The Sacrificial Redeemer Willing to die for his or her beliefs; the main character maintains a strong sense of morality (Herz and Gallo 123). Embodiment of divine power and being sent on a mission to save humanity. Jesus Christ

Erin Brockovich 30 The Sacrificial Scapegoat The sacrificial scapegoat: hero who chooses to dies or allows himself to be sacrificed to restore his people or the land back to fruitfulness http://youtu.be/gdIgy-4o4fs

Tyson in Percy Jackson 31 Enchantress/Temptress Woman to whom the protagonist is physically attracted Brings about his downfall. May appear as a witch or vampire .

The Sirens in Mythology Mystique from X-Men 32 Villain Wolf Antagonist Bad Guy http://youtu.be/okvnUzTRwU0

33 Trickster A trickster is a god, goddess, spirit, man, woman, or anthropomorphic animal who plays tricks or otherwise disobeys normal rules Loki Coyote 34

Evil Figure The Devil or Serpent Represents evil incarnate. offers worldly goods, fame, or knowledge to the protagonist in exchange for possession of the soul or integrity. Opposes hero in his/her quest.

35 Evil Figure, cont. Wolves: Initially they were savage monsters that attack travelers and devour live stock and while the wolf's image has been getting better in modern times, increasingly being seen as a "spirit of the wild," people can't quite get over The Big Bad Wolf. While the wolf is an animal motif at the same time, the wolf as a threat to young girls/ sexual predator seems to have its roots in the fairy tale.

In Germanic countries, the wolf is (or was historically) the equivalent of the Devil - they even have an expression about them that's interchangable with "Speak of the Devil". Other Archetypes? In movies, there are stock characters. They can be archetypes as well. A few of them: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ List_of_stock_characters

37 Fairy Tales: Key Elements and Purpose Special beginning and/or ending words: ~ Once upon a time...and they lived happily ever after. Sometimes, theres a surprise ending Good character: ~ Do you see a kind, innocent character? Is the

good character clever? Is s/he helped by others? Evil character: ~ Do you see a witch? A demon? An evil stepmother? A sinister gnome? In the end, the evil character usually loses Fairy Tales: Key Elements and Purpose Magic and Enchantments: ~ Do you see magical things happening? Do you see talking animals/objects? You might see fairies, trolls, elves, goblins, etc.

Reoccurring Patterns / Numbers: ~ Do you see any patterns? Often, youll see things, phrases, tasks appear in "threes," sixes, and/or "sevens" Universal Truths: ~ the tale probably touches on some universal Motif A conspicuous recurring element, such as a type of incident, a device, a reference, or verbal formula, which appears frequently in

works of literature. Motifs using characters, creatures, and settings from classic Fairy Tales represent characters or ideas; for example, a love interest being equated with a Knight in Shining Armor. Modern day Cinderella stories commonly mine this fairy tale trope as well. Common Motifs Talking animals / objects Cleverness / trickster / word games

Travelers tales Origins ~ where do we come from? Triumph of the poor Common Motifs Human weakness explored (i.e., curiosity, gluttony, pride, laziness, etc.) Human strengths glorified (i.e., kindness, generosity, patience, etc.) Tall story (slight exaggeration hyperbole) Magic words or phrases; repetition of phrases/words (abracadabra!)

Common Motifs Struggle between good and evil, light and dark Youngest vs. Oldest (sons, daughters, sibling rivalry) Sleep (extended sleep, death-like trances) Impossible tasks (ridiculously mindnumbing, fantastic effort needed to complete, etc.) Common Motifs

Quests Gluttony / Starvation (theres a fine line between eating for survival and succumbing to temptation) Keys, passes (opening new doors) Donors, Benefactors, Helpers Temptation Motif A motif in which one of the protagonist's primary struggles is the conflict between his or her

sense of (1) personal honor and ethics and (2) his or her personal desires, ambitions, or wickedness. Faustian Bargain An example of a Recurring Theme: The Faustian Bargain, a temptation motif from German folklore in which an individual sells his soul to the devil in exchange

for knowledge, wealth, or power. Archetypes in Literature World Literature 48 Carl Jung - Swiss psychiatrist - Studied dreams, personalities,

and religious connections - 1925 "Bugishu Psychological Expedition" to East Africa What he figured out: - People all over the world have the same dreams and stories - We have a collective unconscious from birth - The collective unconscious comes out in the form of archetypes in our stories 49

Archetypes recur in different times and places in myth, literature, folklore, fairy tales, dreams, artwork, and religious rituals. Carl Jung theorized that the archetype originates in the collective unconscious of mankind, i.e., the shared experiences of a race or culture, such as birth, death, love, family life, and struggles to survive and grow up.

Archetype An original model or pattern from which other later copies are made, especially a character, an action, or situation that seems to represent common patterns of human life. Often, archetypes include a symbol, a theme, a setting, or a character that some critics think have a common meaning in an entire culture, or even the entire human race. These images have particular emotional resonance and power.

Definition of Archetype An archetype is the first real example or prototype of something (as the Model T is the prototype of the modern automobile). In this sense an archetype can be considered the ideal model, the supreme type or the perfect image of something (Brunel 111-112, 114). 52

What is an Archetype? A pattern repeated through the ages in folk and literary expressions. An original model on which something is patterned. Excerpt about Carl Jung & archetypes from Psychology Classics narrated by Tom Butler Bowdon http://youtu.be/dBDGw6AFoSs 53

These would be expressed in the subconscious of an individual who would recreate them in myths, dreams, and literature. Examples of archetypes found cross-culturally include the following: Archetypal theme #1: The quest The hero undertakes a long journey towards a goal. Must

perform impossible tasks, confront errors, learn the rules, suffer doubts and overcome insurmountable obstacles. One example: http://youtu.be/3mNEgCn5CmI Another example: http://youtu.be/pWS8Mg-JWSg 55 Archetypal theme #2: Intitaion The initiation (rite of passage, fall from innocence): The hero undergoes series of ordeals passing from innocence to social/spiritual maturity. Pattern of separation, transformation, and return.

One example: http://youtu.be/4sj1MT05lAA Another example: http://youtu.be/dkX8J-FKndE Another example: http://youtu.be/ukdRPqtZDEc 56 Recurring symbolic situations: the orphaned prince or the lost chieftain's son raised ignorant of his heritage until he is rediscovered by

his parents the damsel in distress rescued from a hideous monster by a handsome young man who later marries the girl. Wish Fulfillment In psychoanalytic criticism, wish fulfillment refers to something in literature that satisfies the conscious or subconscious desires of either the creator or

the reader of a work Misogyny Hatred of women. The Grimm Brothers versions of the German folktales are sometimes viewed as being misogynistic. Bel-Inconnu "The Fair Unknown", a motif common to fairy

tales, folklore and medieval Romance in which the protagonist's identity remains unknown until some suitably dramatic moment. This may be the result of a child being raised as an orphan commoner, until the revelation of an heirloom proves the child is born of noble blood, or it may be the result of a hero's intentional disguise in order to penetrate certain social circles. Bel inconnu

Settings Garden Cultivated and carefully planned. Restricted to certain vegetation 62 Habitat of the Great Mother (Mother Nature), the lunar

force. Fertility. The vegetation and animals flourish in this green world because of the sustaining power of the Great Mother. Symbolically the primitive levels of the feminine psyche, protective and

sheltering. Forest Those who enter often lose their direction or rational outlook and thus tap into their collective unconscious. This unregulated space is

opposite of the cultivated gardens, which are carefully planned and are restricted to certain vegetation. 63 Tree Represents life and knowledge

64 Caves and Tunnels Deep down where character delves into self Place that character goes when invisible or inactive At the extreme may signify death 65

Mountains and Peaks Highest peak is place to see far Place to gain great insight 66 The River Crossing river may symbolize new territory Rivers can be boundaries or borders and on the other

side is something new or different May represent human life or time passing as we follow the river from its sourt to its mouth 67 The Sea Vast, alien, dangerous,

chaos Waves may symbolize measures of time and represent eternity or infinity 68 Fountain Stands for purification; the sprinkling of water

(baptism) washes away sin. Water of fountain gives new life (Knapp 32). 69 Islands Microcosms or small worlds unto themselves Represent isolation or get-a-ways 70 Actions/Events

Journey The protagonist takes a journey, usually physical but sometimes emotional, during which he or she learns something about himself or herself or finds meaning in his or her life as well as acceptance in a community (Herz and Gallo 112). Linear Circular Quests Quest for material wealth Quest for security, as a secure place to live Quest for kin

Quest for global good, such as when a kingdom is threatened Quest for self, for self-identity or self-assurance 71 Sleep Crucial for physical and/or psychological healing. During dreams, person can grow. Person can fantasize freely in sleep. A transitional and beneficial period. In dream sphere can descend to the sphere of the Great Mother. Person awakens with a greater

understanding of human nature (Knapp 88). 72 The Test or Trial In the transition from one stage of life to another, the main character experiences a rite of ppassage through growth and change; he or she experiences a transformation (Herz and Gallo 115).

73 Birth/Death and Rebirth Through pain and suffering the character overcomes feelings of despair, and through a process of self-realization is reborn (Herz and Gallo 110). 74 The Fall: Expulsion from Eden

the main character is expelled because of an unacceptable action on his or her part (Herz and Gallo 111). 75 Annihilation/Absurdity/Total Oblivion In order to exist in an intolerable world, the main character accepts that life is absurd,

ridiculous, and ironic (Herz and Gallo 116). 76 The Collectors

Charles Perault mid elate 1600s early 1700s French Follects Western European stories. Most famous for his version of Cinderella (the French version) Charles Perrault

French author/adapter of fairy tales Perrault was a wealthy member of the court of King Louis XIV Best-Known Tales: Le Petit Chaperon rouge (Little Red Riding Hood), La Belle au bois dormant (Sleeping Beauty), Le Chat bott (Puss in Boots),

Cendrillon (Cinderella), Barbe Bleue (Bluebeard), Brothers Grimm Looking for a sweet, soothing tale to waft you toward dreamland? Look somewhere else. The stories collected by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the early 1800s serve up life as generations of central Europeans knew itcapricious and often cruel. The two brothers, patriots determined to preserve Germanic folktales, were only accidental entertainers.

Once they saw how the tales bewitched young readers, the Grimms, and editors aplenty after them, started "fixing" things. Tales gradually got softer, sweeter, and primly moral. The Brothers Grimm The Grimm brothers, Jacob (1785-1863) and Wilhelm (17861859), were born near Kassel, Germany. They

were from a family of nine children, six of whom survived infancy. Their early childhood was spent in the countryside in what has been described as an "idyllic" state. When the eldest brother Jacob was eleven years old, however, their father, Philipp Wilhelm, died, and the family moved into a cramped urban residence. Two years later, the children's grandfather also died,

leaving them and their mother to struggle in reduced circumstances. (Modern psychologists have argued that this harsh family background influenced the ways the Brothers Grimm would interpret and present their tales. The Brothers tended to idealize and excuse fathers, leaving a predominance of female villains in the talesthe infamous wicked stepmothers. Nationalism The Grimms became interested in the study of ancient Germanic literature and

folklore. They lived during the Napoleonic Wars and French rule of Germanythe brothers supported German unification They gathered these tales in part out of a desire to increase German Nationalism by giving Germans a shared literary and oral heritage. Childrens and Household Tales (Kinderund Hausmrchen)the first volume was published in 1812.

The first volumes were much criticized because, although they were called "Children's Tales", they were not regarded as suitable for children, both for the scholarly information included and the subject matter The Grimms principal goal was to uncover the etymological and

linguistic truths that bound the German people together The Grimms believed that historical knowledge of customs, mores, and laws would increase selfunderstanding and

social enlightenment. Fun Grimm Facts Between 1990 and the 2002 introduction of the euro currency in Germany, the Grimms were depicted on the 1000 Deutsch Mark notethe largest available denomination. The 1962 film The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm shows a fictionalized account of the conflict in the brothers' lives between their tale collecting and their philological work, as well as dramatizing three tales.

2005 found the brothers portrayed in the Terry Gilliam movie The Brothers Grimm starring Matt Damon and Heath Ledger. In their roles in the collection of fairy tales, the Brothers Grimm are sometimes referenced in modern adaptations of fairy tales, such as The 10th Kingdom where they are said to have visited the magical realms before returning to Earth or Ella Enchanted where the revisionist magical beings repeatedly complain about "those Grimm Brothers" making stereotypes about them. One issue of particular concern to women of the

period was the common practice of arranged marriages, particularly among the upper classes. Women had no legal say in these arrangements, often conducted as business transactions between one aristocratic family and another. Daughters were used to cement alliances, to curry favor, and to settle debts. There was no possibility of divorce. Young girls could find themselves married off to men many years their senior or of vile

temper and habits; disobedient daughters could be shut away in convents or locked up in madhouses. Little wonder, then, that fairy tales are filled with girls handed over to various wicked creatures by cruel or feckless parents, or locked up in enchanted towers where only true love can save them. Hans Christian Andersen Hans Christian Andersen

was born in the slums of Odense, Denmark. His father, Hans Andersen, was a poor but literate shoemaker who believed he was of aristocratic origin. Andersen's mother worked as washerwoman. She was uneducated and superstitious, and

introduced her son to the world of folklore. Andersen's Fairy Tales and Stories, written between 1835 and 1872. Tales, Told for Children, appeared in a small, cheap booklet in 1835. In this and following early collections, Andersen returned to the stories which he had heard as a child, but gradually he started to create his own tales. The third volume, published in 1837, contained 'The Little Mermaid' and 'The Emperor's New Clothes.' Among

Andersen's other best known tales are 'Little Ugly Duckling,' 'Princess and the Pea,' 'The Snow Queen,' The Nightingale. With these collections, Andersen became known as the father of the modern fairytale. Andersen's works were original. Only 12 of his 156 know fairy stories drew on folktales. Andersen broke new ground in both style and content. Fairy tales at his time were didactic, he brought into them ambiguity.

Children and misfits often speak truth; they serve as Andersen's mouthpiece in moral questions Ugliness of the hero or heroine often conceals great beauty, which is revealed after misfortunes. 4 Approaches to Reading FT

1. Childrens reader response (moral of the story) What is the child supposed to learn from reading the story? 2. Literary Analysis

Narrative devices (plot, character, themes, conflict, rising action, etc.) Figurative devices (puns, rhymes, symbols, personification, imagery, connotations) 3. Psychoanalytic Approach Bettelheim: unconscious, coping with growing up, adolescence

4 Approaches to Reading FT 4. Feminist Approach Feminist criticism is concerned with "...the ways in which literature (and other cultural productions) reinforce or undermine the economic, political, social, and psychological oppression of women" (Tyson). This school of theory looks at how aspects of our culture are inherently patriarchal (male dominated) and "...this critique strives to expose the explicit and implicit misogyny in male writing about

women" (Richter 1346). (quoted from Purdues OWL website, ) Reader Response Question 1. What is the child reader supposed to learn? In other words, what is the moral or overarching lesson of the story? (There may be multiple morals and lessons.)

Literary Response Questions 1. Who is the protagonist of the story? Why is she or he the protagonist? 2. What external conflict leads to the parents decision to leave the children in the woods? 3. What two major events constitute the rising action to the climax of the story? 4. What are two examples of foreshadowing to the climax of the witchs death? 5. Identify 3 different symbols and how they tie into the story.

Psychoanalytic Criticism: Freudian & Jungian questions

How do the operations of repression structure or inform the work? Are there any oedipal dynamics - or any other family dynamics - are work here? How can characters' behavior, narrative events, and/or images be explained in terms of psychoanalytic concepts of any kind (for example...fear or fascination with death, sexuality

- which includes love and romance as well as sexual behavior - as a primary indicator of psychological identity or the operations of ego-id-superego)? What does the work suggest about the psychological being of its author? What might a given interpretation of a literary work suggest about the psychological motives of the reader? Are there prominent words in the piece that could have different or hidden meanings? Could there be a subconscious reason for the author using these "problem words"? What connections can we make between elements of the text and the archetypes? (Mask, Shadow, Anima, Animus) How do the characters in the text mirror the archetypal figures? (Great Mother or nurturing Mother, Whore, destroying Crone, Lover, Destroying Angel)

How does the text mirror the archetypal narrative patterns? (Quest, Night-Sea-Journey) How symbolic is the imagery in the work? How does the protagonist reflect the hero of myth? Does the hero embark on a journey in either a physical or spiritual sense? Is there a journey to an underworld or land of the dead? What trials or ordeals does the protagonist face? What is the reward for overcoming them? Psychoanalytic Questions 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What growing up stage are Hansel and Gretel in? In other words, what kind of transition(s) are they preparing to experience? What family dynamics are at work in the story?

Are there prominent words in the piece that could have different or hidden meanings? Could there be a subconscious reason for the author using these "problem words"? What symbols can you find in the story? What are they symbols of? How does the protagonist reflect the hero of mythology? Does the hero embark on a journey in either a physical or spiritual sense? What trials or ordeals does the protagonist face? What is the reward for overcoming them?

Feminist Questions

How is the relationship between men and women portrayed? What are the power relationships between men and women (or characters assuming male/female roles)? How are male and female roles defined? What constitutes masculinity and femininity? How do characters embody these traits? Do characters take on traits from opposite genders? How so? How does this change others reactions to them? What does the work reveal about the operations (economically, politically,

socially, or psychologically) of patriarchy? What does the work imply about the possibilities of sisterhood as a mode of resisting patriarchy? What does the work say about women's creativity? What does the history of the work's reception by the public and by the critics tell us about the operation of patriarchy? What role the work play in terms of women's literary history and literary tradition?

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