Family Caregiving and Financial Compensation Maria Claver, PhD, MSW Melanie Horn Mallers, PhD Department of Family & Consumer Sciences Gerontology Program California State University, Long Beach Caregivers Informal: Family members, as well as friends, partners, and neighbors who
provide care to aging loved ones. Formal : paid nurse aids, personal assistants, and home care staff who provide hands-on care in both home and long term settings. Family Caregiving Population Family caregiving has become the norm! In the U.S- more than 50 million people provide care for a chronically ill, disabled or aged family member or friend during any given year.
In CA- over four million family caregivers alone. Caregivers care for spouses (5%), and parents (40%) as well as grandparents, parents-in-law, other relatives, and friends (55%). Family Caregiving: Availability and Challenges Availability of care is a major factor in predicting whether or not an older person can remain at home (aging in place) versus being moved to institutionalized care
While the need for care by older adults is increasing, availability is decreasing. Family Caregiving: Availability and Challenges Family caregivers are essential given that over 40% of U.S. primary care physicians think they don't have enough time to spend with patients Family caregivers provide the overwhelming majority of long term-care services in the U.S. The majority of adults living in the community
and in need of long-term care depend on family and friends as their only source of help. FAMILY CAREGIVERS MATTER! Economics of Family Caregiving Family caregivers represent 80% of all Family caregivers represent 80% of all home care services and are conservatively valued at $306 billion a year, more than twice the amount spent on paid home care and nursing home services combined.
They are 2.5 times more likely than noncaregivers to live in poverty. They are five times more likely to receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI). Caregiving families have median incomes that are more than 15% lower than noncaregiving families. Economics of Family Caregiving Caregivers comprise 13% of the workforce, but often lose
wages and time from work due to caregiving and related role demands. 59% of family caregivers who care for someone over the age of 18 either work or have worked while providing care 62% have had to make some adjustments to their work life, from reporting late to work to giving up work entirely. 10% of employed family caregivers go from full-time to part-time jobs because of their caregiving responsibilities. Overall, American businesses can lose as much as $34 billion each year due to employees' need to care for loved ones 50 years of age and older.
Impact of Family Caregiving 1/3 experience stress, burnout and exhaustion, possibly resulting in depression. Family caregivers report having a chronic condition at more than twice the rate of non-caregivers. Elderly spousal caregivers with a history of chronic illness themselves have a 63% higher mortality rate than their noncaregiving peers. Impact of Family Caregiving: Summmary of Sources
Financial Direct costs of care such as equipment and medicine Travel costs of long distance caregivers Reduced hours and income from work Early retirement Disruptions at work Reduced productivity at work Missed opportunities in career Impact of Family Caregiving: Summmary of Sources Physical Health problems (headaches, stomach
problems, sleep and weight disturbances) Increased use of drugs and health services Exhaustion and low stamina Self neglect Increased morbidity and mortality Impact of Family Caregiving: Summmary of Sources Emotional Grief, loss and hopelessness Guilt, anger and resentment Giving up time for self, family Strained social and family relationships
Social isolation Worry and anxiety Depression Should Family Members Provide Care? Should they be Financially Compensated? PROS
It will expand capacity and supply of workers It will increase gender and family equity It will increase elders satisfaction as a consumer It will decrease administrative and bureaucratic barriers Should Family Members Provide Care? Should they be Financially Compensated? CONS
It will increase family exploitation It will cause caregiver stress and strain It will lead to elder abuse and fraud It will incur increased costs
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