Fibrous Joints - Glencoe High School

Fibrous Joints - Glencoe High School

Chapter 08 Lecture Outline See separate PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables preinserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Introduction Joints (Articulations): Functional junctions between bones Bind parts of skeletal system together

Make bone growth possible Permit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirth Enable body to move in response to skeletal muscle contractions 2 8.1: Types of Joints Structural Classification of Joints: Fibrous Cartilaginous

Synovial Functional Classification of Joints: Synarthroticimmovable Amphiarthroticslightly movable Diarthroticfreely movable 3 Fibrous Joints Fibrous joints are held together with dense connective tissue containing many collagen fibers; found in bones in close contact There are 3 types of fibrous joints: Syndesmosis Suture Gomphosis Syndesmosis:

Bones bound by a sheet of dense connective tissue (interosseous membrane) or a bundle of dense connective tissue (interosseous ligament) Amphiarthrotic (flexible, may twist) Lies between tibia and fibula 4 Fibrous Joints Syndesmosis (Interosseous membrane) Sutures

Gomphosis (Teeth) Fibrous Joints Suture: Between flat bones of skull Thin layer of connective tissue (sutural ligament) connects bones Synarthrotic (immovable) Gomphosis:

Cone-shaped bony process in a socket in jawbone Tooth in jawbone by periodontal ligament Synarthrotic (immovable) 6 Cartilaginous Joints Cartilaginous joints are connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage There are 2 types of cartilaginous joints: Synchondrosis Symphysis Synchondrosis:

Bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones Some are temporary, such as epiphyseal plate Between manubrium and the first rib 7 Cartilaginous Joints Symphysis:

Pad of fibrocartilage between bones Amphiarthrotic (limited movement) Pubic symphysis Joint between bodies of adjacent vertebrae (intervertebral discs) 8 Synovial Joints Synovial Joints: Most joints are synovial joints All are diarthrotic joints

Structure of s synovial joint: Articular cartilage covers articular ends of bones Joint capsule, consists of 2 layers: - Outer fibrous layer, composed of ligaments - Inner layer, synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid 9 General Structure of Synovial Joints Synovial joints are more complex than other types of joints, and contain the following parts: Articular cartilage Joint capsule Ligaments Synovial membrane Synovial cavity Synovial fluid Meniscus (-i) in some joints

Bursa (-ae) in some joints 10 Types of Synovial Joints There are 6 types of synovial joints, classified by shape and movements they allow: Ball-and-Socket Joint: Round head in cup-shaped cavity Widest range of motion Multiaxial, plus rotation Hip, shoulder

Condylar Joint: Oval condyle fits into elliptical cavity Back-and-forth, side-to-side movement Biaxial movement, no rotation Joints between metacarpals & phalanges 11 Types of Synovial Joints Plane Joint:

Almost flat, or slightly curved Back-and-forth and twisting Nonaxial movement Wrist and ankle joints Hinge Joint: Convex surface fits into concave surface of other bone Uniaxial movement (in 1 plane) Elbow, joints between phalanges 12

Types of Synovial Joints Pivot Joint: Cylindrical surface rotates within ring of other bone Uniaxial movement Rotation only Atlas (C1) and dens of axis (C2) Saddle Joint:

Both bones have concave and convex surfaces Biaxial movement (in 2 planes) Carpal & metacarpal of thumb 13 Types of Joint Movements Abduction / adduction Flexion / extension / hyperextension Lateral flexion 14 Types of Joint Movements

Dorsiflexion / plantar flexion Circumduction / rotation Medial rotation / lateral rotation Supination / pronation 15 Types of Joint Movements Inversion / eversion Protraction / retraction Elevation / depression 16 Shoulder Joint Shoulder Joint:

Ball-and-socket Head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula Loose joint capsule Ligaments prevent displacement Glenoid labrum Several bursae Very wide range of movement, including rotation, circumduction

17 Shoulder Joint Major ligaments of the shoulder joint: Coracohumeral ligament Glenohumeral ligaments Transverse humeral ligament 18 Elbow Joint Elbow Joint: Contains 2 articulations: Hinge joint:

- Between trochlea of humerus and trochlear notch of ulna - Flexion / extension only Plane (gliding) joint: - Between capitulum of humerus and fovea on head of radius - Pronation / supination Several reinforcing ligaments 19 Elbow Joint Major ligaments of elbow joint: Radial collateral ligament Ulnar collateral ligament

Anular ligament 20 Hip Joint Hip Joint: Ball-and-socket joint Head of femur and acetabulum of hip bone Acetabular labrum Heavy joint capsule

Many reinforcing ligaments Variety of movement, yet less than at shoulder joint 21 Hip Joint Major ligaments of the hip joint: Iliofemoral ligament (strongest ligament in body) Pubofemoral ligament Ischiofemoral ligament 22

Knee Joint Knee Joint: Largest & most complex joint 3 bones: Femur: Medial and lateral condyles of distal end Tibia: Medial and lateral condyles of proximal end Patella: Articulates with anterior surface of femur

Strengthened by many ligaments and tendons Cushioned by bursae, fat pads Menisci separate femur and tibia 23 Knee Joint Major ligaments of the knee joint: Patellar ligament Oblique popliteal ligament

Arcuate popliteal ligament Tibial (medial) collateral ligament Fibular (lateral) collateral ligament Anterior cruciate ligament Posterior cruciate ligament Knee joint characteristics: Modified hinge joint between condyles Flexion / extension Some rotation when knee is flexed Plane joint between femur & patella

24 Clinical Application 8.2 Joint Disorders Sprains: Tearing of connective tissue in joint, without bone dislocation Bursitis: Inflammation of a bursa, from overuse or stress Arthritis:

Inflammation, swelling, and pain in a joint - Rheumatoid arthritis: autoimmune disease - Osteoarthritis: degenerative, most common type, occurs with aging - Lyme arthritis: caused by Lyme disease, passed through tick bite 25 8.4: Lifespan Changes Joint stiffness is an early sign of aging Many people develop arthritis as they age Activity and exercise can keep joints functional longer 26

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Digestion & Nutrition 15.1 Intro to digestion Objective

    Digestion & Nutrition 15.1 Intro to digestion Objective

    Gastroileal reflex is a response to circulating levels of the hormone gastrin (opens ileocecal valve at the entrance of the large intestines). Large Intestine A. The large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes and forms and stores feces. B. Parts of...
  • types of sentences

    types of sentences

    An idea (like a proper sentence with someone doing something) and some information that can't stand alone (it isn't a sentence by itself) This is an INDEPENDENT clause (a complete sentence - can stand on its own) and a DEPENDENT...
  • Code Crimson/ Code Crimson Trauma -

    Code Crimson/ Code Crimson Trauma -

    Code Crimson/Code Crimson Trauma. Adult - Allentown & Bethlehem Process Review 2013. Directions for Completion . 1. Before proceeding to the posttest, be sure you review the . PowerPoint© program that follows this slide and the APPM


    A fellow student said a joke About an Indian who plays with smoke Thank god my teacher wasn't near The bad joke she didn't hear Antoniou Stelios SCHOOL POEM They went to school To play the fool Their teacher Who...
  • The Principle of Double Effect: A Guide to the Ethical Issues

    The Principle of Double Effect: A Guide to the Ethical Issues

    Consequentialism and the Principle of Double Effect. The principle of double effect finds its natural home in deontological, non-consequentialist moral theories, since it turns very specifically on the intention of the moral agent.
  • Structure and Function - Susquehanna University

    Structure and Function - Susquehanna University

    Structure and Function. Molecular phylogenetics. Molecules have form that is related to function. Confirms relationship Darwinian relationship between form and function thus connecting form to adaptation (natural selection) ML phylogeny based on SSU rRNA
  • Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative

    Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative

    Outline of Presentation "Paradox of Plenty" Ominous correlations Corruption typology Relevant actors Oil value chain Remedies and responses Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) "Paradox of Plenty" Widespread resource wealth in developing countries Potential for good has ...
  • Technology Enhanced Learning for Fieldwork Derek France1, Julian

    Technology Enhanced Learning for Fieldwork Derek France1, Julian

    in FSC RHYD-Y-CREUAU, Betws y coed, North Wales, UK, 13-15 September 2013. Email . [email protected] THE FUTURE . of Enhancing Fieldwork Learning project 2014: key sponsor British Ecological Society. Talk to us about organising your own . Hack Event .