Chapter 08 Lecture Outline See separate PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables preinserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Introduction Joints (Articulations): Functional junctions between bones Bind parts of skeletal system together
Make bone growth possible Permit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirth Enable body to move in response to skeletal muscle contractions 2 8.1: Types of Joints Structural Classification of Joints: Fibrous Cartilaginous
Synovial Functional Classification of Joints: Synarthroticimmovable Amphiarthroticslightly movable Diarthroticfreely movable 3 Fibrous Joints Fibrous joints are held together with dense connective tissue containing many collagen fibers; found in bones in close contact There are 3 types of fibrous joints: Syndesmosis Suture Gomphosis Syndesmosis:
Bones bound by a sheet of dense connective tissue (interosseous membrane) or a bundle of dense connective tissue (interosseous ligament) Amphiarthrotic (flexible, may twist) Lies between tibia and fibula 4 Fibrous Joints Syndesmosis (Interosseous membrane) Sutures
Gomphosis (Teeth) Fibrous Joints Suture: Between flat bones of skull Thin layer of connective tissue (sutural ligament) connects bones Synarthrotic (immovable) Gomphosis:
Cone-shaped bony process in a socket in jawbone Tooth in jawbone by periodontal ligament Synarthrotic (immovable) 6 Cartilaginous Joints Cartilaginous joints are connected by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage There are 2 types of cartilaginous joints: Synchondrosis Symphysis Synchondrosis:
Bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones Some are temporary, such as epiphyseal plate Between manubrium and the first rib 7 Cartilaginous Joints Symphysis:
Pad of fibrocartilage between bones Amphiarthrotic (limited movement) Pubic symphysis Joint between bodies of adjacent vertebrae (intervertebral discs) 8 Synovial Joints Synovial Joints: Most joints are synovial joints All are diarthrotic joints
Structure of s synovial joint: Articular cartilage covers articular ends of bones Joint capsule, consists of 2 layers: - Outer fibrous layer, composed of ligaments - Inner layer, synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid 9 General Structure of Synovial Joints Synovial joints are more complex than other types of joints, and contain the following parts: Articular cartilage Joint capsule Ligaments Synovial membrane Synovial cavity Synovial fluid Meniscus (-i) in some joints
Bursa (-ae) in some joints 10 Types of Synovial Joints There are 6 types of synovial joints, classified by shape and movements they allow: Ball-and-Socket Joint: Round head in cup-shaped cavity Widest range of motion Multiaxial, plus rotation Hip, shoulder
Condylar Joint: Oval condyle fits into elliptical cavity Back-and-forth, side-to-side movement Biaxial movement, no rotation Joints between metacarpals & phalanges 11 Types of Synovial Joints Plane Joint:
Almost flat, or slightly curved Back-and-forth and twisting Nonaxial movement Wrist and ankle joints Hinge Joint: Convex surface fits into concave surface of other bone Uniaxial movement (in 1 plane) Elbow, joints between phalanges 12
Types of Synovial Joints Pivot Joint: Cylindrical surface rotates within ring of other bone Uniaxial movement Rotation only Atlas (C1) and dens of axis (C2) Saddle Joint:
Both bones have concave and convex surfaces Biaxial movement (in 2 planes) Carpal & metacarpal of thumb 13 Types of Joint Movements Abduction / adduction Flexion / extension / hyperextension Lateral flexion 14 Types of Joint Movements
Ball-and-socket Head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula Loose joint capsule Ligaments prevent displacement Glenoid labrum Several bursae Very wide range of movement, including rotation, circumduction
17 Shoulder Joint Major ligaments of the shoulder joint: Coracohumeral ligament Glenohumeral ligaments Transverse humeral ligament 18 Elbow Joint Elbow Joint: Contains 2 articulations: Hinge joint:
- Between trochlea of humerus and trochlear notch of ulna - Flexion / extension only Plane (gliding) joint: - Between capitulum of humerus and fovea on head of radius - Pronation / supination Several reinforcing ligaments 19 Elbow Joint Major ligaments of elbow joint: Radial collateral ligament Ulnar collateral ligament
Anular ligament 20 Hip Joint Hip Joint: Ball-and-socket joint Head of femur and acetabulum of hip bone Acetabular labrum Heavy joint capsule
Many reinforcing ligaments Variety of movement, yet less than at shoulder joint 21 Hip Joint Major ligaments of the hip joint: Iliofemoral ligament (strongest ligament in body) Pubofemoral ligament Ischiofemoral ligament 22
Knee Joint Knee Joint: Largest & most complex joint 3 bones: Femur: Medial and lateral condyles of distal end Tibia: Medial and lateral condyles of proximal end Patella: Articulates with anterior surface of femur
Strengthened by many ligaments and tendons Cushioned by bursae, fat pads Menisci separate femur and tibia 23 Knee Joint Major ligaments of the knee joint: Patellar ligament Oblique popliteal ligament
Arcuate popliteal ligament Tibial (medial) collateral ligament Fibular (lateral) collateral ligament Anterior cruciate ligament Posterior cruciate ligament Knee joint characteristics: Modified hinge joint between condyles Flexion / extension Some rotation when knee is flexed Plane joint between femur & patella
24 Clinical Application 8.2 Joint Disorders Sprains: Tearing of connective tissue in joint, without bone dislocation Bursitis: Inflammation of a bursa, from overuse or stress Arthritis:
Inflammation, swelling, and pain in a joint - Rheumatoid arthritis: autoimmune disease - Osteoarthritis: degenerative, most common type, occurs with aging - Lyme arthritis: caused by Lyme disease, passed through tick bite 25 8.4: Lifespan Changes Joint stiffness is an early sign of aging Many people develop arthritis as they age Activity and exercise can keep joints functional longer 26
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