# Financial Management: Principles and Applications, 12/e

Chapter 8 Risk and Return Capital Market Theory Portfolio Returns and Portfolio Risk With appropriate diversification, you can lower the risk of your portfolio without lowering the portfolios expected rate of return. Those risks that can be eliminated by diversification are not necessarily rewarded

in the financial marketplace. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-2 Calculating the Expected Return of a Portfolio To calculate a portfolios expected rate of return, we weight each individual investments expected rate of return using the fraction of the portfolio that is invested in each

investment. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-3 Calculating the Expected Return of a Portfolio (cont.) E(rportfolio) = the expected rate of return on a portfolio of n assets. Wi = the portfolio weight for asset i.

E(ri ) = the expected rate of return earned by asset i. W1 E(r1) = the contribution of asset 1 to the portfolio expected return. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-4 Evaluating Portfolio Risk: Portfolio Diversification The effect of reducing risks by including a

large number of investments in a portfolio is called diversification. The diversification gains achieved will depend on the degree of correlation among the investments, measured by correlation coefficient. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-5 Portfolio Diversification (cont.)

The correlation coefficient can range from 1.0 (perfect negative correlation), meaning that two variables move in perfectly opposite directions to +1.0 (perfect positive correlation). Lower the correlation, greater will be the diversification benefits. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-6 Diversification Lessons 1. A portfolio can be less risky than the

average risk of its individual investments in the portfolio. 2. The key to reducing risk through diversification - combine investments whose returns are not perfectly positively correlated. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-7 Calculating the Standard Deviation

of a Portfolios Returns Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-8 Figure 8-1 Diversification and the Correlation CoefficientApple and CocaCola Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-9

Figure 8-1 Diversification and the Correlation CoefficientApple and CocaCola (cont.) Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-10 The Impact of Correlation Coefficient on the Risk of the Portfolio We observe (from figure 8.1) that lower the correlation, greater is the benefit of

diversification. Correlation between investment returns Diversification Benefits +1 No benefit 0.0

Substantial benefit -1 Maximum benefit. Indeed, the risk of portfolio can be reduced to zero. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

8-11 Systematic Risk and Market Portfolio According to the CAPM, the relevant risk of an investment relates to how the investment contributes to the risk of this market portfolio. CAPM assumes that investors chose to hold the optimally diversified portfolio that includes all of the economys assets (referred to as the market portfolio).

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-12 Systematic Risk and Market Portfolio (cont.) To understand how an investment contributes to the risk of the portfolio, we categorize the risks of the individual investments into two categories: Systematic risk, and Unsystematic risk

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-13 Systematic Risk and Market Portfolio (cont.) The systematic risk component measures the contribution of the investment to the risk of the market portfolio. For example: War, recession. The unsystematic risk is the element of

risk that does not contribute to the risk of the market and is diversified away. For example: Product recall, labor strike, change of management. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-14 Diversification and Unsystematic Risk Figure 8-2 illustrates that, as the number of securities in a portfolio increases, the

contribution of the unsystematic risk to the standard deviation of the portfolio declines while the systematic risk is not reduced. Thus large portfolios will not be affected by unsystematic risk. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-15 Figure 8.2 Portfolio Risk and the Number of Investments in the Portfolio

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-16 Systematic Risk and Beta Systematic risk is measured by beta coefficient, which estimates the extent to which a particular investments returns vary with the returns on the market portfolio. In practice, it is estimated as the slope of a straight line (see figure 8-3).

Figure 8.3 Estimating Home Depots (HD) Beta Coefficient (cont.) Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-19 Beta Table 8-1 illustrates the wide variation in Betas for various companies. Utilities companies can be considered less risky because of their lower betas. For example,

based on the beta estimates, a 1% drop in market could lead to a .74% drop in AEP but a much greater 2.9% drop in AAPL. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-20 Table 8.1 Beta Coefficients for Selected Companies Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

8-21 Calculating Portfolio Beta The portfolio beta measures the systematic risk of the portfolio. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-22 Calculating Portfolio Beta (cont.)

Example Consider a portfolio that is comprised of four investments with betas equal to 1.50, 0.75, 1.80 and 0.60 respectively. If you invest equal amount in each investment, what will be the beta for the portfolio? = .25(1.50) + .25(0.75) + .25(1.80) + .25 (0.60) = 1.16 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-23

The Security Market Line and the CAPM CAPM describes how the betas relate to the expected rates of return. Investors will require a higher rate of return on investments with higher betas. Figure 8-4 provides the expected returns and betas for portfolios comprised of market portfolio and risk-free asset. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

8-24 Figure 8.4 Risk and Return for Portfolios Containing the Market and the Risk-Free Security Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-25 Figure 8.4 Risk and Return for Portfolios Containing the Market and the Risk-Free

Security (cont.) Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-26 The Security Market Line and the CAPM (cont.) The straight line relationship between the betas and expected returns in Figure 8-4 is called the security market line (SML), and its slope is often referred to as the reward to

risk ratio. Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-27 The Security Market Line and the CAPM (cont.) SML is a graphical representation of the CAPM. SML can be expressed as the following equation, which is often referred to as the CAPM pricing equation:

Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-28 Using the CAPM to Estimate the Expected Rate of Return Equation 8-6 implies that higher the systematic risk of an investment, other things remaining the same, the higher will be the expected rate of return an investor would require to invest in the asset.