Floral Design History - University of Idaho

Floral Design History - University of Idaho

FLORAL DESIGN HISTORY HISTORICAL PERIODS: EGYPTIAN 2800-28 BC:

Repetition and alteration Lotus flowerEgyptian goddess Isis

traced back as far as 2500 b.c. Separate primary colors Egyptian flower vases made to hold up flowers with weaker stems like lotus

Festivals and feasts Faiencetype of finely ground silicate Mostly used wide-mouth bowls During time of pharaohs lotus, papyrus and palm tree most commonly portrayed members of the plant kingdom Mostly used wide-mouth bowls Weak flower stems supported by smaller tubes in vase like lotus blossom

Stone relief from the old Kingdom tomb of Perneb showing a bowl filled with lotus blossoms and buds. Elaborately designed metal vases, one of which holds lotus blossomsoriginals probably had inset fragments of colorful stones Used for ceremonial tribute GREEK (CLASSICAL) 600146 BC:

Garlands-exchanged by lovers, worn at weddings and hung on door to denote the birth of a son Wreaths-a symbol of allegiance and dedication

rewarded to athletes, poets, civic leaders and victorious soldiers and sailors Cornucopia --symbol of abundance

Scattered petals Mythology Chaplet-head piece Professional flower makers and sellers Wreaths and garlands worn for personal adornment or decoration ROMAN 28 BC-AD 325:

Continued the use of garlands and wreaths (fuller, wider) Day to day life and celebrations Rose petals piled on floor

Nero and Cleopatra used them extravagantly during festivities lavish and fantastic strewn on banquet

tables and couches, streets and lakes Grew roses among hot water pipes to supply all demand Sachet Fragrance Roman mosaic Beginning of 2nd century a.d. Basket of mixed flowersfirst representation of a truly naturalistic flower bouquet

Basket motif recurs throughout history of art Maiden gathering flowers wall paining found in a town destroyed by Vesuvius in a.d. 79 BYZANTINE 320600 AD:

Garlands of fruit Symmetrical conical designs with concentric rings of fruit, stones, jewels, metals. Tree compositions Symmetrical and conical

MIDDLE AGES 4761400 AD: Warring feudal lords state of unrest Monks

grew herbs were well acquainted with many of the beautiful everyday

flowers illuminated in manuscripts Everyday lifewild and cultivated used in food, drink, medicine Fragrant flowers strewn on ground and freshen air Art belonged to the churchstained glass windows, mosaics, tapestries, sculpture, paintings and illuminated religious books

RENAISSANCE 1400-1600 AD: Resurgence and flourishing of the arts Religious symbolism

7 flowers representing the 7 stations of the cross purity represented by certain flowersusually the white lily (Virgin Mary) because it appeared in so many Annunciation paintings, it soon became known as the Madonna Lily

Seven fully-opened columbine flowers represent the seven gifts of the holy spiritwisdom, understanding, counsel, strength, knowledge, true godliness and holy fear Annunciation where angel appears to Mary

rose represented sacred or profane love RENAISSANCE 1400-1600 AD:

Old garden book for growing, freshening and arranging flowersFlora overo Cultura di Fiori Bouquets usually pyramidal and full Containers made for arranging flowers

removable lid so flower arrangement can be lifted and flowers recut every 3rd day tearred affect so short stemmed flowers could be placed on top Pink and white roses in classic renaissance vase. White lily depicting the Annunciation, symbolized chastity and fertility

Vases ornate and formaldesigned for the arrangement of flowers Removable lids with holes in them BAROQUE 1600-1775 AD:

Influence of artists The S curve or Hogarth curve Lavish designs--bright colors Large, overly proportioned designs in big, heavy containers Not for church or nobility any longer middle class could have flowersdue to

trading and redistribution of wealth with new world Baroqueasymmetrical, massed, and overflowing sweeping lines dramatic contrasts of large and small, dark and light DUTCH-FLEMISH 1550-1760 AD:

Holland and Belgium Tulip imported from Turkey New flowers-- particularly out of season

greenhouse grown flowers Paintings included composite groups of flowers painted during different seasons Terra-cotta Age of great scientific, botanical and horticultural discoveries Delftware-copied Chinese porcelain vases in blue and white but less expensivenamed after Netherland city where it was invented

Illuminated book of hours Flemish Symbolism in the selection of flowers, the little jug, the glass tumbler, and the two handled bottle in which the flowers are placed suggest the casual and natural gesture of bringing cut flowers indoors Little or no overlapping flowerseach flower clearly evident Scattering of shells, insects, etc. characteristic of Dutch-Flemish

still life Complementary colors blue and orange delphinium FRENCH PERIODS: FRENCH BAROQUE 1600S:

Louis XIV--effeminate extravagance Art evolved around the aristocracy Topiary balls or trees Chateau of Versailles large

rooms decorated with elaborate wood and stone carvings marble fireplaces and floors decorative flower arrangements large in scale Enormous conservatory stored 3000 orange trees during the winter using

hothouses to supply indoor plants for massive decoration Elegant and highly ornate Many made of porcelain FRENCH ROCOCO 1700S:

Louis XIV mistress-Antoinette Poisson, the Marquis do Pompadour had great influence. Asymmetrical, curvilinear, formal crescent

(C curve) Rock and shell curving lines Predominant subtle colors: apricot, peach, cream, rose, gray, sage green, yellow, beige, turquoise, and powder blue Delicate accessories Porcelain vases

Beauty and overabundance LOUIS XVI LATE 1700S: Strong feminine influence of Marie Antoinette delicate, cool colors, highlighted with gold, more simple containers than previous

1785 Crystal vase mounted in gold lilac EMPIRE 1804-1814:

Strong use of neoclassical design ideas Napoleon Bonaparte Masculine designs, dramatic, militaristic, dictator-oriented symbols predominate Heavy massive designs and containers with large boldly colored flowers

ENGLISH PERIODS: ENGLISH-GEORGIAN PERIOD 1714-1760:

Named after English Kings George I,II, III Full, strongly stylized symmetrical bouquets, oval to triangular shapes Formal and symmetricaltightly arranged tuzzy-muzzy or nosegay

tuzzy refers to old English word for knot of flowers Nosegay to carry the sweet scentsrelief from unsanitary surroundings Fragrance to rid air of contagious and infectious diseases

Decolletageflowers around neckline of a dress Bough potflower filled container set in the fireplace in non heated seasons Wedgwood--English potter Josiah Wedgwoodfine ceramic ware used during this seasonspecial holes to hold flowers in stiff and formal shape Nosegay believed that carrying a small perfumed bouquet would

rid the air of infectious diseases English woman Large in proportion to the container, massed, and oval Two handled metal container Dainty arrangements that led to todays bud vase Wall vase

the ladys last stake Paired bouquets on the mantle piece the vicar of the parish at the house of the infant squire Bough pot VICTORIAN PERIOD 18201901: Of all modes of enlivening the aspect of an

apartment, there is perhaps none more pleasing than the sight of plants and flowers suitably arranged and distributed. They are ornaments of Natures own producing, which inspire an interest apart from their beauty, by the care and attention required for their culture. They employ the hand, delight the eye, and inform and edify the mind, and, unlike many artificial objects, the enjoyment and instruction they afford are within

the reach of all, the poor may partake as well as the rich. --Article written in Jan 1855 VICTORIAN PERIOD 1820-1901:

Named after Queen Victoria who reined in England from 1837 to 1901 Floral design recognized as an art Establishing rules of design led to the development of todays floral industry Girls taught to arrange flowers and make tussie-mussies as well as grow, preserve, press, draw and paint flowers

Make artificial flowers using shells, wax, feathers, hair, textiles, and beads Bouquets poorly designed. Airless,overstuffed and flat, symmetrical, with no particular focal point. Short-stemmed flowers VICTORIAN PERIOD 18201901:

Nosegays more popularconveyed sentiments silent messages depending on what went into them

Posey holderssmall container to hold nosegay made of metals, steel, and alloy, ivory, glass, painted porcelain, amber, tortoiseshell, and mother of pearl, inlaid with jewels, pearls, and small mirrors

Included two small chainsone with ring for finger, other pin attached to secure flowers VICTORIAN PERIOD 18201901: Bosom bottlessmall container to hold flowers used as an accent for clothing worn

at decolletage Complementary color schemesblue next to orange and so on

Sand used to place flowers into bosom bottles also made to go in hair or waist Elaborate hand-painted porcelain, metal and ceramic containers typify the entire Victorian period Children of Israel and Sarah Ann Griffith Compactness of the bouquets and nosegay-outlines softened by

delicate green foliage EARLY AMERICAN PERIODS: (Closely correlated with the simultaneous periods in Europe) EARLY AMERICAN PERIOD 1620-1720:

Simplified versions of the European designs Colonists were avid gardeners Common people who lived a puritan

existence Common household containers Bouquets made of wildflowers, often including dried materials. Simple and charming containers, pitchers, jugs, cups and kettles made from pottery, copper, and pewter COLONIAL WILLIAMSBURG

PERIOD 1714-1780: Life more sophisticated Trade provided a richer choice of containers

and materials Designs copied from floral prints and tapestries Designs were fan-shaped or mounded Fruit and flowers placed for centerpiece fruit and flowers American artist 1835

AMERICAN FEDERAL PERIOD 1780-1820: The neoclassical, Empire New freedom and independence Designs were influenced by the delicate

French, the masculine French, and an emphasis on the individual merits of each flower. AMERICAN VICTORIAN 18451900:

Romantic era Copied European Victorian Epergne Epernge Fruit and flowers used for centerpieces in Victorian Europe and America The flower girl

ORIENTAL INFLUENCE: place emphasis on individual form, texture, and color of plant material Great attention to negative space and line

CHINESE STYLE: China known as The Flowery Kingdom. Unstructured and naturalistic, but require careful thought and planning. 1.art of contemplationConfucius

Confuciusreal enjoyment consists in simplicity there is a distraction that comes from viewing too much beauty serenity to be gained from savoring one thing at a time shadow of a tree on a pondstructure, seasons, strength a few flowers in a vase can conjure up the whole life-history of a plant, as well as display the

beauty of perfect blooms CHINESE STYLE: 2.preservation of life-Buddhism prohibits taking of lifecut flowers

sparingly Not conquering nature, following it.

Gardens have strategic flowering plants instead of massesareas for contemplation 3.floral symbolism-folklore

all flowers are feminine because of fragile beauty and are given womens names tree peony most revered of all flowers liked to depict the seasons Appears unstructured and naturalistic but requires careful thought and planning

Tree peonymost revered of all flowers coupled with early flowering plum Paper-white narcissus symbolic of the new year and fungus, symbolic of longevity JAPANESE STYLE A.K.A. IKEBANA

Highly formalized and follows strict rules of construction--Ikenobo

Adapted from ancient Chinese art and steeped in tradition and symbolism. Materials placed in a manner reflecting how they are found in nature. Arrangements emphasize simplicity and line JAPANESE STYLE A.K.A. IKEBANA

Ono-no-Imokofounded Ikenoboflower arranging school Items found in nature would complement the flowers, rocks, pine, bamboo, cypress, cedar water Exclusively by men at firstpriest then nobility and warrior class to find tranquility of mind and

relief from lifes tension in the handling and observation of flowers In the doing not it the decorating Contests and books of instruction Flowers never used out of seasonwater, branches Elements of a design face each other JAPANESE STYLE

A.K.A. IKEBANA Heaven, man, earth (shin, soe, tai) Shin one and one half times the height of the container Soe two thirds the length of Shin Tai is two thirds the length of soe line

Emphasize simplicity and line Informal So style of Ikenobo arrangement Shoka arrangement Heaven man earth MODERN FLORAL

ARRANGING: ART NOUVEAU 1890-1910:

Curvilinear lines Patterned after nature Shape of plants or flowers as well as the human form Asymmetrical flower arrangement Curving lines of nature, organic motifs Animals, foliage, vines, flowers

Asymmetrical cascading waterfall style ART DECO 1925-1930

Derived from 1925 Paris worlds Fair exhibition. Characterized as strong, streamlined, geometric lines, forms and patterns, including zigzags, pyramids, and sunburst motifs Known as le style 25 Abstract, angular and unusual Glass bricks popular in 1940s

Strong, streamline, geometric lines, forms and patterns FREE-FORM EXPRESSION 1950S:

A modern, natural appearance. Expressive with both a feeling of movement and of freedom Use of driftwood and other figurines in designs Freedom of expression Bold foliage, oriental influence of line and use of driftwood

GEOMETRIC MASS DESIGN 1960-1970S: Tight geometric bouquets. Include mass and line. Tight geometric designs symmetrical and asymmetrical

CONTEMPORARY Contemporary refers to the time of the present or of recent times Called modern because they generally are

different than whatever style was previously popular CULTURES THAT HAVE HAD THE GREATEST INFLUENCE IN TODAYS DESIGN:

Oriental Line European Mass

Line-Mass American, or Western Style EUROPEAN ORIENTAL EXAMPLES OF

STUDENT ACTIVITIES PERIOD FLORAL DESIGN CHAPLET

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