Food Technology GCSE Revision - Walton High School
Food Technology GCSE Revision 2014 Walton High School Topic areas Use AQA Design Technology - Food Function and properties of food: Starch (flour), sugar, protein (eggs), fats and oils Ingredients: Raising Agents Page in AQA book 10 17 28,29 Processes &Techniques: enrobing, shaping, forming, finishing techniques, tenderising Colloidal Structures (gels, suspensions, foams, emulsions) 18,19
The Eatwell plate, government guidelines, 5-a-day The Nutrients (Protein, Carbohydrates, Fat, Vitamins, Minerals, Water, NSP) Dietary needs & special diets Environmental considerations (nano, organic, fairtrade, farm assured, food miles, GM) 20,21 30,31 22 23 92, 93 Cake making methods (rubbing in, creaming, melting, whisked) 32,33 Pastry making methods (shortcrust, puff, choux) The function of ingredients(pastry) 38,39
Sauce Making Methods, function of ingredients (sauce) 44-47 Bread, function of ingredients in bread 50-53 40,41 Topic areas Use AQA Design Technology - Food Page in AQA book Equipment Equipment and nutrition 62-65
Food Spoilage Food Storage & reheating Food handling 68, 69 66,67 70, 71 72, 73 Additives Use and effect of additives Acids and Alkalis 76, 77 78, 79 54, 55 80, 81
110-113 2014 GCSE Food Technology Revision - Section A Design question: How to get full marks (5/ 6 marks) for design ideas recognisable sketch that fits design criteria explain HOW your design fits the design criteria (refer to the decorations you have chosen) write the product name, draw two DIFFERENT products, label in detail add measurements (what size is the product, is it a small decorated cake or a large decorated cake? Portion sizes etc - could put weight in grams on. Explain HOW your product is suitable for providing sensory appeal e.g. colour, aroma, texture, shape, variety of flavours, finishing techniques. Include finishing techniques and use a variety which complement each other and fulfil what the brief has asked. 1cm Shortbread & Gingernut Biscuit Base Fresh Raspberries Fresh Raspberries In the filling Raspberry Fruit Coulis Raspberry Cheesecake Rich cream
cheese, sour cream and sugar filling 1cm thick digestive biscuit and butter base Fresh Raspberries for garnish Fresh Raspberrys on top for decoration 2014 GCSE Food Technology Revision - Section A Design question: How to get full marks for the how to make your product in a test kitchen question: Comment on: Personal hygiene e.g. tie hair up / wash hands / wear apron Kitchen hygiene e.g. sanitise work surfaces, check equipment is clean Visual checks check ingredients are in date Temperature e.g. preheat oven to 210oC (bread products) 180oC (pasta products) Named process e.g. slicing, dicing, sieving, rolling, whisking aeration, grating, baking etc. Logical sequence e.g. dont bake your cake before it is in the tin. Do not decorate until it has been allowed to cool after cooking Quality control checks e.g. weigh ingredients using calibrated digital scales, check homemade pasta sheets are correct size & shape, has correct amount of sauce been added? Is cheese sauce the correct consistency? Is oven correct temperature? Is cooking time correct? Check product is golden brown. Times e.g. saut onions for 4 minutes, cook chicken until sealed (5 minutes), bake for
20 minutes Kitchen safety e.g. use colour coded chopping boards to avoid cross contamination (definition: the transfer of bacteria from one surface to another e.g. cutting raw chicken and then using the same unwashed knife to cut another product or ingredient). Board colours: red (raw meat), yellow (cooked meat), blue (fish), green (fruit / veg), brown (veg), white (dairy/bread). Kitchen safety 2 e.g. wear oven gloves. For example: Place in preheated oven 180 oC for 25 minutes. Remember to wear oven gloves. Would get you 2 3 marks. Knowing your recipe & quantities of ingredients - try to learn FOUR relevant recipes basic fresh pasta recipe /pasta dishes / white sauce / tomato sauce etc. 2014 GCSE Food Technology Revision - Section A Design question: How to write a design specification. Remember SATSUMAS: Size e.g. it must be an individual, portion 12cm x 8 cm. HOWEVER: If you just copy the design criteria from the question you will NOT get a mark Appearance Describe the appearance of the decorations using sensory vocabulary. Taste / Texture cake must be light, fluffy with consistent air bubbles and display work should be consistent Shape What shape will the product be? How will this shape be achieved? Tin or cutters or piping? Unit cost e.g. my product must cost no more than 1.50 per portion Use by date e.g. my product must have a 3 day shelf life as it contains high risk foods. Materials e.g. my product must be made using seasonal, locally sourced fruit, free range eggs , seasonal fruit, unsalted British butter, Fairtrade cocoa, chocolate and sugar etc.
Age (target group) e.g. my product must be suitable for give an age range, gender and situation make sure this agrees with the design brief Suitability for manufacture is this a one off product or could it be batch produced? If it is smaller could it be mass produced? What are the positives and negatives of each production type? Storage e.g. it must be stored chilled at 0 - 4 oC Useful Websites / books: Website Information www.bbcgoodfood.com/content/recipes/ special-diets/ Recipes for special diets www.fairtrade.org.uk Information and resources about fair-trade and sustainability www.soilassociation.org/ Organic food information www.abelandcole.co.uk/
organic food delivery company www.foodforum.org.uk/ffiles/ Be_good_to_yourselfMat+Nut+Inn+Pro+Man+Con+SysKS4+Post.shtml Food Forum & Useful website www.sainsburys.co.uk Recipe ideas and lots of food information www.uktv.co.uk/food Recipes www.bbc.co.uk/food https://sites.google.com/site/foodrevision/ Revision, past papers & controlled assessment advice www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/design/ foodtech/ BBC Bitesize food technology area tests, activities, videos
www.nutrition.org.uk Information & resources www.food.gov.uk Food standards agency. Food recall info. www.nhs.uk/LiveWell/Goodfood/Pages/ Goodfoodhome.aspx Food & Diet www.nhs.uk/conditions/Food-poisoning/ Pages/Introduction.aspx Food poisoning information www.vegsoc.org Vegetarian Society www.coeliac.org.uk/ Coeliac disease (special diets) The Book we use regularly in the GCSE: Food Technology course is: AQA Design and Technology, Food Technology. Nelson Thomas. ISBN
9781408502723 Sugar Give 3 examples, description and uses of different types of sugars below. Sugar Type Description Uses Sugar is being adapted in recipes because The Functions of Sugar Starch What are the 2 types of Carbohydrates and where are they found? How and where is starch obtained from? Define these key terms and give examples: Bulking Agent Thickening Agent Gelatinisatio
n Gelling Agent Modified Starch Protein Garnish: Thickening: Coagulation: Emulsification: Enriching: functions of eggs Binding: Aeration: Coating: Glazing: Fat Fats are from 3
different sources: Types of Fat 1. 2. 3. Saturated Unsaturated Found in Description: Remember! Saturated fat contains more cholesterol, which has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease. They should therefore be used more sparingly in cooking. The Functions of Fat Function Description Fat coats the flour particles, preventing the flour absorbing the water. Preventing the water absorption stops the gluten developing. If the gluten cannot develop the mixture is shortened giving a crumbly, melt in the mouth texture. Extend shelf-life
Required to add air into food. Eg. When fat is creamed with sugar to helps traps air Colour and shine Adds distinct flavour and odours to food. Eg. Biscuits Emulsion Raising Agents How are raising agents added into food products? Mechanical: Chemical: Biological: In the table give examples how air, steam and carbon dioxide act as raising agents: Air Steam Carbon Dioxide The Eatwell Plate Explain what the Eatwell plate is and why is helps towards a balanced diet.
Fill in the Eatwell plate with the name, nutrients and food examples: What are the 3 guidelines for a healthy diet? 1. 2. 3. Function of Nutrients Nutrient Function in the body Carbohydra te (Starch & sugar) Fat Protein Minerals Iron Calcium Vitamins Vitamin A Vitamin B Vitamin C Vitamin D Important Non-nutrients Water NSP
Non-starch Polysaccharid es Food source Different / Special dietary needs Some people have to follow a special diet because 1. They may need to lose weight 2. They have an illness that needs to be controlled, by what they eat. 3. Certain foods make them ill, so they have to avoid eating them Special Diet Calorie Controlled Lactose Intolerant Coeliac disease Diabetes Nut Allergies Vegetaria n
An explanation of diet and changes which need to be made when following the diet Nutritional Labelling Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) Traffic light labelling. Nutritional Panel Guideline Daily amount (GDAs) **Page 24-27 AQA Food tech book** Processes & Techniques Give a brief explanation and an example of the key processes and techniques. Pg 18. Tenderising is.
Shaping and forming is. Enrobing is.. A Finishing Technique is. Food Structures Page 30/31 Define what a colloidal structure is. Colloidal Part Structur e Emulsion Part Example Mayonnaise Foam Solid Foam
Gel Suspensio n Meringue Liquid eg water White sauce Sauce Making What is the basic 4 components (ingredients) of a sauce: 1. 3. . 2. 4. . Type of How is it made? Give examples of each Sauce type of sauce. Starch Based Fruit or vegetable Eggbased
Oil/water emulsions Cream Acids & Alkalis Define and give food examples of the following: Acid (pH ____ )Alkali (pH ____ )Neutral (pH ____ )Uses of AcidsGive an example of each of the use of the following type of acid: Citric Acid- Acetic Acid (vinegar)- Ascorbic Acid- Uses of Alkalis - What aids the main use of an alkali in food production? Bicarbonate of soda - Curdling is.
Enzymic browning is.. Standard Components A standard component is 3 examples of standard components that might be used and what they are in 5 examples of advantages of using standard components are 5 disadvantages of using standard components are. Types of Equipment What 3 reasons would I use electrical equipment in the kitchen? What 10 processes can be carried out using electrical equipment? 1
6 2 7 3 8 4 9 5 10 What are 6 steps to ensure you use equipment safely and effectively? 1. 4. 2. 5. 3.
6. What electrical equipment would you use for the following? Liquidising soup Rubbing-in shortcrust pastry Slicing peppers for a stir fry Whisking meringues for Pavlova Uses of Equipment What task does each of the following equipment perform? Food Processor Tunnel Ovens Depositor Mandolin Floor Standing Mixer Enrober How to ensure a consistent product every time 1.Plan the production plan out using CAD and program into CAM to ensure general quality control. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Food Spoilage What 4 conditions do Bacteria like to grow in? (Give examples and explanations) T__________ F___ T___ M_______ How do we stop bacteria growing in food? T F T M Temperature -18C 0-5C 5-63C 37C 72C What is happening to bacteria? Food Hygiene (Pg 68/69) How does food poisoning happen? Define what Pathogenic bacteria is. What are the 3 most common types of food poisoning and which foods carry them? 1. S 2. C
3. S How does preservation ensure a longer shelf life? If we change the condition that food is in it can help to remove it: Removal of L.. : Drying, dehydration Alteration of T. : Freezing, chilling Removal of A. : Modified atmosphere packaging Adding a P..: Jamming, Pickling, Salting Food Storage Temperature of Domestic Freezer : Temperature of Commercial Freezer : When food is frozen bacteria Temperature of Fridge: When food is chilled bacteria. What is cryogenic freezing? What 4 essential rules need to be followed when reheating food? 1 2 .. 3 ..
4 . Step 1: Step 2: How do you use a temperature food probe? Step 3: Step 4: Food handling & Personal Hygiene List 7 things food handlers have to do to make sure their hygienic and safe in the kitchen. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Explain what cross-contamination is and when it could occur. Red chopping board is for Green chopping board is for. Yellow chopping board is for. Blue chopping board is for
White chopping board is for.. Additives What is a food additive and what types are available? What are the 4 main roles of additives? 1 2 3 4 Complete the table of additives, functions & food examples: Additive Function Food Example Preservatives Colourings Flavourings Emulsifiers Stabilisers Anti-oxidants Nutritional enhancers Thickeners & Gelling agents What are the issues in the media surrounding E numbers?
Food Production Define the following key terms: Scaling up . Commercially viable .. Production Description Positive/Negative Type One-off Production Describe the following production methods: Batch Production Mass Production
Continuous Flow Production CAD / CAM C_______A____D_____ C_______A____M___________ What are some of the advantages of using CAD/ CAM in food production? Task: Describe what CAD / CAM are and name 3 things they are used for in food production. Description 3 things it is used for in food production (Designing) CAD
1. 2. 3. (Making) CAM 1. 2. 3. Computer Control Give 7 examples of how computer control and monitoring used in food processing. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Give 4 examples of how computers monitor food safely. 1. 2. 3. 4. Quality Control
Describe what Quality Control is and how it can be carried out: What can be monitored by computer sensors? What is a sensory evaluation? Define what Tolerance means. Packaging & Labelling Reason Explanation P P Why do we package & label food? P P List 10 Things that must be displayed on a food product label (according to EU Law): 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 Packaging Materials Task: Give 2 advantages and 1 disadvantage for each material for food packaging: Advantage Disadvantage Metal Paperboard/ Plastic Card Glass Material Give food packaging examples of each type of material: Glass Plastic Paperboard Metal /card Environmental Considerations How can manufacturers be more
environmentally friendly with their packaging? 1 .. 2 . 3 Genetically Modified . Nanofoods 4 Organic Food . 5 Fairtrade . Farm assured Define the following key terms: Food miles Key words/Terms Additives - Substances added to food in small amounts to perform a function such as to preserve, colour or flavour a product. Aesthetics - The appreciation of good taste or good design. The product appeals to your senses. It looks appealing, I want to eat it!
Ambient temperature - Normal room temperature. 20 - 25C Antibacterial - Working against or prohibiting the growth of bacteria. Bacteria - Small microscopic organisms found all about us. They multiply by splitting in two every 20 mins. (Binary fission) Batch production - Producing a small quantity of identical products. For GCSE assume 50. Blast chill - To cool food quickly by blasting it with cold air. Blast freezing - Quickly freezing that makes small ice crystals which do less damage to the food than slow freezing. Brand - A particular make of product usually with a well known name e.g. Heinz baked beans. C.A.D. - Computer-aided design e.g. programs used for designing packaging. C.A.M.- Computer-aided manufacture. e.g. using a computer to help control baking temperatures. Component - A ready prepared part of something. e.g. a ready made pizza base. Consumer - A person who buys or uses products and services. Continuous-flow production - Continuous processing 24/7. Expensive to set up, cheap to run. Fewer people employed; usually computer controlled. Cook-chill - Food that has been cooked, fast chilled and then stored at low temperatures. Cook-freeze - Food that has been cooked, fast frozen and then stored below freezing point. Cross contamination - The transfer of harmful bacteria from one area to another. Danger zone - The temperature range in which bacteria thrive (4 60c). Diet - The food and drink that we eat.
Dietary Reference Values DRVs - DRVs show the amount of food energy or other nutrients needed by people of different ages. Due diligence - In food preparation this means that the company has set up systems to help avoid contamination of food products. E numbers - The number given to an additive to show that it has been approved by the EU. Environmental Health Officer EHO - The enforcement officer at local government level who covers public health such as the hygiene of food premises and food safety. Flow diagram - Step by step chart or plan of a system or production process. H.A.C.C.P. - Hazard analysis and critical control point. Hazard - Anything that can cause harm to the consumer. High risk area - The section in the food preparation area where food is most likely to be contaminated by bacteria. High risk foods - Those most likely to encourage bacterial growth. e.g. cooked meat, cooked poultry, fish, dairy foods. Image/Mood board - A display of pictures and drawings to give ideas about a target group or a range of products. Just in time - Some factories & fast food outlets order stock just in time to manufacture the product. They do not have room to store it days/weeks in advance. Key words / Design Criteria - Important words that may relate to the design brief. Logo - The symbol of a company used on products. Low risk area - Section in the food preparation area where food is less likely to be contaminated by bacteria.
M.A.P. - Modified atmosphere packaging. Removing the air and flushing the packet with a gas. Marketable product - One that appeals to people and will sell when it reaches the shops; to succeed, all products must be marketable. Modelling - To experiment with an idea without actually cooking it. You can model the nutritional value of a food product by using FOODPC6. One-off production - One product is made, usually to order. It is unique. It can be expensive. Organoleptic Testing - A posh term for sensory analysis. Using your sensory organs to test a product. In simple language, taste testing! Portion - A portion for one is the amount of food that satisfies the need for one person. Product specification - The exact details needed to make the product. Prototype - A sample product to be used for trialling and market research. Quality assurance - A system that is set up before a product is made and which lays down procedures for making a safe, quality product. Quality control - The steps in the process of making a product to make sure that it meets the standards; faulty products are removed. Repetitive-flow production - Assembly line production of a product, often using a conveyor belt. Used for producing large numbers. Standard Component - A component pre-prepared that can be used when producing a new product. Eg. a standard component may be shop bought mayonnaise, tomato sauces for pasta, pizza bases Sensory descriptors - Words that describe taste, smell, texture and flavour.
Shelf life - How long a food product can be kept, making sure it is safe to eat and good quality. Target Market / group - The person or group of people that the product is aimed at. e.g. teenagers, families. Tolerance level - The amount and flexibility allowed when making a product in terms of weight, colour, size so that it meets quality standards. Traceability - Tracing a fault back to the point at which it occurred in order to remedy the fault and avoid it happening again.
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