Blood Students will learn: That an antibody and an antigen of different types will agglutinate, or clump, when mixed together. That the significance of the evidence depends on a characteristics relative occurrence in the population. 1 Blood Students will be able to:

Determine whether a stain is blood. Determine the blood type of a simulated bloodstain using the ABO/Rh system. 2 Serology Serology is the examination and analysis of body fluids. A forensic serologist may analyze a variety of body fluids including saliva, semen, urine, and blood.

From 1950 to the late 1980s, forensic serology was a most important part of lab procedures. With the development of DNA techniques, more time, money, and significance was placed in developing DNA labs. However, with limited funds and the time required for DNA testing, most labs still use many of the basic serology testing procedures. 3 Blood Characteristics Plasma is the fluid portion of the blood (55%)

Cells (45%) Erythrocytes are red blood cells. They are responsible for oxygen distribution. Leukocytes are the white blood cells; they are responsible for cleaning the system of foreign invaders. Thrombocytes or platelets are responsible for blood clotting Serum is the liquid that separates from the blood when a clot is formed. 4 Historical Perspective of Blood Typing

Around 1900, Karl Landsteiner discovered that there are four different types of human blood based on the presence or absence of specific antigens found on the surface of the red blood cells. In 1940, Landsteiner and Weiner reported the discovery of the Rh factor by studying the blood of the Rhesus monkey. 85% of Caucasians, 94% of Black Americans and 99% of all Asians are Rh positive. 5 Blood Terminology ABO blood groupsbased on having an A, B, both or no antigens on red blood cells Rh factormay be present on red blood cells; positive if present and negative if not Antigen chemical characteristics (proteins) on the surface of red blood cells. These account for blood type.

Antibodya substance that reacts with an antigen. Found in the serum. Agglutinationclumping of red blood cells; will result if blood types with different antigens are mixed 6 Presumptive Tests for Blood Determination Kastle-Meyer color testa mixture of phenolphthalein and hydrogen peroxide; the hemoglobin will cause the formation of a deep pink color if blood is present Hematest stripsreacts with the heme group in blood causing a blue-green color Luminol testreaction with blood to produce light Capable of detecting bloodstains diluted up to

300,00 times. Reveals blood patterns that may have gone unoticed. Does not interfere with DNA testing. 7 Human vs Animal Blood Microscopic observation Precipitin testblood is injected into a rabbit; antibodies are formed; the rabbits blood is extracted as an antiserum; the antiserum is placed on sample blood. The sample will react with human proteins if human blood is present. This test is very sensitive and requires only a small amount of blood. 8

Blood Typing Blood type A has antigen A on the surface of the cell and will agglutinate with antibody A. Blood type B has antigen B on the surface of the cell and will agglutinate with antibody B. Blood type AB has antigens A and B on the surface of the cells and will agglutinate with both antibody A and B. Blood type O has neither antigen A or B and will not agglutinate. Antibodies have two reactive sites (bivalent) This allows for a network of cross-linked cells for agglutination. See pgs 330-331 9 Blood Groups Antibody Can Give

Can Get Blood From Type Antigen A A B A, AB O, A

B B A B, AB O,B AB A and B Neither A nor B

AB A, B, O, AB O Neither A nor B A and B A, B, O, AB O Blood To

10 Population Distribution of Blood Types in the U.S. Type Percent O 45 A 40 B

11 AB 4 11 Secretors 80% of the population are secretors. Their blood-type antigens are found in high concentration in their body fluids such as saliva, semen, vaginal secretions and gastric juice. 12

Genetics of blood Genes are composed of alleles. Blood type has 3 alleles: A,B,O. The allele is responsible for producing its corresponding antigen. The O allele produces no antigen. 13 Genetics of Blood Genotype - the possible allele combinations from the parents Phenotype - the blood type the child actually has The A and B alleles are dominant over the O allele as the O allele doesnt produce an antigen. The A and B alleles are codominant as both antigens are produced.

14 Punnet Squares Assume a set of parents with a father phenotype A and genotype AO; and a mother of phenotype B and genotype BO. The child must get one allele from each parent. What are the possible genotypes and phenotypes. 15 Mother Father A O B AB BO

O AO OO Genotypes Phenotypes - AB, B, A, O 16

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