Foundations in Microbiology - HCC Learning Web

Foundations in Microbiology - HCC Learning Web

Lecture PowerPoint to accompany Foundations in Microbiology Seventh Edition Talaro Chapter 19 The Gram-Positive Bacilli of Medical

Importance Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 19.1 Medically Important GramPositive Bacilli Can be subdivided into three general groups, based on presence or absence of endospores and acid-fastness Three general groups: 1. Endospore-formers 2. Non-endospore-formers

3. Irregular shaped and staining properties 2 3 19.2 Spore-Forming Bacilli Genus Bacillus Genus Clostridium Genus Sporolactobacillus

4 General Characteristics of the Genus Bacillus

Gram-positive, endospore-forming, motile rods Mostly saprobic Aerobic and catalase positive Versatile in degrading complex macromolecules Source of antibiotics Primary habitat is soil 2 species of medical importance: Bacillus anthracis

Bacillus cereus 5 Bacillus Anthracis Large, block-shaped rods Central spores that develop under all conditions except in the living body Virulence factors polypeptide capsule and exotoxins 3 types of anthrax:

Cutaneous spores enter through skin, black soreeschar; least dangerous Pulmonary inhalation of spores Gastrointestinal ingested spores 6 Figure 19.2 Cutaneous anthrax 7 Control and Treatment

Treated with penicillin, tetracycline, or ciprofloxacin Vaccines Live spores and toxoid to protect livestock Purified toxoid; for high risk occupations and military personnel; toxoid 6 inoculations over 1.5 years; annual boosters 8

Figure 19.1 (a) Bacillus anthracis 9 Lecture PowerPoint to accompany Foundations in Microbiology Seventh Edition

Talaro Chapter 20 The Gram-Negative Bacilli of Medical Importance Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 20.1 Aerobic Gram-Negative Nonenteric Bacilli Large, diverse group of non-spore-forming

bacteria Wide range of habitats large intestines (enteric), zoonotic, respiratory, soil, water Most are not medically important; some are true pathogens, some are opportunists All have a lipopolysaccharide outer membrane of cell wall endotoxin 11 12

20.4 Coliform Organisms and Diseases 13 Escherichia Coli: The Most Prevalent Enteric Bacillus Most common aerobic and non-fastidious bacterium in gut

150 strains Some have developed virulence through plasmid transfer, others are opportunists 14 Pathogenic Strains of E. Coli Enterotoxigenic E. coli causes severe diarrhea due to heat-labile toxin and heat-stable toxin stimulate secretion and fluid loss; also has fimbriae

Enteroinvasive E. coli causes inflammatory disease of the large intestine Enteropathogenic E. coli linked to wasting form infantile diarrhea Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, O157:H7 strain, causes hemorrhagic syndrome and kidney damage 15 Escherichia coli Pathogenic strains frequent agents of infantile

diarrhea greatest cause of mortality among babies Causes ~70% of travelers diarrhea Causes 50-80% UTI Coliform count indicator of fecal contamination in water 16 Figure 20.14 Rapid identification of

E. coli O157:H7 17 Other Coliforms Clinically important mainly as opportunists Klebsiella pneumoniae normal inhabitant of respiratory tract, has large capsule, cause of nosocomial pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia, wound infections, and UTIs

Enterobacter sp. UTIs, surgical wounds Citrobacter sp. opportunistic UTIs and bacteremia Serratia marcescens produces a red pigment; causes pneumonia, burn and wound infections, septicemia and meningitis 18 Lecture PowerPoint to accompany

Foundations in Microbiology Seventh Edition Talaro Chapter 21 Miscellaneous Bacterial Agents of Disease Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

21.2 Curviform Gram-Negative Bacteria and Enteric Diseases Three genera: 1. Vibrio comma-shaped rods, single polar flagellum 2. Campylobacter short spirals or curved rods; one flagellum 3. Helicobacter spirochete with tight spirals and several polar flagella 20

Vibrio Cholera Comma-shaped, possess unique O and H Ags El Tor biotype: survives longer, more infectious Infectious dose 108

Infects mucous barrier of small intestine, noninvasive Cholera toxin causes electrolyte and water loss through secretory diarrhea, rice water stool; resulting dehydration leads to muscle, circulatory, and neurological symptoms Treatment: oral rehydration, tetracycline Vaccine available 21

Figure 21.14 (a-b) Alterations in intestinal function caused by cholera toxin 22 Figure 21.14 (c) Alterations in intestinal function caused by cholera toxin

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