Foundations of Biology

Foundations of Biology

Psalm 8:4-7 4 What is man that thou art mindful of him: and the son of man, that thou visitest him? 5 For thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour. 6 Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet: 7 All sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field; 2000 Timothy G. Standish Cloning For Every Man

Timothy G. Standish, Ph.D. 2000 Timothy G. Standish The cloning of mammals . . . is biologically impossible. James McGrath and Davor Solter Science, Dec. 14, 1984 2000 Timothy G. Standish Our announcement of Dollys birth in February 1997 attracted enormous

press interest, perhaps because Dolly drew attention to the possibility of cloning humans. This is an outcome I hope never comes to pass. Ian Wilmut Scientific American, December, 1998 2000 Timothy G. Standish What This Talk Is About Four Questions: What is cloning? How is cloning achieved? Why Clone? Why would anyone want to

clone an animal or human? Ethical Considerations? Why should cloning technology be carefully thought through before being widely used and particularly before humans should be cloned? 2000 Timothy G. Standish The Code For Life Organism .

Tissues Organ System Cell Nucleus 2000 Timothy G. Standish The Code For Life Chromosome Big nose

Brown eyes Nucleus Straight hair Genes 2000 Timothy G. Standish The Nucleus Contains An Organisms Blueprint Every

cell has a nucleus when it is made Within every nucleus is a complete copy of the organisms genetic information Differences between cells result from different genes being expressed in different ways 2000 Timothy G. Standish Clones Clones are two genetically identical organisms Nature commonly produces clones Most bacteria reproduce by binary fission in which the

mother cell splits in two with a complete copy of the genetic information being passed to each daughter cell Many single-celled eukaryotic organisms reproduce in a similar way In higher organisms, clones also occur naturally, but usually through some more complex mechanism 2000 Timothy G. Standish Plant Clones Any

time that plants are reproduced using cuttings, to produce new separate plants, they are being cloned Many commercially important strains of fruits are produced from clones Seedless plants can only be reproduced as clones 2000 Timothy G. Standish Animal Clones Animal clones may result from budding as a

way of reproducing Budding is common in corals and some other animals Some vertebrates reproduce via parthenogenesis 2000 Timothy G. Standish Natural Human Clones Identical twins result from the splitting of an

embryo into two separate cell masses which both go on to develop into genetically identical twins This happens naturally in about 3/1,000 births Identical twins are genetically identical because they have identical genes in their nucleus This does not mean they are truly identical 2000 Timothy G. Standish How Is Cloning Done? Making a clone is, in theory, a very simple

thing All one has to do is take a cell with the nucleus of the organism you want to clone, and grow it into a new organism The difficulty is that most cells do not readily grow into whole new organisms 2000 Timothy G. Standish Barriers To Cloning Mammals Most cells seem to have a limit to how many times they will

divide (the Hayflick limit) A complex interplay between nucleus and cytoplasm exists that prevents most cells from producing cells other than their own type During development, cells differentiate into all the cell types in the body, but they do not readily go back to being undifferentiated The egg and a few early cells in an embryo are the only cells capable of developing all the cell types necessary to make a whole mammal 2000 Timothy G. Standish

Overcoming The Barriers A nucleus needs the right cytoplasm environment if it is to become totipotent Eggs provide the correct environment The nucleus must be reset so that it forgets it was in a differentiated cell Ian Wilmut learned that starving cells in culture resets their nucleus Cells developing from mammal eggs do not seem to have a limit to the number of times they will divide 2000 Timothy G. Standish

Making A Clone The method for making a clone used by Ian Wilmut includes 6 steps: 1 Production of quiescent cells containing nuclei that forget the type of cell they are in 2 Collection of the donor nucleus 3 Preparation of an egg lacking genetic material 4 Insertion of the donor nucleus 5 Initiation of development 6 Development of the embryo in a surrogate mother 2000 Timothy G. Standish

How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 1 Making Quiescent Cells Mammary gland cells Finn Dorset ewe 3.5 months pregnant Harvest quiescent cells Culture mammary cells Starve cells

2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 2 Collecting The Donor Nucleus Glass pipette Suction Suction Pipette 2000 Timothy G. Standish

How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 2 Collecting The Donor Nucleus Glass pipette Suction Suction Pipette 2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 3 Egg Preparation

Egg Scottish Blackfaced ewe egg donor An egg is collected then placed into a dish where it can be manipulated 2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 3 Egg Preparation Glass pipette Egg

Chromosomes Suction Suction Pipette 2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 3 Egg Preparation Chromosomes

Egg Suction Suction Pipette Glass pipette 2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 4 Inserting The Donor Nucleus

Glass pipette Suction Suction Pipette 2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 4 Inserting The Donor Nucleus Glass pipette

Suction Suction Pipette 2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 4 Inserting The Donor Nucleus Suction Suction

Pipette 2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 5 Initiating Development 2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 5 Zygote Initiating Development

2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 5 Initiating Development Cleavage 2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 5 Initiating Development

Cleavage 2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 5 Initiating Development Cleavage 2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 5 Initiating Development

Cleavage 2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 5 Morula Initiating Development 2000 Timothy G. Standish How Ian Wilmut Made Dolly 6

Development Morula Scottish Blackfaced ewe surrogate mother Finn Dorset lamb Dolly 2000 Timothy G. Standish Why Clone? Cloning provides opportunities in four major areas 1 Study of development

Production of genetically identical organisms that can be studied in different environments has the potential to dramatically advance our understanding of development 2 3 4 5 Propagation of valuable organisms Control over reproduction Production of recombinant organisms Production of engineered organs

2000 Timothy G. Standish Propagation Of Valuable Organisms There are limits to the possibility of reproducing valuable combinations of traits using traditional breeding techniques For example, race horses are regularly bred to produce fast offspring, but occasionally an excellent combination of traits is produced that cannot be repeated even when the same parents are used Cloning could produce many copies of Pharlap or other valuable horses

2000 Timothy G. Standish Control Over Reproduction Production of a clone allows very precise predictions about the results of a pregnancy Cloning offers the potential to produce genetically related offspring from sterile organisms Before cloning, cells can be engineered to remove genetic defects, or introduce desired traits

2000 Timothy G. Standish Production Of Recombinant Organisms Cloned organisms can be made from cultured cells It is relatively easy to introduce new genes into cell cultures Cells from recombinant cell cultures can be used as nucleus donors for clone production This technique has already been used by researchers at

the Roslin Institute to produce recombinant sheep that make human factor IX Factor IX is used to treat hemophilia B 2000 Timothy G. Standish Production Of Engineered Organs The potential exists to engineer organisms that produce organs which will not be rejected when introduced into humans or other needy recipients To do this, animals would be produced that do

not make the proteins and other chemicals on cell surfaces that tell the immune system they do not belong in a human body 2000 Timothy G. Standish Why Clone Humans? Production of genetically related offspring by infertile couples for whom other reproductive technologies have failed Narcissism Replacement of lost loved ones

Production of genetically improved humans (custom-built babies) Production of spare parts for those needing replacement organs 2000 Timothy G. Standish Ethical Considerations All new technologies have unforeseen effects. We cannot expect that cloning will be without unexpected benefits and problems Is any reproductive technology tampering with the

way God made nature to work? Are we playing God when we create organisms designed by humans? Will there be abuses of the ability to produce engineered organisms . . . ? 2000 Timothy G. Standish Ethical Considerations Production of large numbers of clones would lower genetic diversity Cloning technology makes other technologies

more practical: Production of cloned body parts requires the production of embryos that are then used as a source of stem cells 2000 Timothy G. Standish The Ethics Of Human Cloning Would cloning be in the best interest of the child? How would a child react to knowing how they will develop in

the future? What expectations would society put on cloned children? Is it ethical to produce a life/potential life for the purpose of saving or enhancing the life of a living person? Is producing a clone as a source of stem cells, then discarding the remaining parts, equivalent to abortion? 2000 Timothy G. Standish Who Owns A Persons Genetic Potential?

It would be immoral to take the gametes of a person and, without their consent, use them to produce offspring Cloning offers the potential of making genetic copies of anyone -- With or without their consent 2000 Timothy G. Standish At

Cloning and Religion least one religious group, Raeliens, believe that cloning is the secret to immortality Raeliens believe that life on earth was created by aliens using genetic engineering Clonaid, purported to be the first company dedicated to human cloning, was founded in February 1997 by Rael, leader of the Raeliens, and a group of investors Clonaid is run by a corporation in the Bahamas called Valiant Venture Ltd

2000 Timothy G. Standish Recent Developments In Cloning 1999 - A number of cloned cows and other organisms have died without explanation. In general clones are less healthy than offspring produced using other methods (Lancet, U.S. News and World Report, May 24, 1999)

Dolly has chromosomes with telomeres shorter than those of other ewes her age. Dollys lambs have telomeres that are normal in length for sheep their age (Nature, May 27, 1999) The first male has been cloned from adult cells, named Fibro by Yanagimachis group in Hawaii, cells from an adult mouse tail were used as the source of 274 nuclei, one of which developed to adulthood and fathered two normal litters (Nature Genetics, 22:127-128, June 1999) 2000 Timothy G. Standish Recent Developments In Cloning

1998 Nov. - Plans for cloning humans on a commercial basis are announced (http://www.clonaid.com/) 1999 - Discovery of a frozen woolly mammoth in Siberia has presented the possibility of cloning mammoths using a mammoth nucleus and elephant eggs (http://cnn.com/NATURE/9907/23/mammoth.reut/) 1999 - A group in New Zealand has approved the cloning of the extinct Hula bird using preserved materials

(http://cnn.com/NATURE/9907/20/cloning.enn/) 1999 - Dolly is shown to have different mtDNA than the eue from whom she was cloned, but the same mtDNA as the mother who donated the egg (Eric Schon, Ian Wilmut et al. September 1999 Nature Genetics) 2000 Timothy G. Standish Cloning Humans Using Cow Eggs

June 17, 1999 American Cell Technology (ACT) announce they had made a human clone during November 1998 The clone was made by inserting a human nucleus from skin on a mans leg into an enucleated cows egg After developing for 14 days the clone was destroyed (Researches said before 14 days it was not human) Clones of this type may be potential sources of stem cells and perfect tissue matches for those needing transplants The first documented human clone According to the BBC, Lord

Robert Winston, a British fertility expert, said the research was "totally ethical This information came from the BBC web page news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_37100 0/371378.stm 2000 Timothy G. Standish But if there was one sin above another which called for the destruction of the race by the flood, it was the base crime of

amalgamation of man and beast which defaced the image of God, and caused confusion everywhere. Ellen G. White Spiritual Gifts. Vol. 3, p 64 2000 Timothy G. Standish Recent Developments In Cloning

2000 - In August the British government releases a report calling for approval of human cloning for research purposes with the objective of harvesting stem cells for therapeutic purposes. 2000 - August, two groups report cloning pigs. This technology may ultimately lead to successful xenotransplantation. 2001 - January, Noah, a gaur, the first successfully cloned endangered species, dies of dysentery two days after birth 2001 - The British House of Lords approves legislation

taking effect January 31 that allows human cloning 2001 - Dr. Severino Antinori announces plans to clone a human within a year 2000 Timothy G. Standish Psalm 8:4-7 4 What is man that thou art mindful of him: and the son of man, that thou visitest him? 5 For thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour. 6 Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet: 7 All sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field;

2000 Timothy G. Standish None of the suggested uses of cloning for making copies of existing people is ethically acceptable to my way of thinking. Ian Wilmut Scientific American, December, 1998 2000 Timothy G. Standish Not Genetics Alone

To be a human person means more than having a human genome, it means having a narrative identity of one's own. Likewise, membership in the human family involves a rich nexus of cultural links that cannot be reduced to taxonomy. On the question of human nature, we need a philosophical fresh start that cannot be provided by genomics alone. Alex Mauron. 2001. ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Is the Genome the Secular Equivalent of the Soul? Science 291:831-832. 2000 Timothy G. Standish

2000 Timothy G. Standish

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