Fracking - Wilkes University

Fracking - Wilkes University

FRACKING By: Scott Heffelfinger, Gianna Chase, Austin Shawn, Max Brown WHAT IS FRACKING? The process of injecting liquid at high pressure into subterranean rocks, boreholes, etc., so as to force open existing fissures and extract oil or gas.

WHY FRACKING IS BAD Fracking is to blame for the many health issues of those who live near fracking sights. People who live in areas that have a lot of gas and oil activity are said to be more prone to a plethora of health issues. HEALTH ISSUES

The health impacts of fracking include respiratory problems, birth defects, blood disorders, cancer and nervous system impacts. Workers and those who live near the wells are affected. RESPIRATORY ISSUES

Impacts include asthma attacks, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing and lung disease. Levels of pollutants high enough to cause respiratory problems have been found close to fracking sights and in areas with intense oil and gas activity.

Workers are at risk of permanent lung damages caused by silica fracking sand. NERVOUS SYSTEM IMPACTS Exposure to pollutants such as VOCs and hydrogen sulfide cause neurological problems (Dizziness, headaches, seizures and loss of consciousness).

Many studies have measured benzene levels near fracking sites that are higher than the thresholds set to protect people from these impacts. BIRTH DEFECTS & HARM TO THE DEVELOPING FETUS VOCs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been found to interfere with a developing fetus.

Harmful to the developing heart, brain and nervous system. Health experts have claimed this issue to be a threat to those who live near fracking sights. BLOOD DISORDERS

Levels of benzene measured in studies were high enough to raise concern about internal organs. Harm to bone marrow and anemia if there were to be repeated exposure. CANCER

Benzene, formaldehyde, diesel particulates and PAHs are cancer causing pollutants found in fracking sights. Repeated exposure causes an increased risk of cancer. HEALTH ISSUES

Not only is our drinking water affected, the air is also contaminated. While the industry tries to keep the issue unnoticed, science continues to bring these health threats to light. LEAKAGE

Natural gas is methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, and when you extract natural gas from shale formations, a portion of it leaks out. This leakage pollutes the air and drinking water.

Some of the tap water has even turned bubbly and flammable, as a result of increased methane. WHY FRACKING IS GOOD At least 75 studies in the past 5 years have all concluded that methane emissions are falling. A recent study discovered that fracking has

reduced carbon emissions by 20 percent. Whereas the costly development of solar and wind energy has only reduced the same emissions by roughly 1 percent. Fracking is better for the environment, as opposed to burning coal. NOT ENOUGH PROOF

The Environmental Protection Agencys advisory board debunked the claim that fracking contaminates drinking water. Stating that there was simply not enough scientific evidence to prove it. EMISSIONS HAVE DROPPED Americas carbon emissions have dropped 800 million tons since 2007 and are back to the

levels they were in in 1995. Fracking is a better solution to provide America its energy needs then oil or coal. COAL VS. FRACKING Natural gas is better for the environment than burning coal. Burning coal releases three times more carbon emissions than natural gas. Fracking has improved emissions more than

many other sustainable energy initiatives. Burning gas does not emit any lethal soot or sickening toxic metals. COAL VS NATURAL GAS ACCESS TO MORE GAS AND OIL

Fracking allows us access to natural deposits of gas that we were not able to reach before with other methods of extraction. Now gas can be accessed worldwide, causing a decrease in price, making it accessible to all. COST EFFICIENT

Fracking reduces the cost of natural gases and helps stimulate a switch from coal to gas. Because fracking allows us more access to gas, it is becoming cheaper because of its abundance. HEALTH BENEFITS

Increasing reliance on natural gas, as opposed to coal, is creating public health benefits, as the burning of natural gas produces fewer harmful particles in the air. DRINKING WATER NOT AFFECTED It is said to be highly unlikely that well-run drilling operations are creating cracks that allow chemicals to reach surface water supplies.

Drinking water and oil and gas deposits are at very different levels in the ground. Research has found that between 2008 and 2011, only a handful of major incidents happened across more than 3,500 wells. EMPLOYMENT

With the increase in production of natural gas, the number of people employed also skyrocketed, meaning more are on health insurance policies. The increase in use of fracking technology has seen 67% rise in employment. 118,400 in 2003 to 198,400 by 2012.

IMPROVEMENT Over the course of time, mistakes have taught workers what to do and what not to do while fracking. It has become better and safer over time. CONCLUSION / OPINION Fracking has become a necessity within the U.S. and countries like it, but not much research was done on its future effects.

Although natural gas fracking can greatly benefit the occasionally struggling farmer, its not worth condemning the overall health of the neighboring communities. Further expansion of drill sites and pipeline construction should be greatly hampered until further research can be conducted on the detrimental health impacts that could be imposed by such activities.

GOOGLE IMAGES https://goo.gl/images/i9pq1F https://goo.gl/images/vw9VK2 https://goo.gl/images/MhyLZK https://goo.gl/images/nomAEF https://goo.gl/images/G8qHTL https://goo.gl/images/r91wXK https://goo.gl/images/JacfR1 https://goo.gl/images/Gy95gZ https://goo.gl/images/UhZuhU https://goo.gl/images/VF7bze https://goo.gl/images/LtfriC

https://goo.gl/images/Vp5KvX WEBSITES USED https://www.nrdc.org/media/2014/141216 http ://thefederalist.com/2016/08/24/obama-energy-czar-actually-fr acking-is-pretty-good-for-the-environment /

http://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2012/09/fracking-goo d-environment /# https://www.yaleclimateconnections.org/2015/05/pros-and-con s-of-fracking-5-key-issues /

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