From Fish and Amphibians to…

From Fish and Amphibians to…

A. Chemistry = study of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of a Life depends on chemistry substance.

. . . Because chemical compounds are the building blocks*Discovery of life. Streaming Clip** Matter: Building blocks of the Universe

NOTE: MASS= Mass vs. weight animation

The quantity of matter an object has. MASS AND WEIGHT ARE NOT THE SAME! 1. Definition= basic unit of matter 2. Atoms are composed protons(+), neutrons(0), and electrons(-)

3. Protons and neutrons are located in a central area called the nucleus. 4. Electrons move about the nucleus. The # of electrons is equal to the # of protons.

1. Definition = a pure substance that contains only one type of atom 2. About 96% of the mass of all kinds of living things is composed of a combination of just 4 elements Image from:

3. Periodic Tabledeveloped as a way to organize elements Trends in periodic table Elements are found in order of atomic number (# of protons) Atomic weight (# of protons + # of neutrons) get bigger as you go across and down

Periods of elements = rows ---As you go across a row, elements get in size BUT greater in mass smaller

---Example: The go from a beach ball to a bowling ball Groups of elements = columns Elements in the same group have similar properties and will bond in similar ways PERIOD

GROUPS/ FAMILIES As you go L to R across a period

PERIODIC TABLE Atomic size decreases and atomic mass increases

Information gathered from the PERIODIC TABLE 2 He Helium

4 **Element Song*** Atomic Number Chemical Symbol Element Name Atomic Mass

*Harry Potter Elements Song** 2. Remember mass number = number of protons plus neutrons in nucleus of atom Example: carbon-12, carbon-13, carbon-14 Carbon 12 # protons

# neutrons Carbon 13 Carbon 14 Go to element exploration . . .

MOST elements do not exist by themselves. . . . . 1. Definition: a substance formed by the bonding of two or more elements in definite proportions 2. Chemical formula = shows the

composition of the compound Examples: H2O, NaCl, CO2 3. physical and chemical properties of compound are

DIFFERENT from each element alone G. Bohr Models of Atoms 1st electron shell can hold2 electrons 2nd electron shell can hold8 electrons 3rd electron shell can hold8 electrons

Examples: Hydrogen (1) Oxygen (8) Carbon (6) Chlorine (17) 1. Definition= the forces that hold together the

atoms that make up compounds 2. Two main types of STRONG chemical bonds: 1= ionic bonds 2= covalent bonds . . . Lets take a look at each type more closely . . . .

---a TRANSFER of electrons takes place resulting in ions ---ion = a positively or negatively charged atom ---ions of opposite

charge attract strongly, thus forming an ionic bond Example: NaCl The number of electrons in outer energy shell

determines the chemical properties of an atom. **Atoms want their outermost shell to be full** When sodium chloride (NaCl) is formed, one electron from sodium is transferred to chlorine. **Ionic Demo**

---involves SHARING of electrons ---single covalent bond = share one electron ---double covalent bond = share two electrons . . .etc. --result of covalent bond = a

molecule . . . which is the smallest unit of a compound --Example: Methane (CH4) **Covalent Demo** click through tutorial reading 1-14, 22-24, and 30 In a double bond,

2 atoms share 2 pairs of electrons (4 electrons) In a triple bond, 2 atoms share 3 pairs of electrons (6 electrons) Sharing of electrons between two

Oxygen atoms Structure of the 4 elements that make up most of the mass of living things:

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