Fundamentals of Management 7e - National Paralegal College

Fundamentals of Management 7e - National Paralegal College

Chapter Learning Objectives After studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Describe and explain the nature of operations management. 2. Identify and discuss the components involved in designing effective operations systems. 3. Discuss organizational technologies and their role in operations management. 4. Identify and discuss the components involved in implementing operations systems through supply chain management. 5. Explain the meaning and importance of managing quality and total quality management. 6. Explain the meaning and importance of managing productivity, productivity trends, and ways to improve productivity. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

152 The Nature of Operations Management Operations Management The total set of managerial activities used by an organization to transform resource inputs into products, services, or both. Importance of Excellence in Operations Is necessary for competitiveness and overall organization performance. Creates value and utility through the production of products and services. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

153 Types of Operations Manufacturing and Production Operations A form of business that combines and transforms resource inputs into tangible outcomes that are then sold to others. Service Organization An organization that transforms resources into an intangible output and creates time and place utility for its customers. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 154

Operations and Organizational Strategy Role of Operations in Organizational Strategy Operations management has a direct impact on competitiveness, quality, productivity, and effectiveness. Operations management and organizational strategy have reciprocal effects on each other. Strategic goals cannot be met if there are deficiencies and insufficiencies in operations resources. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 155 Designing Operations Systems

Determining Product-Service Mix Involves deciding how many and what kinds of products to offer in the marketplace. Capacity Decisions Involve choosing the amount of products, services, or both that can be produced by an organization. High-risk decisions are due to uncertainty about future product demand and the significant costs of additional, possibly excess, capacity. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 156 Designing Operations Systems (contd)

Facilities Decisions Facilitiesthe physical locations where products or services are created, stored, and distributed. Locationthe physical positioning or geographic site of facilities. Layoutthe physical configuration of facilities, the arrangement of equipment within facilities, or both. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 157 Types of Layouts Product layout Facilities arranged around the product; used when

large quantities of a single product are needed. Process layout Facilities arranged around the process; used in facilities that create or process a variety of products. Fixed position layout Facilities arranged around a single work area; used for the manufacture of large and complex products. Cellular layout

A configuration of facilities used when families of products can follow similar paths. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 158 FIGURE 15.1 Approaches to Facilities Layout 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 159 Manufacturing Technology Technology

The set of processes and systems used by organizations to convert resources into products or services. Automation The process of designing work so that it can be completely or almost completely performed by machines. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1510 FIGURE 15.2

A Simple Automatic Control Mechanism 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1511 Computer-Assisted Manufacturing Computer-assisted Manufacturing (CAM) Technology that relies on computers to design or manufacture products. Computer-aided Design (CAD) The use of computers to design and complete products and to simulate performance so that prototypes need not be constructed.

Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) The use of robotic systems and computers to coordinate and integrate automated production and material handling facilities. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1512 Manufacturing Technology (contd) Robotics The science and technology of the construction, maintenance, and use of robots. Robotany artificial device that can perform functions ordinarily thought to be appropriate for human beings.

Service Technology Services are rapidly moving toward automated systems and procedures (e.g., automated teller machines). 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1513 Implementing Operations Systems through Supply Chain Management Supply Chain Management The process of managing operations control, resource and inventory acquisition and purchasing, and thus improving overall efficiency and effectiveness.

Operations Management as Control Coordinating operations management with other functions helps insure the system focuses on the elements crucial to goal attainment. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1514 Implementing Operations Systems through Supply Chain Management (contd) Purchasing Management Controlling the buying of the materials and resources is at the heart of effective supply chain management.

Inventory Management (Materials Control) Managing the organizations raw materials, work-inprocess, finished goods, and products in-transit. Just-in-time (JIT) method An inventory system than has necessary materials arriving as soon as they are needed (just in time) so that the production process is not interrupted. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1515 Table 15.1 Inventory Types, Purposes, and Sources of Control Inventory Type

Purpose Source of Control Raw materials Provide the materials needed to make the product Purchasing models and systems Work in process Enable overall production to be Shop floor control systems divided into stages of

manageable size Finished goods Provide ready supply of products on customer demand and enable long, efficient production runs High-level production scheduling systems in conjunction with marketing In transit (pipeline) Distribute products to

customers Transportation and distribution control systems 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1516 Managing Total Quality Quality The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Is both a relative and absolute concept.

Is relevant to both products and services. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1517 Managing Total Quality (contd) The Importance of Quality Malcolm Baldrige Award Named after a former Secretary of Commerce, this prestigious award is given to firms that achieve major quality improvements. Competition Quality has become one of the most important competitive points in business today.

2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1518 Managing Total Quality (contd) The Importance of Quality (contd) Productivity Quality enhancement programs decrease the number of defects, reduce resources dedicated to rework, and reduces the need for inspectors as employees become responsible for quality. Costs Improved quality reduces costs from customer returns, warranty, and lawsuits for faulty products, and lost

sales to future customers. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1519 Dimensions of Quality 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1520 Table 15.2 Eight Dimensions of Quality

1. Performance. A products primary operating characteristic; examples are automobile acceleration and a televisions picture clarity. 2. Features. Supplements to a products basic functioning characteristics, such as power windows on a car. 3. Reliability. A probability of not malfunctioning during a specified period. 4. Conformance. The degree to which a products design and operating characteristics meet established standards. 5. Durability. A measure of product life. 6. Serviceability. The speed and ease of repair. 7. Aesthetics. How a product looks, feels, tastes, and smells. 8. Perceived quality. As seen by a customer. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

1521 Managing Total Quality (contd) Total Quality Management (TQM) A strategic commitment by top management to change its whole approach to business and to make quality a guiding factor in everything the organization does. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1522 FIGURE 15.3 Total Quality Management

2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1523 TQM Tools and Techniques Value-added Analysis A comprehensive evaluation of all work activities, material flows, and paperwork to determine that value was added. Benchmarking The process of learning how and what other firms do in an exceptionally high-quality manner. Outsourcing Subcontracting operations/services to those who can do them cheaper and/or better.

Reducing Cycle Time Reducing the time needed by the organization to develop, make, and distribute products or services 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1524 Table 15.3 Guidelines for Increasing the Speed of Operations 1. Start from scratch. Its usually easier than trying to do what the organization does now faster). 2. Minimize the number of approvals needed to do something. The

fewer people who have to approve something, the faster approval will get done. 3. Use work teams as a basis for organization. Teamwork and cooperation work better than individual effort and conflict. 4. Develop and adhere to a schedule. A properly designed schedule can greatly increase speed. 5. Dont ignore distribution. Making something faster is only part of the battle. 6. Integrate speed into the organizations culture. If everyone understands the importance of speed, things will naturally get done quicker. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1525

TQM Tools and Techniques ISO 9000:2000 and ISO 14000 Quality standards created by the International Organization for standardization by which firms can be certified. Statistical Quality Control (SQC) A set of statistical techniques that is used to monitor quality; includes acceptance sampling and in-process sampling. Six Sigma Involves making corrections until errors disappear 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

1526 Managing Productivity Productivity An economic measure of efficiency that summarizes the value of outputs relative to the value of the resources used to produce them. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1527 Levels of Productivity The unit of analysis used to calculate or define: Aggregate productivitythe total level of productivity for a country.

Industry productivitythe total productivity of all the firms in an industry. Company productivitythe level of productivity of a single company. Unit productivitythe productivity level of a unit or department. Individual productivitythe productivity attained by a single person. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1528 Forms of Productivity Total Factor Productivity An overall indicator of how well an organization uses

all of its resources (i.e., labor, capital, materials, and energy) to create all of its products and services. Outputs Productivity = Inputs 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1529 Forms of Productivity (contd) Labor Productivity A partial productivity ratio that uses only one category of resource (labor) to gage the organizations productivity in utilizing that resource.

Outputs Labor Productivity = Direct Labor 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1530 Managing Productivity (contd) The Importance of Productivity Productivity is a primary determinant of an organizations level of profitability and to survive. Productivity partially determines peoples standard of living within a particular country.

Productivity Trends The United States has the highest level of productivity in the world, although the gap is closing as other countries become more productive. Manufacturing productivity growth continues to exceed that of the service sector. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1531 FIGURE 15.4 Manufacturing and Service Productivity Growth Trends 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

1532 Improving Productivity Improving Operations Spending more resources on research and development helps identify new products, new uses for existing products, and new methods for making products. Reworking transformation processes and facilities can boost productivity. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1533

Improving Productivity Increasing Employee Involvement Increased employee participation can increase quality and productivity. Cross-training of employees allows the firm to function with fewer workers. Rewards are essential to the success in improving productivity. 2014 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1534

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