Gases,Liquids & Solids

Gases,Liquids & Solids

GASES,LIQUIDS & SOLIDS Gases No fixed volume. Expand to fill container .

Liquids Fixed volume. Conform to shape of container. Constrained by gravity

Solids Fixed volume & fixed dimensions. Resist deformation (changes of shape)

COMPOSITION OF AIR: Minor Components Also, variable amounts of: H2O (0 7 %) CO2 (0.01 1 %) CO NO2 (0 0.000002 %)

(0 - 0.000002 %) SO2 (0 - 0.0001 %) O3 (0 0.000007 %) COMPOSITION OF AIR:

(contd.) Greenhouse Gases: COMPOSITION OF AIR: (contd.) Greenhouse Gases: CO2 & CH4 COMPOSITION OF AIR: (contd.)

Radon - Accumulates under houses COMPOSITION OF AIR: (contd.) Radon- Accumulates under house Arises from radioactive decay of traces of Actinides, typically found in Granite!

NATURAL GAS CH4 - FOUND WITH Oil deposits. He - Up to 4 % in natural gas deposits WATER VAPOR H2O from evaporation of water from surfaces of Lakes, Rivers,

Oceans (80 % of Earths surface) GASES FROM HEATING SOLIDS CO2 CaCO3 CaO + CO2 O2 4NaNO3 Na2O + N2 + 5O2

O2 KClO4 KCl + 2O2 NH3 NH4Cl NH3 + HCl Also: Gases (H2) from metals and acids, also from some metals and water (Li, Na).

GAS PRESSURE Results from gravitational force on Earths atmospheric gases (several miles deep). Measure with Barometer. P = Pressure = gdh g = accel. due to gravity d = density of liquid column h = height of column

PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS 1 Atmosphere (atm.) = 760 mm Hg d H2O = 1.00 g cm-3 d Hg = 13.6 g cm-3 For same P (= 1 atm. = 760 mm Hg = 760 x 13.6 mm H2O = 10.336 m

= 33.91 ft H2O PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS Pressure usually meaured in: (a) mm Hg (torr) 1 atm. 760 mm Hg (b) Pa (PASCALS) = N m-2 = kg m-1 s-1 1 Atm. = 101.325 kPa 1 bar = 105 kPa = approx. 1 atm.

(= 0.9869 atm.) PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS Common measure (engineering): psi = Pounds per square inch psig= Pounds per square inch, gauge ( add current atmospheric pressure to convert to Absolute pressure)

1 atm. = 14.7 psi TEMPERATURE C(elcius) vs. F(ahrenheit) F = C x 9/5 + 32 C = (F-32) x 5/9 Absolute Temperature (K) At 0K, all gases have 0 volume K = 0C + 273.15

IDEAL GAS LAW PV = Nrt or P1V1 n1 T 1 = P2 V 2 n2 T2

AVOGADROS LAW 1 L. of all gases contains the same no. of molecules at the same T & P At STP (= 1 atmos. And 0 C), 1 mol. of any gas occupies 22.4 L Aso R= 1 atm. x 22.4 L 1 mol x 273.15K = 0.082057 L. atm.mol-1 K-1

UNIVERSAL GAS CONSTANT R = 0.082057 L. atm.mol-1 K-1 or R = 8.3145 J mol-1 K-1 GAS DENSITY & MOLAR MASS

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