GCSE DRAMA OCR Exam Board LEARNING OBJECTIVE To develop an understanding of the components of GCSE Drama through the OCR syllabus RUSSELL GROUP UNIVERSITIES The Russell group is in charge of some of our most prestigious universities in the UK. Including: Birmingham, Bristol, Cambridge, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Imperial College London, Leeds, Liverpool, London School of Economics, Manchester, Newcastle, Nottingham, Oxford, Sheffield, Southampton, University College London and Warwick Q: When interviewing students to accept for the Law degree, what is the first subject these universities WHAT CAN GCSE DRAMA LEAD TO A CAREER IN? Law Medicine Psychology Sociology TV Film Radio Media Design Business Sales/marketing Theatre AIMS AND OUTCOMES OF GCSE DRAMA apply knowledge and understanding of drama when making, performing and responding to drama explore performance texts, understanding your social, cultural and historical context develop a range of theatrical skills and apply them to create performances work collaboratively to generate, develop and communicate ideas develop as creative, effective, independent and reflective students able to make informed choices in process and performance contribute as an individual to a theatrical performance reflect on and evaluate your own work and that of others develop an awareness and understanding of the roles and processes undertaken in
contemporary professional theatre practice adopt safe working practices Content Overview Assessment Overview Research and explore a stimulus, work collaboratively and create their own devised drama. Devising Drama 60 marks Non-exam assessment Develop and apply theatrical skills in acting or design by presenting a showcase of two extracts from a performance text Presenting and performing texts* 60 marks Non-exam assessment (Visiting examination) Drama: Performance and response* 80 marks Learners will explore practically a performance text to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding 30% of total GCSE 30% of total GCSE 40% of total
WHAT THE 2 YEARS WILL LOOK LIKE Autumn 1 Introduction to Drama Year 10 practitioners/ Mock Component 1 Research log Research/ creating and developing Autumn 2 Mock Component 1 Research log Research/ creating and developing Spring 1 Mock Component 2 text: Concept pro forma BLOOD BROTHERS Spring 2 Section B Mock Live Theatre response: BLOOD BROTHERS Summer 1 Summer 2 Real component 1 Research log Research/ creating and developing
BLOOD BROTHERS Year 11 REVISION Focus: Staging Visual impact LIVE PERFORMANCE REVIEWS/ Component 2 39 STEPS Drama: performance and Non response applicable Exam Section A: Blood Brothers Concept Pro forma Section B: Live DEVISING DRAMA (30%) OBJECTIVES Create and develop ideas to communicate meaning for theatrical performance (AO1 Portfolio Section 1 - 5%) Create and develop ideas to communicate meaning for theatrical performance (AO1 Portfolio Section 2 5%) Analyse and evaluate their own work and the work of others (AO4 Whole Portfolio - 10%) Apply theatrical skills to realise artistic intentions in live performance (AO2 Performance 10%) DEVISING DRAMA (30%) PRACTICAL: Learners will explore a stimulus provided by OCR and explore how to use the devising process to communicate meaning as well as how to apply theatrical skills to realise artistic intentions. This will end in an assessed performance to an audience. Group Size: 2-6 Time: 5-15 minutes WRITTEN: Learners will complete a portfolio of evidence during the devising showing the research, development of the rehearsals and evaluate their final performance. This can be completed through one of the following: 20x sides A4 notes, sketches, diagrams, scripts, storyboards etc, 12 minute video blog 2000 word essay. ASSESSED BY: ECE
Devising drama (30%) Learners should: Learners should be able to: Learners should know and understand: work collaboratively to create, develop, perform and evaluate their own piece of devised drama as either performers or designers. research undertaken and how this has informed the development of the drama or design how to develop an idea to progress from a simple to a more complex stage use research to inform creative decisions when devising their drama examine the social, cultural or historical context of the chosen stimulus explain how research has impacted on their artistic intentions show the progression of their idea from initial thoughts to the realised form select ideas to create engaging drama clearly document the development of the performance during the devising process through the use of a portfolio
plan for effective use of rehearsals how to edit and adapt the work in progress as a result of new ideas or the development of the drama refine and amend work throughout the devising process so that clear dramatic intentions are communicated to the audience how to examine in detail the process of creating drama and measure the impact on a live audience analyse and evaluate decisions and choices made during the process of creating drama how to communicate meaning to an audience through engaging drama. apply performance or design skills to performance for an audience explain the changes made to their drama with reference to their artistic intentions and explain the intended impact on the audience evaluate their final piece of devised drama use accurate subject- specific terminology. how to plan, create and structure drama
how workshops can move the development of the performance forward how to rehearse in preparation for a performance to an audience how to make plans for the structure/form of an artefact set, costume, lighting, sound DEVISING DRAMA historic event instrumental music news article painting person/people photograph poem prose sculpture song. DEVISING DRAMA You could study this from the point of view of a designer. lighting sound lighting and sound (combined) * set (including props and multimedia staging) costume (including hair, makeup and masks). ASSESSMENT - PORTFOLIO SECTION 1: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPING IDEAS (5%) AO1 Research and developing ideas AO1 Research and developing ideas Band 5: 910 Marks Band 4: Highly developed and detailed research which links closely to the stimulus material. Highly developed initial ideas and an outstanding vision for the performance.
Developed research which links closely to the stimulus material. Developed initial ideas and a confident vision for the performance. AO1 Band 3: Research and developing ideas 56 marks Competent research which links to the stimulus material. Clear development of initial ideas and a clear vision for the performance. AO1 Band 2: Research and developing ideas 34 marks Basic research which mostly links to the stimulus material. Basic initial ideas and a basic vision for the performance. 78 marks AO1 Band 1: Research and developing ideas 12 marks AO1 0 marks Limited research with limited links to the stimulus material. Limited initial ideas and a limited vision for the performance. No response or no response worthy of credit. ASSESSMENT - PORTFOLIO SECTION 2: CREATING AND DEVELOPING DRAMA (5%) AO1 Band 5:
Creating and 910 developing drama Marks Highly developed narrative of the learners journey through the development process. Accomplished development of their devised performance throughout the creating and developing process. AO1 Band 4: Creating and 78 marks developing drama AO1 Band 3: Creating and 56 marks developing drama Clear narrative of the learners journey through the development process. Competent development of their devised performance throughout the creating and developing process. AO1 Band 2: Creating and 34 marks developing drama Developed narrative of the learners journey through the development process. Confident development of their devised performance throughout the creating and developing process. Basic narrative of the learners journey through the development process. Basic development of their devised performance throughout the creating and developing process. AO1 Band 1: Creating and 12 marks
developing drama Limited narrative of the learners journey through the development process. Limited development of their devised performance throughout the creating and developing process. AO1 0 marks Creating and developing drama No response or no response worthy of credit. ASSESSMENT - PORTFOLIO SECTION 3: ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION (WHOLE PORTFOLIO 10%) AO4 Band 5: Analysis and 1720 evaluation Marks AO4 Band 4: Analysis and 1316 evaluation Marks AO4 Band 3: Analysis and 912 evaluation Marks AO4 Band 2: Analysis and 58 marks evaluation AO4 Band 1: Analysis and 14 marks evaluation AO4 0 marks Analysis and evaluation
Highly developed analysis and evaluation during the devising process with amendments reflecting the decisions made. Highly developed justifications of the changes made during development of the devised performance. Highly developed analysis of how their own work will create meaning and explanation of how this will be communicated to the audience. Highly developed evaluation of their final performance with outstanding analysis of how to improve for future performances. Developed analysis and evaluation during the devising process with amendments reflecting the decisions made. Confident justifications of the changes made during development of the devised performance. Developed analysis of how their own work will create meaning and explanation of how this will be communicated to the audience. Developed evaluation of their final performance with skilful analysis of how to improve for future performances. Competent analysis and evaluation during the devising process with amendments reflecting the decisions made. Clear justifications of the changes made during development of the devised performance. Competent analysis of how their own work will create meaning and explanation of how this will be communicated to the audience. Competent evaluation of their final performance with competent analysis of how to improve for future performances. Basic analysis and evaluation during the devising process with amendments reflecting the decisions made. Basic justifications of the changes made during development of the devised performance. Basic analysis of how their own work will create meaning and explanation of how this will be communicated to the audience. Basic evaluation of their final performance with basic analysis of how to improve for future performances. Limited analysis and evaluation during the devising process with amendments reflecting the decisions made. Limited justifications of the changes made during development of the devised performance. Limited analysis of how their own work will create meaning and explanation of how this will be communicated to the audience.
Limited evaluation of their final performance with limited analysis of how to improve for future performances. No response or no response worthy of credit. ASSESSMENT - PERFORMANCE: DEVISED DRAMA (10%) AO2 Band 5: Devised drama 1720 Marks AO2 Band 4: Devised drama 1316 Marks AO2 Band 3: Devised drama 912 Marks AO2 Band 2: Devised drama 58 Marks Highly developed contribution to the devised performance, through the individuals application of performance or design skills. Accomplished realisation of the artistic intention from their vision. Highly developed reflection of the stimulus in the performance. Accomplished communication of meaning throughout the performance. AO2
Band 1: Devised drama 14 Marks AO2 Devised drama 0 marks Developed contribution to the devised performance, through the individuals application of performance or design skills. Confident realisation of the artistic intention from their vision. Developed reflection of the stimulus in the performance. Confident communication of meaning throughout the performance. Competent contribution to the devised performance, through the individuals application of performance or design skills. Clear realisation of the artistic intention from their vision. Clear reflection of the stimulus in the performance. Competent communication of meaning in the performance. Under-developed contribution to the devised performance, through the individuals application of performance or design skills. Basic realisation of the artistic intention from their vision. Basic reflection of the stimulus in the performance. Basic communication of meaning in the performance. Ineffective contribution to the devised performance, through the individuals application of performance or design skills. Ineffective realisation of the artistic intention from their vision. Limited reflection of the stimulus in the performance. Limited communication of meaning in the performance. No response or no response worthy of credit. The performance time is less than 4 minutes. PRESENTING AND PERFORMING A TEXT(30%) OBJECTIVES Create and develop ideas to communicate meaning for theatrical performance (AO1 Concept Proforma- 15%) Apply theatrical skills to realise artistic intentions in live performance (AO2 Performance 15%) PRESENTING AND PERFORMING A TEXT (30%)
PRACTICAL: To study two extracts from one text. Learners must: Read the whole text Practically explore at least two sections from one text. Perform 2 extracts from the play as part of a Showase to an external examiner. The performance is marked on whether the artistic and stylistic ideas have been achieved and quality of performance. MONOLOGUES 2-3 minutes DUOLOGUES 3-5 minutes SMALL GROUP (3-4 students) 5-10 minutes WRITTEN: Provide the examiner with a Concept Proforma that describes their research of the text and their artistic intention of the performance (OCR provide a template for this) Students can also take on the role of designer instead of Performer. ASSESSED BY: EXTERNAL EXAMINER Presenting & Performing Texts (30%) Learners should: study two extracts from one performance text describe their artistic intentions for a performance present two extracts in a showcase. Learners should be able to: Learners should know and understand: why the extract is significant in the context of the whole text the structure of the whole text and the extracts place within it the social, cultural or historical context of the text
the features of the text including: o o o o o genres structure character form and style dialogue o the role of stage directions interpret the texts so that the playwrights intention can be communicated demonstrate the principles that will underpin their response to the key extracts through performance or design apply their knowledge of genres, styles and theatrical conventions to the way they will perform or design use performance space effectively develop a character or design and demonstrate the way it interacts with other characters or with stage artefacts either: present a complete performance of the extracts with
lines learnt, performance rehearsed and refined, performance skills used, intention of the playwright demonstrated and audience engaged or: present a complete realised design for both extracts with final designs, artefacts, models or sets completed, as appropriate, intention of the playwright demonstrated and audience engaged use rehearsals effectively to rehearse or make, and to adapt and refine their performance or design as appropriate. how to communicate effectively using: o the semiotics of drama o the skills of a performer or designer o performance conventions how performance texts can be presented to an audience the intention of the playwright theatrical conventions how to interpret character through voice, movement and language the use of performance space
the semiotics of theatre as exemplified by the text studied the relationship between performer and audience how the different aspects of design impact on the whole creative experience for both performer and audience the importance of rehearsal including time management and preparation. ASSESSMENT CONCEPT PROFORMA: RESEARCH AND INTERPRETING A TEXT (15%) AO1 Band 5: Research and 1720 interpreting the text Marks AO1 Band 4: Research and 1316 interpreting the text Marks AO1 Band 3: Research and 912 interpreting the text Marks Highly developed explanation of the demands of both extracts from the text. Highly developed explanation of the artistic intention for the performance. Accomplished approach to preparing for the performance.
Developed explanation of the demands of both extracts from the text. Confident explanation of the artistic intention for the performance. Confident approach to preparing for the performance. Clear explanation of the demands of both extracts from the text. Clear explanation of the artistic intention for the performance. Competent approach to preparing for the performance. AO1 Band 2: Research and 58 marks interpreting the text Basic explanation of the demands of at least one extract from the text. Basic explanation of the artistic intention for the performance. Basic approach to preparing for the performance. AO1 Band 1: Research and 14 marks interpreting the text Limited explanation of the demands of at least one extract from the text. Limited explanation of the artistic intention for the performance. Limited approach to preparing for the performance. AO1 0 marks No response or no response worthy of credit. ASSESSMENT PERFORMANCE: PERFORMANCE SKILLS (15%) AO2 Communicating meaning and intention Performing skills
Band 5: 1720 marks Highly developed realisation of artistic intention in the performance. Accomplished communication of meaning to an audience. Accomplished ability to create mood and atmosphere throughout the performance. 1720 marks Accomplished characterisations through roles that are highly developed. Demonstrates a highly developed rapport with other members of the cast sustained throughout the performance. Accomplished control of the use of vocal and physical techniques throughout the performance. Band 4: 1316 marks Developed realisation of artistic intention in the performance. Confident communication of meaning to an audience. Developed ability to create mood and atmosphere throughout the performance. 1316 marks Developed characterisations through roles that are thoughtfully crafted. Demonstrates a developed rapport with other members of the cast during most of the performance. Developed control in the use of vocal and physical techniques assured throughout the performance. Band 3: 912 marks Competent realisation of artistic intention in the performance. Competent communication of meaning to an audience. Competent ability to support establishing the mood and atmosphere of the performance.
912 marks Clear characterisations through roles that are crafted. Demonstrates clear rapport with other members of the cast, sustained during a number of sections of the performance. Competent use of vocal and physical techniques throughout the performance. Band 2: Band 1: 0 marks 58 marks Basic realisation of artistic intention in the performance. Basic communication of meaning to an audience. Basic ability to support the mood and atmosphere of the performance. 14 marks Ineffective realisation of artistic intention in the performance. Limited communication of meaning to an audience. Limited awareness of the mood and atmosphere of the performance. No response or no response worthy of credit. Both performance times are less than: monologue 2 minutes duologue 3 minutes group performance 4 minutes. 58 marks Basic characterisations through roles that reveal basic development. Demonstrates basic rapport with other members of the cast, evident during part of the performance. Basic use of vocal and physical techniques during the performance. 14 marks
Limited characterisations through roles that are ineffective. Demonstrates a limited performing relationship with other members of the cast, during part of the performance. Limited use of vocal and physical techniques during the performance. ASSESSMENT PERFORMANCE: DESIGN SKILLS (15%) AO2 Communicating meaning and intention Band 5: 1720 marks Highly developed realisation of artistic intention in the performance. Accomplished communication of meaning to an audience. Accomplished ability to create mood and atmosphere throughout the performance. Band 4: 1316 marks Developed realisation of artistic intention in the performance. Confident communication of meaning to an audience. Developed ability to create mood and atmosphere throughout the performance. Band 3: 912 marks Competent realisation of artistic intention in the performance. Competent communication of meaning to an audience. Competent ability to support establishing the mood and atmosphere of the performance. Band 2: 58 marks Basic realisation of artistic intention in the performance. Basic communication of meaning to an audience. Basic ability to support the mood and atmosphere of the performance. Band 1:
14 marks Ineffective realisation of artistic intention in the performance. Limited communication of meaning to an audience. Limited awareness of the mood and atmosphere of the performance. 0 marks No response or no response worthy of credit. Both performance times are less than: monologue 2 minutes duologue 3 minutes group performance 4 minutes. Performing skills 1720 marks Accomplished technical ability in the design, demonstrating an excellent enhancement of the performance. Highly developed design that has been prepared with excellent attention to detail. Design showing a highly developed understanding of the practical application of production elements in performance. 1316 marks Developed technical ability in the design, demonstrating a thoughtfully crafted enhancement of the performance. Developed design that has been prepared with close attention to detail. Design showing a developed understanding of the practical application of production elements in performance. 912marks Competent technical ability in the design, demonstrating a clear enhancement of the performance. Competent design that has been prepared with attention to detail. Design showing a competent understanding of the practical application of production elements in performance. 58 marks Basic technical ability in the design, demonstrating a basic enhancement of the performance. Basic design that has been prepared with some attention to detail. Design showing a basic understanding of the practical application of production elements in performance. 14 marks Limited technical ability in the design, demonstrating a limited enhancement of the performance.
Limited design that has been prepared with limited attention to detail. Design showing a limited understanding of the practical application of production elements in performance. CONTENT OF DRAMA: PERFORMANCE AND RESPONSE (40%) PRACTICAL: Learners will explore practically and in-depth a whole performance text. WRITTEN: tested in written exam conditions. SECTION A: Understanding of the text SECTION B: Analysis and evaluation of a live performance seen ASSESSED BY: EXTERNAL EXAMINER Russell, Willy (2001) Blood Brothers, London: Methuen Publishing, Ltd. ISBN10: 0413767701 ISBN13: 978 0413767707 CONTENT OF DRAMA: PERFORMANCE AND RESPONSE (40%) WRITTEN: tested in written exam conditions. 1 hour 30 minutes SECTION A: Understanding of the text Questions 1-8 are Section A. Section A will contain 2 four mark questions, 3 six mark questions and 3 eight mark questions. This may assess any of the content from the specification Section 2c Drama: Performance and response. For example the SAM contains a 6 mark question about staging. This could be assessed as an 8 mark question or a 4 mark question in future papers. CONTENT OF DRAMA: PERFORM ANCE AND RESPONS E (40%) CONTENT OF DRAMA: PERFORM ANCE AND RESPONS E (40%) Performance & Response Learners should:
in Section A: study a whole performance text. Learners should be able to: Learners should know and understand: in relation to their performance text: the contexts of their chosen text including: social historical (time set and period written) Cultural in relation to their performance text: the theatrical conventions of the period in which their text was created the characteristics of their performance text including: o o o o genres structure characters form and style o theatrical setting (place) o plot and subplot o dialogue o stage directions how meaning is communicated through: o the use of performance space and spatial relationships on stage
o the relationship between performers and audience o the design of: set, props, costume, lighting and sound o an actors vocal and physical interpretation of character o the use of performance conventions. define how the social, historical and cultural contexts have an effect on the chosen performance text explore and identify the characteristics of a text through practical preparation work and be able to explain the impact they have on a performance text select examples from their own practical study which demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the full range of characteristics of the performance text identify how a range of genres may have been used to inform the characteristics of the performance text identify how meaning is communicated within the performance text evaluate the roles that theatre makers (from contemporary professional practice) have on developing, performing and responding to a performance text. Performance & Response Learners should: in Section A: study the development of drama and performance. Learners should be able to:
Learners should know and understand: contemporary staging including: apron black box in the round Promenade proscenium arch site specific Thrust traverse the role of theatre makers in contemporary professional practice, including: o o o o o o o o o o o Acting skills including: o o o actors choreographer costume designer director lighting designer lyricist playwright set designer sound designer stage managers understudy blocking
characterisation improvisation vocal techniques an actor might use to communicate a role communication through physicality and the use of body language, facial expression and gesture the use of semiotics the design and use of a set including: o o composite sets non-naturalistic sets evaluate the roles that theatre makers (from contemporary professional practice) have on developing, performing and responding to a performance text state advantages and disadvantages for the decisions made directing, acting and designing for a performance apply knowledge and understanding of the development of drama and
performance to the studied performance text. the development of character through the creation and use of: o o o costume hair and makeup Masks The use of contemporary light, sound and media technology in contemporary performance how performance styles affect the direction, acting and design of a performance. the features of a performance text including acts and scenes antagonist character dialogue duologue flashback monologue plot and subplot protagonist stage directions Performance & Response Learners should: in Section B: analyse and evaluate the work of others through watching live drama and theatre. Learners should know and understand: the meaning of drama and theatre terminology used by theatre makers
how genre is used in live performance to communicate meaning to an audience how to analyse a live theatre performance how to evaluate the work of others, drawing considered conclusions. Learners should be able to: select and use appropriate subjectspecific terminology discuss, analyse and evaluate how meaning is created and communicated through live theatre using their knowledge and understanding of drama analyse and evaluate the acting, design and the characteristics of the performance text seen. DOCUMENT FILE FORMATS ACCEPTED Digital video evidence formats MPEG (*.mpg) Windows Media File (*.wmf) QuickTime movie (*.mov) MPEG Video Layer 4 (*.mp4) Audio or sound formats MPEG Audio Layer 3 (*.mp3) Graphics formats including photographic evidence JPEG (*.jpg) MS bitmap (*.bmp) Graphics file (*.pcx) GIF images (*.gif) Structured markup formats XML (*.xml) Text formats Comma Separated Values (*.csv) Rich text format (*.rtf) PDF (*.pdf) Text document (*.txt)
Microsoft Office suite PowerPoint (*.ppt) Visio (*.vsd) Word (*.doc) Project (*.mpp) Excel (*.xls) HOMEWORK Read the entire play by thursday LEARNERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THESE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS ACTING AD LIB Improvisation by an actor when: 1) another actor fails to enter on cue 2) the normal progress of the play is disturbed 3) lines are forgotten. ASIDE Lines spoken by an actor to the audience and not supposed to be overheard by other characters on stage. BLOCKING The process of arranging moves to be made by the actors during the play, recorded by stage management in the prompt script. BREAK A LEG A superstitious and widely accepted alternative to 'Good Luck' (which is considered bad luck). CHARACTERISATI The art of creating a character. Within the text, characters may be presented by means of description within ON stage directions or character descriptions which the actor must try to convey or through their actions, speech, or spoken thoughts within the text. CORPSING An actor who collapses into uncontrollable laughter during a rehearsal or performance is said to be corpsing. DICTION The quality or style of speaking of a character within the play, consisting of components such as accent, inflection, intonation and enunciation. GESTURE Body or facial movements of a character during a play. Gesture can be described by the author, or suggested by the director or actor. INFLECTION Pronouncing a word to stress its meaning. MIME Communicating emotion, meaning or an idea without words, using only gesture, expression and movement. ON THE BOOK An actor who needs to refer to the script during a scene is said to be "on book". The ideal situation is for the
actor to be "off book" as quickly as possible! PACE The speed the dialogue is delivered to the audience. PITCH The highness or lowness of the tone of voice. Generally male voices are lower pitched and female voices are higher pitched. PROJECTION Using the voice loudly and clearly to ensure the dialogue is heard by the audience. PROMPT BOOK Master copy of the script or score, containing all the actor moves and technical cues, used by stage management to control the performance. Sometimes known as the 'book', Prompt Copy or Prompt Script. RAPPORT The feeling created by an ensemble or cast working together during a performance. READ THROUGH A meeting with all cast and (sometimes all) creative team members to read through the script. Usually happens at the start of the rehearsal process, to help the cast get to know each other and the text. LEARNERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THESE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS COSTUME BLACKS Black clothing worn by stage management during productions. COSTUMES Clothes worn by the actors on stage. DRESSING ROOMS Rooms containing clothes rails and mirrors (often surrounded with lights) in which actors change into their costumes and apply makeup. GREASEPAINT Name refers to makeup supplied in stick form, for application to the face or body. Needs special removing cream. MAKEUP Products applied to the face or body of an actor to change or enhance their appearance. See also GREASEPAINT. MASK Form of theatre where actors faces are covered with masks. QUICK CHANGE
A change of costume that needs to happen very quickly and takes place close to the side of the stage. WARDROBE The general name for the costume department, its staff and the accommodation they occupy. LEARNERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THESE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS FEATURES OF PERFORMANCE TEXTS ACT ANTAGONIST ANTI-CLIMAX CHARACTER CHORUS CLIMAX COMIC RELIEF DIALOGUE DRAMATIC IRONY DRAMATIC TENSION DUOLOGUE EPILOGUE EXPOSITION FLASHBACK GENRE INTERIOR MONOLOGUE LIBRETTO MONOLOGUE NARRATION PLOT PROLOGUE PROTAGONIST RISING ACTION SCENE SCRIPT SETTING SOLILOQUY STAGE DIRECTIONS STEREOTYPE STOCK CHARACTER STRUCTURE SUBPLOT SUBTEXT Subdivision between sections of a play. Acts are subdivided further into Scenes. The opposite of the PROTAGONIST in a drama. See also PROTAGONIST. A climax is where everything comes together as a conclusion. An anti- climax, conversely, is incomplete so can be disappointing or unsatisfying. A named individual within the play (e.g. "There are ten characters in scene one, all of whom have speaking parts."). In Greek theatre, a character (or group) representing an element in the drama which comments on the action, and advances the plot.
The significant moment in the plot of a play, when things change, or reach a crisis point. A comic scene (or line) included in an otherwise straight-faced play to provide a relief from tension for the audience. The spoken text of a play conversations between characters is dialogue. Where the audience knows more about a situation on stage than one of the characters in the drama. Moments in a drama where the audience feels a heightened sense of anticipation about what is going to happen next. Part of a scene in a drama which is a scripted conversation between only two characters. Scene or speech which follows the main action of the play and provides some insight or comment on the action. The section of plot at the start of a play which provides essential background information about the characters, their situation, and their relationships to each other. A moment during the action of a play when the natural flow of time is interrupted so that a moment from the past can be presented. A way of categorising different types of drama. A play may be categorised using multiple types of genre. The interior (or internal) monologue is the stream of consciousness discussion a character has with her/himself while working through problems or issues confronting them. It can be delivered as a recorded voiceover, or possibly as an aside spoken direct to the audience. Text of an opera, or other long musical vocal composition. The script of a musical. A speech within a play delivered by a single actor alone on stage. Dialogue designed to tell the story or provide accompanying information. Narration can accompany on stage action or be presented in its own right. The basic story thread running through a performance/play which gives the reason for the characters actions. Short scene or speech before the main action of the play to put it into context or set the scene. The leading character or 'hero' in a play who has to fight against/oppose the ANTAGONIST. The events that build up the pace and perhaps the excitement in a plot/drama. A subdivision of a play. The text of a play or musical. Also contains stage directions and other notes. The place the action in the scene or play is set. Lines delivered by an actor on stage as if to her/himself. Instructions given by the author about how a play should be staged, when actors should make their entrances and exits and how lines should be delivered. A role that has set characteristics, easily recognisable and sometimes exaggerated, and that follows consistently a generally agreed form. A role with set characteristics that may be used frequently in certain types of drama, e.g. melodrama. The way a piece of drama is put together; the connections between episodes, scenes or acts; the framework. (See also Shaping) In narratives, this term refers to a secondary plot or storyline. In acting and character analysis, it refers to the idea that there are other meanings below the surface of what is actually said and done. LEARNERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THESE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS LIGHTING BACKLIGHT Light coming from upstage, behind scenery or actors, to sculpt and separate them from the background. BARNDOORS An attachment which is fixed to the front of a lantern to cut off the lighting beam in a particular direction(s). BLACKOUT The act of turning off (or fading out) stage lighting. BOARD The main control for the stage lighting.
BURNT OUT A coloured gel that has lost its colour or melted through due to excessive heat in front of a lantern. CMY Cyan / Magenta / Yellow the three secondary (additive) colours of light which are used in moving lights for colour mixing. CROSS FADE Bringing another lighting state up to completely replace the current lighting state. Also applies to sound effects/music. Sometimes abbreviated to Xfade or XF. DIMMER RACK A number of individual lighting dimmer circuits built into a single case. Consists of a single power input, a lighting control (DMX512) input and sockets to connect lanterns. A dimmer rack can be set to respond to any control channel by setting its start address (known as "addressing" the rack). FADE A fade is an increase, diminishment or change in lighting or sound level. FLOOD A lensless lantern that produces a broad non-variable spread of light. FOLLOWSPOT Usually, a powerful profile lantern fitted with its own dimmer, iris, colour magazine and shutters mounted in or above the auditorium, used with an operator so that the light beam can be moved around the stage to follow an actor. GENERAL COVER Those lanterns in a rig which are set aside purely to light the acting areas. The stage is normally split into a number of areas for this purpose, which can then be isolated or blended together as required by the director. GOBO A thin metal plate etched to produce a design which can then be projected by a profile spotlight. There are hundreds of gobo designs available common examples are breakup (foliage), windows and scenic (neon signs, city scapes etc.). LANTERN General term for unit of lighting equipment including spotlight, flood etc. LIGHTING PLOT The process of recording information about each lighting state either onto paper or into the memory of a computerised lighting board for subsequent playback.
LIGHTS UP LX 1) Announcement that a section of the performance has begun 2) An increase in light level usually a note by the lighting designer for her/his own reference. Used by some as a shorthand for lighting. LEARNERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THESE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS PERFORMANCE STYLE COMEDY A performance where there is a happy ending, with the intention of amusing and entertaining the audience. EPIC THEATRE Features of Epic Theatre include episodic scenes, a lack of tension, breaking the theatrical illusion through devices such as direct audience address, use of songs, projections and narration. EXPRESSIONISM A term for theatre design and performance style which places greater value on emotion than realism. The trademark Expressionist effects were often achieved through distortion. FORUM THEATRE In this process the actors or audience members could stop a performance, often a short scene in which a character was being oppressed in some way. The audience would suggest different actions for the actors to carry out on stage in an attempt to change the outcome of what they were seeing. MELODRAMA A Melodrama is a dramatic work that exaggerates plot and/or characters in order to appeal to the emotions. METATHEATRE Comedy and tragedy, at the same time, where the audience can laugh at the protagonist while feeling empathetic simultaneously. NATURALISM/NATURALISTIC A performance that attempts to replicate nature and present events and characters on stage as in real life. Naturalism attempts to hold up a mirror to nature and give the illusion of characters as actual people in real-life situations using everyday language.
PHYSICAL THEATRE Performances which incorporate dance elements into a dramatic theatre performance. REALISM Realism in theatre describes a decision by the creative team to present the audience with an accurate depiction of the real world, rather than a stylised interpretation. STYLE Style refers to the way the actors perform, the visual characteristics of the setting and costumes, and the choice of conventions used. STYLISED Stylisation is the conscious process of emphasising and often exaggerating elements of the design or characteristics of a role. SYMBOLISM/SYMBOLIC Using symbols to suggest and communicate meaning to the audience. THEATRE IN EDUCATION Often abbreviated to T.I.E. The use of theatrical techniques to educate, covering social issues or topics on the school's syllabus. LEARNERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THESE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS PERFORMANCE SPACE AISLE AUDITORIUM BACKSTAGE A passage through seating. The part of the theatre accommodating the audience during the performance. Sometimes known as the "house". The part of the stage and theatre which is out of the sight of the audience. The service areas of the theatre, behind, beside or underneath the stage. CENTRE LINE Imaginary line running down the stage through the exact centre of the proscenium opening. Marked as CL on stage plans. CENTRE STAGE The middle portion of the stage has good sightlines to all seats of the auditorium. CIRCLE The balcony with tiered seating above the stalls in a traditional proscenium arch theatre. DOWNSTAGE The part of the stage nearest to the audience (the lowest part of a raked stage). ELEVATOR STAGE A type of mechanised stage which has sections that can be raised or lowered. HOUSE 1) The audience
2) The auditorium HOUSE LIGHTS The auditorium lighting which is commonly faded out when the performance starts. OFFSTAGE The area out of sight of the audience. RAKED AUDITORIUM Audience seating area which is sloped, with its lowest part nearest the stage. RAKED STAGE A sloping stage which is raised at the back (upstage) end. All theatres used to be built with raked stages. Today, the stage is often left flat and the auditorium is raked to improve the view of the stage from all seats. ROSTRUM (plural ROSTRA) A portable platform, usually in the form of a collapsible hinged framework with a separate top. STAGE The part of the theatre on which performances happen. STAGE DOOR The backstage entrance to the theatre. Performers and technicians enter here. Large theatres normally have a stage door keeper, who takes messages for performers and acts as a security guard for the entrance. STAGE LEFT / RIGHT Left/Right as seen from the Actor's point of view on stage. (i.e. Stage Left is the right side of the stage when looking from the auditorium.) STALLS The lowest audience seating area, usually just below the level of the stage, in a proscenium theatre. TRAP An opening through the stage floor. TRAP ROOM The area directly below the trapped part of the stage. Used for accessing the traps. TREADS General name for any stage staircase or set of steps. UPSTAGE The part of the stage furthest from the audience. WINGS The out-of-view areas to the sides of the acting area. LEARNERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THESE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS PERFORMANCE VENUES AMPHITHEATRE Circular or oval open-air theatre with a large raked seating area (often semi-circular) sloping down to the stage APRON STAGE The Apron is a section of the stage floor which projects towards or into the auditorium. BLACK BOX A flexible studio theatre where the audience and actors are in the same room, surrounded by black tabs (curtains). END ON Traditional audience seating layout where the audience is looking at the stage from the same direction. This seating layout is that of a Proscenium Arch theatre.
FOUND SPACE A performance space that wasn't designed to be one (e.g. historic buildings, factories, public areas). IN THE ROUND Theatre in the Round is a form of audience seating layout where the acting area is surrounded on all sides by seating. There are often a number of entrances through the seating. Special consideration needs to be given to onstage furniture and scenery as audience sightlines can easily be blocked. PROMENADE Form of staging where the audience moves around the performance space and sees the play at a variety of different locations. PROSCENIUM ARCH The opening in the wall which stands between stage and auditorium in some theatres; the picture frame through which the audience sees the play. The "fourth wall". SITE-SPECIFIC THEATRE A piece of performance which has been designed to work only in a particular non-theatre space. THRUST Form of stage which projects into the auditorium so that the audience is seated on at least two sides of the extended piece. TRAVERSE Form of staging where the audience is on either side of the acting area. LEARNERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THESE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS PRACTICAL EXPLORATION ARTEFACT BACK STORY CROSS-CUTTING FREEZE FRAME HOT SEATING IMPROVISATION ROLE PLAY An object which might be used as a starting point in a drama activity. Artefacts (which on stage become props) can signify context, actions and meaning. Providing a history to a character or plot before the events in the play, scene or drama begin. This involves changing back and forth between scenes or episodes of action. The first scene runs up to a selected point and the action freezes or the lights fade out on it. As this happens, the second scene starts and runs up to another 'cutting point'. The action reverts (cuts) to a section of the first scene. The process of switching
between scenes continues. A technique for allowing a character to 'step out' of a scene and reveal something to the audience, while the rest of the action freezes. A technique used to gain a deeper understanding of a character or role. An individual sits in a chair designated as the 'hot seat'. The rest of the group asks the person in the hot seat relevant questions about their feelings, thoughts, actions or circumstances. The person in the hot seat answers the questions in role or as they think the character they are playing would answer. Performing quickly in response to something or acting without previous planning. Spontaneous improvisation refers to making up a role as you go along. Prepared/ planned improvisation refers to working and reworking within a structure of ideas and roles agreed in advance. Pretending to be someone (or something) else. Role play is generally confined to taking on a clearly defined role such as a doctor, a bus driver or teacher without any attempt at in-depth psychological analysis or understanding. What distinguishes it from acting is that role play is not intended for performance to an audience. When, during an improvisation or rehearsal for a scene, the actors swap the roles/characters they are portraying to gain a different view or understanding of their own role. ROLE REVERSAL/ROLE TRANSFER ROLE-ON-THE-WALL A life-sized outline of a figure is drawn on the wall to represent a character or role being developed or explored. Members of the group take it in turns to write facts and information about the character/role within the outline. Physical details might all be written in the head area, for example, whereas things the character likes might be written in the right leg. Opinions and views from other people or characters can be added around the outside of the figure. STILL IMAGE Creating a picture to represent a frozen moment or to sum up what is happening in a drama. It is a useful technique for exploring the effects of positioning characters in relation to one another in terms of levels and proximity and to demonstrate non-verbal communication. It is often used with sculpting and thoughts in the head. (See also Tableau) STIMULUS An artefact used as a starting point for devising original drama and theatre performances. STORYBOARDING A series of images and/or text showing the sequence of the action planned for a play. TABLEAU(X) A dramatic grouping of characters. A tableau may not necessarily be a still or frozen image. It can be a general 'stage picture' during a sequence in a scene where dialogue may be spoken and gestures used. In tableau vivant, the performers are positioned to represent a picture or 'fresco', and props and costumes are often used as an integral part of the stage picture. 'Tableau' can also be used to describe a pause on stage where all performers briefly freeze in position .This can typically be found at the end of scenes in Victorian melodramas. (See also STILL IMAGE) TEACHER-IN-ROLE When a class or group of participants in a drama accepts that the teacher (or leader) is going to play a role to which they are going to react and respond. The participants may or may not be in role. TECHNIQUE Used here to refer to drama forms, exercises, strategies and conventions that are widely used to develop understanding and explore meaning through the drama process. In a broader context, techniques encompass the whole range of physical and psychological processes and exercises that an actor might use to develop their skills as a performer. THOUGHT TRACKING An exercise that allows the inner thoughts of a character or role to be heard out loud. It is often used with freeze frame or still image, where a participant is asked to say what they are thinking at that point in time. WRITING IN ROLE An exercise where, for example, a letter, a diary or journal is written as if by the character or role being portrayed. It is a useful technique in work on building character. LEARNERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THESE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS PROCESS CALL A notification of a working session (eg a Rehearsal Call, Band Call, Photo Call).
CHOREOGRAPHY The art and craft of designing the moves, pace, flow, structure and execution of a piece of dance, or any other piece of rehearsed movement. A stage combat sequence is also choreographed. CUE 1) The command given to technical departments to carry out a particular operation 2) Any signal (spoken line, action or count) that indicates another action should follow. CUE TO CUE Cutting out action and dialogue between cues during a technical rehearsal, to save time. CURTAIN CALL At the end of a performance, the acknowledgement of applause by actors the bows. DE-RIG The process of removing lanterns & cabling from flying bars or grid returning the venue to its normal state, or as preparation for the next production. DRESS REHEARSAL A full rehearsal, with all technical elements brought together. The performance as it will be 'on the night'. DRY RUN A practice run, usually a Technical run without actors. ENCORE An extension of the performance due to audience demand. GET-IN The process of moving set, props and other hardware into a theatre. GET-OUT Moving an entire production out of the venue. INTERVAL Break between sections of a performance.
REHEARSAL A session when actors are called to work through some scenes from the play in private. TECH Short for Technical Rehearsal. TECHNICAL REHEARSAL Usually the first time the show is rehearsed in the venue, with lighting, scenery and sound. Costumes are sometimes used where they may cause technical problems (eg Quick changes). WALK THROUGH Session on stage just after the set has been built (or reassembled) when actors and crew can go through moves to ensure all is as it should be, and to identify any problems before the performance. WARM-UP The Warm-Up prepares the actor's body for the performance by exercising (literally warming up) muscles, stretching limbs, and getting the cast to focus on the performance and to forget about anything outside the walls of the theatre. LEARNERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THESE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS THEATRE MAKERS ACTOR AMATEUR ASM AUDIENCE BIT PART CAST CHOREOGRAPHER COMPANY COSTUME DESIGNER DANCER DIRECTOR DRAMATIST ENSEMBLE LYRICIST PLAYWRIGHT PROFESSIONAL SOUND DESIGNER STAGE CREW STAGE MANAGER UNDERSTUDY USHERS WALK-ON
Person (male or female) whose role is to play a character. Although the term 'actress' is still used for a female actor, many women prefer to have the same title as the men. Member of a theatre company which is not professional. Assistant Stage Manager. A group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art, literature, theatre, music, video games, or academics in any medium. Some types of performance (e.g. street theatre) call for greater audience involvement. A small role for an actor. The members of the acting company. Member of the production team responsible for setting dances and movement sequences during the production. The cast, crew and other staff associated with a show. Member of the creative team for a show responsible for the clothes worn by the actors throughout the performance. Member of the company whose role is choreographed, and who has no spoken words. Broadly, the role involves being responsible for the overall artistic vision of a production. ARTISTIC DIRECTOR Normally in charge of the programming of a venue. May also direct shows. TECHNICAL DIRECTOR In charge of the technical requirements of a production. A playwright, composer or lyricist who takes an existing story and transforms it into a play or musical. An acting group. Normally used to describe a group of actors who work well together, with no one outshining the others. Author of the text of a musical / the words of a song. The author of a play. Also known as a dramatist. Normally used for someone who's regularly paid for a particular job (as opposed to an amateur, who does it for fun). Member of the production team who has the responsibility for planning and executing the layout of all sound playback and reinforcement equipment for the show. This role also includes the sourcing of music and sound effects for the production. Member of the Stage staff who is responsible for moving props and/or scenery during the show, and for ensuring that items under his/her responsibility are working correctly and properly maintained. The Head of the Stage Management team comprising the deputy stage manager (DSM) and assistant stage manager (ASM). The DSM is normally "on the book" calling the cues from the prompt corner. The ASM supervises props. A member of the cast of a musical or play who understudies one (sometimes more) of the principal roles and is also in the chorus. Members of Front-of-House staff who guide audience members to their seats, and often sit in the auditorium during the show in case of emergency. A small acting role with no lines. LEARNERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THESE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS SET ACTION PROP BOX SET BRACE BRACE WEIGHT CLOTH COMPOSITE SETTING CYCLORAMA (CYC) DOOR FLAT DRESSING (the set) ENTRANCE EXIT FLAT FOURTH WALL GAUZE GROUNDPLAN
MARKING OUT MODELBOX PROPS SET A hand-held practical prop used by an actor for combat or for a specific purpose. Naturalistic setting of a complete room built from flats with only the side nearest the audience (the fourth wall) missing. 1) Angled strengthening timber within a flat. 2) Support for scenery on stage. Slotted cast iron weight placed on foot of extendible or French brace to prevent movement. Often referred to as a 'Stage Weight'. A piece of scenic canvas, painted or plain that is flown or fixed to hang in a vertical position. A Backcloth (or Backdrop) hangs at the rear of a scene. A Star Cloth (usually black) has a large number of small low-voltage lamps sewn or pinned through it which gives a magical starry sky effect. A stage setting where several locations are represented in the same space and isolated or highlighted by lighting each area separately. The Cyclorama is a curved plain cloth or plastered wall filling the rear of the stage. Scenery item consisting of a wall containing a working door. Decorative props (some practical) and furnishings added to a stage setting are known as Set Dressing. 1) A part of the set through which actors can walk onto the stage. 2) The act of an actor walking onto the stage. 1) A part of the set through which actors can leave the stage. 2) The act of an actor walking off the stage. A lightweight timber frame covered with scenic canvas, or plywood. Flats are used to provide a lightweight and easy-to-move-and-re-configure backdrop to a stage set. Flats sometimes have windows or doors built into them to provide extra flexibility, for use in realistic settings. Masking flats are used to hide areas the designer does not want the audience to see, or to provide actors with an exit, or somewhere to store props. The imaginary wall of a box set through which the audience see the stage. The fourth wall convention is an established convention of modern realistic theatre, where the actors carry out their actions unaware of the audience. Cloth with a relatively coarse weave. Used unpainted to diffuse a scene played behind it. When painted, gauze is opaque when lit obliquely from the front and becomes transparent when the scene behind it is lit. A scaled plan (overhead) view of the theatre stage area or of a set design, to enable all technical departments to ensure that everything will fit correctly into the space available. Sticking tapes to the floor of the rehearsal space to indicate the groundplan of the scenery. Also for marking position of furniture etc. within a set. A wooden box representing the walls of a theatre space in which cardboard scale models can be placed by the set designer. (Properties) Furnishings, set dressings, and all items large and small which cannot be classified as scenery, electrics or wardrobe. Props handled by actors are known as hand props, props which are kept in an actors costume are known as personal props. 1) 2) To prepare the stage for action. The complete stage setting for a scene or act. LEARNERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THESE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS SOUND ACAPELLA A sung performance which is not accompanied by musicians. ACOUSTICS
The acoustic of a room depends on its size and shape and the amount and position of sound-absorbing and reflecting material. AMBIENT NOISE The sound heard in a room with no sound sources. CONTROL ROOM Room at the rear of the auditorium (in a proscenium theatre) where lighting and sometimes sound are operated from. The control room is usually soundproofed from the auditorium so that communications between operators cannot be heard by the audience. MICROPHONE Device for converting sound into electrical pulses which can then be amplified or recorded onto tape. MIXER A desk comprising a number of input channels where each sound source is provided with its own control channel through which sound signals are routed into two or more outputs. RADIO MIC Device consisting of a microphone head, transmitter pack with batteries, aerial and mains receiver unit which allows actors and singers to be amplified with no visible means of connection. SOUND CHECK A thorough test of the sound system before a performance. This will include checking each speaker cabinet individually, and each playback device. In the case of a live concert, this is the session when each instrument is played in turn for the sound engineer to check and fine-tune the sound. SOUNDSCAPE Using sounds to create an aural environment for a scene. A director or designer might develop a soundscape to create an atmosphere appropriate to the drama. Each individual might create a sound appropriate to accompany or introduce the scene. For example, one person might make sea sounds vocally while another imitates the cry of a seagull to suggest the seaside. Repeated words and phrases overlapping each other can also be used to suggest a location or to portray sounds in a character's head from a nightmare or series of flashbacks. LEARNERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THESE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS TECHNOLOGY/EFFECTS AV Short for Audio-Visual, referring to projected or screened video or textual material.
DIGITAL EFFECTS Reverb, Delay, Phasing, Flanging, Harmonising, Chorusing. DRY ICE Frozen solid carbon dioxide (CO2) at a temperature of 78.5 centigrade which produces clouds of steam-loaded CO2 gas forming a low-lying mist or fog when dropped into boiling water. FX Abbreviation for Effect. PYROTECHNICS (Pyro) Chemical explosive or flammable firework effects with a manual detonation. Usually electrically fired with specially designed fail-safe equipment. RIGGING General term for the systems and equipment that suspend lighting and scenic equipment above the stage or performance space. SMOKE MACHINE A Smoke Machine is an electrically powered unit which produces clouds of white non-toxic fog (available in different flavours/smells) by the vaporisation of mineral oil. It is specially designed for theatre & film use. LEARNERS SHOULD BE FAMILIAR WITH THESE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS OTHER ARTISTIC INTENTION The way the director (or ensemble) decides to realise the performance including decisions on the staging, performance style and design requirements. See also VISION. ATMOSPHERE The mood of a scene as it is understood by the audience. AUDITION Process where the director or casting director of a production asks actors / actresses / performers to show him/her what they can do. CONTEMPORARY A performance for a 21st Century audience. See also PRESENT-DAY. CONTEXT The situation or circumstances in which a piece of drama is set or devised, including historical, cultural or social influences. Context may be explored using the 'W' questions: What? Who? Why? Where? When? CONVENTION Stage conventions or theatrical conventions are practices that have become accepted over time or that can be established within a performance piece. For example, it is a convention in pantomime that the Dame is played by a male performer and the Principal Boy by a female performer. 'Convention' may also be used to describe drama activities such as conscience corridor. CULTURAL CONTEXT The values and attitudes explored thematically in the text. FORM
The shape and structure of a drama. In theatre, form is determined by the content of the drama (e.g. the way the playwright has constructed the narrative elements) and by the way it is presented (the choices made by actors, designers and directors in interpreting the material for performance). Form is closely associated with genre and these terms are often confused but they do not have the same meaning. For example, a play classified as in a naturalistic genre will be recognised by the audience as naturalistic by the form it takes on stage. (See also GENRE and STYLE) HISTORICAL The time/period the text was written in and the playwright was writing AND the context within the text of when and where the narrative is set. CONTEXT PRESENT-DAY A performance for an audience today. See also CONTEMPORARY. PROXEMICS Proxemics means the distances between characters/actors in a play. It shows their relationships and feelings. REALISATION The performance that is viewed by an audience. REPERTOIRE A collection of regularly performed pieces or techniques, usually attributed to a particular performer or playwright. SEMIOTICS How meaning is created and communicated through systems of signs and symbols of drama. All of the elements that make up a theatrical performance have meaning and an audience 'reads' or interprets them to understand the events in the performance. SOCIAL CONTEXT The relationships and interactions between the characters and the events in the text. SUSPENSION OF The idea that an audience watching a drama is willing to accept that what is happening on stage (or on film) is real. DISBELIEF The description or record of the artistic intention for the performance. See also ARTISTIC INTENTION. VISION