Gcse Physical Education

Gcse Physical Education

St Marys High School REVISION GUIDE What is a HEALTHY, ACTIVE LIFESTYLE? A lifestyle that contributes positively to physical, mental and social wellbeing and includes regular exercise and physical activity What are the benefits of taking part in physical activity? Social Meet people, Make friends. Co-operation Competition Physical challenge Aesthetic appreciation Mental Relieve stress/tension Stress-related illness

Physical Improve body shape Good health 6 INFUENCES on your Healthy, Active Lifestyle Image Fashion: Media: Health the best boots, clothing and equipment increases popularity London Marathon, New Year, Wimbledon Cultural Factors Disability: Age: Gender: Race: resources, opportunities, funding some sports have age-restrictions e.g. minimum 18 for Marathon womens football taken less seriously then mens Illness Conditions

People Family Peers Role Models ethnic background fewer Asian footballers than other races Resources Availability: if people are willing, facilities need to be provided Location: local availability e.g. lack of space in inner-city areas Access: parking, public transport to facilities Time: availability for demand: school facilities available after hours Good or bad role model? Socio-Economic Cost: Status: hire of facilities and equipment e.g. ice-rink, skates employed (more disposable income), unemployed (need to save money) OPPORTUNITIES to Become INVOLVED Where are you?

Physical Education is not just about being the best performer in a sport! INITIATIVES To Get People Involved Government: At least 2 hours of high quality PE per week PESSCL: Strengthens links between school and local clubs (ages 5-16) Club Links Opportunity to be performer, leader, official, volunteer Step Into Sport Sport England: Start (participate), Stay (competition and Succeed (talented can progress) Youth Sport Trust TOPS 14-16 organise festivals in local primaries, sports leadership courses Active Kids Supermarkets run voucher programmes to aid purchase of equipment Key Definitions Health Fitness Exercise Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

The ability to meet the demands of the environment. a form of physical activity done primarily to improve ones health and physical fitness Performance How well a task is completed Remember you can be fit but not healthy e.g. Sir Steve Redgrave has diabetes but is a 5-time Olympic champion C.V. fitness: the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time. TEST: 12-min Cooper Run or Bleep Test Muscular Strength: The ability to apply force and overcome resistance. TEST: Gripometer Muscular Endurance: The ability to use muscles, many times without getting tired.

TEST: Sit-Up Bleep Test Flexibility: The range of movement at a joint. TEST: Sit and Reach Body composition: The percentage of body weight which is fat muscle and bone. TEST: BMI 6 Skill-Related Fitness Components (BCRAPS) Balance retain centre of mass over base of support TEST: Illinois Agility Run Power ability to do strength movements quickly: strength x speed TEST:

Ruler Drop Agility ability to change direction at speed TEST: Tennis Ball Throw Reaction Time time between the presentation of a stimulus and onset of movement TEST: Stork Balance Test Co-ordination to use two or more body parts together TEST: Remember you need to fill in a Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PARQ)

prior to taking part in activity to assess the level of risk and use the right protocols to perform safely. Standing Broad Jump (Long Jump) Speed how fast your body can move over a short distance TEST: 30m Sprint Principles of Training Individual Needs matching training to the requirements of the individual e.g. struggle to complete game therefore CV fitness Specificity: matching training to the requirements of the activity e.g. goalkeepers training for agility, midfielders for cardiovascular fitness Progressive Overload: gradually increasing he amount of overload so as to gain fitness without the risk of injury.

Rest:The period of time allotted to recovery Recovery: The time required to repair damage caused by training Reversibility: any adaptation from training is reversed during inactivity F.I.T.T Principle Overload is applied to a training programme by using the FITT principle. Increase the Increase the Increase the Choose correct e.g. Frequency Intensity Time Type of exercise how often how hard how long method of training

someone wanting to improve their CV Endurance Frequency 3 times per week Intensity 60-80% of maximum HR Time 30 minutes per session Type Method e.g. continuous running Goal Setting People who set sensible goals are able to focus their energies on their training and achieve them. Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Time-bound e.g. I want to run half a lap further in the 12-min run e.g. running half a lap further easy to measure! e.g. training plan to build on CV fitness half lap achieved! e.g. running half a lap is more realistic than 4 extra laps e.g. 6 week training programme put a clear end point in This are the first steps towards designing your Personal Exercise Programme (PEP) Training Methods

Each is designed for a specific purpose, to improve a specific aspect of fitness - combination of METHODS develop sporting performance (CROSS TRAINING) CONTINUOUS Defined as: Sports: Advantages: high duration, low intensity exercise without rest periods e.g. (30 mins jogging) e.g. cycling, swimming, team sports in pre-season to build aerobic base Cheap, wide range of activities available, can apply FITT to suit needs INTERVAL Defined as: Sports: Advantages: high intensity periods of work followed by defined periods of rest e.g. (sprint 60m, 30s rest)x6, 5-min rest then perform set again - SPEED e.g. (15 mins jogging, 3 minutes rest) x4 CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS e.g. Swimming, Athletics, Football improves speed and CV fitness, high intensity, works high HR zones SPRINT 30s rest SPRINT30s rest

CIRCUIT Defined as: Sports: Advantages: A number of exercises arranged to avoid training the same muscle groups e.g. (6-10 stations can work muscles and CV system, also skills in your sport) e.g. work for set time (1 min), set reps (30 reps), rest for 2 mins at end of 1 circuit e.g. football, cricket, tennis, badminton work (strength, speed, CV, muscular endurance in 1 session), aerobic/anaerobic FARTLEK Swedish for Speed Play Defined as: Sports: Advantages: A combination of fast and slow running e.g. rugby, football, netball those with changes in speed throughout can include hill work and different terrains, flexible to suit individual sport/needs WEIGHT Defined as: Sports: Advantages:

a common type of training to develop strength and size of skeletal muscles e.g. speed, strength, power sports (long jump, javelin, football, rugby) can improve musc. strength, musc. endurance, power, easy to overload, variety JOG---SPRINT--75%---JOG Exercise Session Warm up: Pulse raisers, stretches, mobilising joints PREVENTS INJURY, IMPROVES PERF. Main activity: Skills, drills, tactics WORKS SPECIFIC GOALS/COMPONENTS Cool down: PREPARES FOR FUTURE SESSIONS To remove lactic acid and repay oxygen debt. Target Heart Rate Zones

Heart rate = number of times the heart beats per min Maximum heart rate = (220 age) Training/ target zones are calculated using this equation Less than 60% MHR = Recovery zone (cool down) 60 80% MHR = Aerobic training zone 80 - 90% MHR = Anaerobic training zone 90 95% MHR = Speed training zone. Anaerobic Exercise

Without O2 (Oxygen) Very short period of time 1-10 seconds How would you improve your ability to work anaerobically? Work very, very hard in short bursts Be around 85% of your maximum heart rate (220 - age = 100%) GLUCOSE = ENERGY + LACTIC ACID Aerobic Exercise Exercise with (using) O2 Over a long period of time How would you improve your ability to work aerobically?

Work hard and for a long time (at least 20 minutes in training zone) Work between 60% and 80% of the maximum heart rate (for a 14 year old that is between approx 125-170bpm) Use large muscle groups GLUCOSE + OXYGEN = CO2 + WATER + ENERGY Diet and Nutrition Most Valuable Player Football Club F

W Dietary Intake and Performance Minerals Vitamins Protein Fat Carbohydrates Fibre Water Ensure you know why calcium and Iron are needed

Minerals Vitamins Protein Fat Carbohydrates Fibre Water Calcium Iron C Meat Cheese Bread Cereal Carbo-Loading A system mainly used by marathon runners e.g. Marathon 1 week today (Sunday) Protein-rich foods (Mon-Tues) depletes carb stores

Carb-rich foods (Weds-Sat) fully replenishes stores Body is fooled into storing more carbs due to starvation process The protein is needed to repair muscle, carbs to fuel the activity. It is important to take food within the 2 hours after a race/activity to replenish lost stores. Blood-Flow During Exercise Blood is shunted from other areas of the body (particularly organs) to the working muscle during exercise. Less blood is available to digest food in the gut can cause cramp. Exercise should ideally not start until 2-3 hours after the meal. Strong teeth and bones Help the blood to carry O2 To prevent scurvy Growth and repair Slow energy

Fast energy Helps digestion Needs to be replaced Extreme Body Types (Somatotypes) Endomorph lots of fat Mesomorph lots of muscle Ectomorph - skinny Overweight Having weight in excess of normal. Not harmful unless accompanied by over-fatness Over-fat Having body fat in excess of normal Obese

Describes people who are very over-fat Anorexia A prolonged eating disorder due to the loss of appetite Optimum Weight Best weight or desirable weight the best weight a player performs at ***(Potential 6 mark question for you to discuss)*** Factors Affecting Optimum Weight Height taller people often (not always) heavier Gender Men/women have different body composition Bone Structure Frame of skeleton depends on bone structure e.g. broad shoulders/thick wrists compared to narrow shoulders/hips

Muscle Girth increases with training, larger muscle weighs more so sportspeople need to look at the appropriate charts Genetics body weight and shape are largely passed on by parents OPTIMUM WEIGHT IN SPORT Needs to be compared to similar with sports, positions and events e.g. between forwards in rugby, jockeys in horse racing and footballers. The rules of a sport can often govern what an optimum weight is (boxing weights for example) Beta Blockers Drugs that are used to control the heart rate and have a calming/relaxing effect. Prescribed to those with heart problems to maintain low heart rate and blood pressure Stress and anxiety levels reduced Improves steadiness of hand and precision Aids performance in archery, snooker, skijumping, gymnastics Side effects: Reduces heart rate to dangerously lo levels, nausea, depression, insomnia, nightmares Anabolic Steroids Stimulants Drugs that have an effect on the central

nervous system, such as increased mental and / or physical awareness. Amphetamines, Cocaine, Ephedrine Help to overcome tiredness Offset the effects of lactic acid Side effects: Insomnia, irritability, irregular heart beat, high blood pressure, addiction Peptide Hormones Narcotics/Analgesics Drugs that can be used to reduce and / or mask pain. Heroin, methadone, morphine Can return to competition quicker Increase risk of long-term injury Side effects: Loss of: concentration, balance, ordination, bring on hallucinations co- Diuretics Drugs that cause other hormones to be produced. Drugs that elevate the rate of urine

production. Misused by boxers & jockeys who need to lose weight to make the correct weight. Increase strength and allow you to train harder and recover faster Produce results quicker Increase aggression Human Growth Hormone (HGH), EPO used for anaemia but increases RBC so improved aerobic capacity Increase muscle growth Assist recovery Increase red blood cells (RBC) Side effects: Increased risk of heart attack/stroke, high blood pressure, liver disease, infertility, death Side effects: Thickens blood, causes dehydration, increased risk of heart attack/stroke Drugs that mimic the male sex hormone testosterone and promote bone/muscle growth. Side effects:

Dehydration dizziness, muscle cramps, headaches and nausea, also kidney disease Recreational Drugs Nicotine Cigarettes. Nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide. Affects sports performance by getting less oxygen to working muscles so aerobic fitness is decreased. Improves alertness but extremely addictive. Alcohol Affects co-ordination, balance, reaction time. Acts as a SEDATIVE, slowing reactions and impairing judgement. Increases dehydration Socially Acceptable Drugs Socially Unacceptable Drugs Drugs prescribed over the counter by a doctor such as paracetamol and aspirin to treat medical conditions Illegal and unacceptable to most people e.g. heroin, cocaine, LSD. All have negative effects and can lead to death. Risk Assessment and Prevention of Injury Warming Up / Cooling Down

Checking Equipment and Facilities WU warm the muscles gradually to prevent injury CD prevents injury and disperses lactic acid preventing soreness and aches Protective Equipment and Clothing Football, Hockey, Sailing. Remove jewellery, ensure your equipment isnt a danger to others. Footwear appropriate to activity e.g. length of studs, supportive for the ankles, comfortable. Balanced Competition Weight Categories Weightlifting, Boxing Mixed/Single sex

Contact sports split e.g. rugby, football Athletics split on fair competition grounds Hockey/Racquet sports mixed and open comp Age Children split in age group Seniors/Veterans in golf, marathon, tennis Handicap System Golf to allow those of mixed ability to play together Are they safe and secure? In good condition? Check pitch-side for debris, are the markings clear? Rules Ensure safety and help the game flow Ensure fairness and give the game structure. When broken, participants are punished by bans/fines Physical Readiness Completing a physical activity readiness questionnaire is important

to ensure all those participating are safe and healthy to do so. It highlights beforehand any potential issues. Example Question All sporting activities have clearly stated rules. State three reasons why we have rules in sport. (3) Keep Checking.. Check www.mrt10.wordpress.com weekly for the additions to the body systems from your Y11 course! REMEMBER !!! As soon as the exam starts write these key points down Mental, Social, Physical benefits HRF Body Comp, CV, Musc.Endurance, Flexibility, Musc.Strength (FBMMC)

SRF Balance, Co-ord, Reaction time, Agility, Power, Speed. (BCRAPS) SPORRI - Specificity, Progressive Overload, Rest and Recovery, Individual Needs Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type. (FITT)

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