第三章 多电子原子 - gdei.edu.cn

第三章 多电子原子 - gdei.edu.cn

4.2 1 n 2 Z*=Z - Z-1 =1 2 1 n +e

* Z e e * U , Z 1 4 0 r0 -e 2 3e e 2e e e e U 4 0 r 4 0 r 4 0 r0 -e * Z e e *

U , Z 1 4 0 r a n b Z*>1, 2 RZ T 2 n R

R T 2 n n 2 n*

2 (n ) 1. : ?

? ? ? n = 2, 3, 4 n =3,4,5 n =3,4,5 n =4,5,6 ? ? ? ? n = 3, 4 n =4,5

n =3,4 n =4,5 2. *2 RZ R R : T n 2 *2 2 n n (n ) s= 0.4 p = 0.05 d= 0.001 s =1.35 p=0.86

d =0.001 f =0.000 f =0.000 3 : hcR hcR E n hcT *2 2 n (n ) 1 n, 2 n n n 3 n 4.

=1 4.3 5890 58 96

1 2 s p,d,f n 1 1925 1 2 s =1/2 3 1 1 3 Ps s ( s 1) ( 1) 2 2 2 (4) 1 Psz m s 2

1 ms 2 (5) 6 : : s P ( 1) : 7 : e PS m e

P 2m s l 2 ps Pl 2 Pj P Ps P j j (j 1) j=+s s -s 3 Pj Ps 2 =0 j=1/2 =1

j=1/2,3/2 3 15 Pj , Pj 2 2 Pj Pl Ps 2Pl Ps cos 2 2 2 P B Pj

Pj s 12516' j=3/2 P B s 65 54 ' Ps j=1/2 Ps 3. , , ,E

E B B Z*e u r Z*e PS -e B r u -e m

e s PS m 2 1 Ze 1 Els B 2 2 3 p l p s 4 0 m c r Rch Z j s E s 1 2 3 n ( )( 1) 2 2 4

2 2 1 2 e 1 c 137 4 0 2 4 2 me R ( 4 0 ) 2 h 3c 2

2 4 2 2 1 2 l a 2 1 2 l 1 a 2 Els R Z j l s Tls

1 hc 2 3 n l (l )(l 1) 2 2 4 R Z a 1 3 n l (l )(l 1) 2 T T j l j l 2 4

1 R Z ~ T1 T2 a( ) 3 2 n ( 1) 1 2 =1 =2 j=3/2 T2=-a1/2 j=5/2 -a2 ~ T1=a1 =3 3/2a2

j=3/2 -3/2a3 7/2 2a3 j=1/2 n 5/2 S j E s B 4 n

2 2s+1 0,1, 2, 3,j 4, 5, S,P, D, F, G j=+1/2 j=1/2 n 1 0 0 4.3

2 1 0 3 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 1 2 1 2 3 2

3 2 5 2 1s 2s 2p 2 S1 2 2 S1 2 2 2 2 2p

3s 3p S1 2 2 P1 2 2 P3 2 2 3d 2 3d P3 2 2

3p P1 D3 2 D5 2 4.5 1. : l 1 j 0,1 2 P3 / 2 2 2 2 P1/ 2

S1/ 2 2 2 S1/ 2 2 P3 / 2 P1/ 2 D5 / 2 2 2 2 D3 / 2 F7 / 2 F5 / 2 2

P3 / 2 2 P1/ 2 2 D5 / 2 2 D3 / 2 2 2 2 P3 / 2 2 S1/ 2 P1/ 2

S1/ 2 2 D5 / 2 2 D3 / 2 2 F7 / 2 2 F5 / 2 2 P3 / 2 2 P3 / 2 2 D5 / 2

2 P1/ 2 2 P1/ 2 2 D3 / 2

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