Gene Regulation - EHS Life Sciences

Gene Regulation - EHS Life Sciences

Gene Regulation A gene (DNA) is expressed when it is made into a functional product (protein/enzyme) Gene Regulation Only a small part of the genes in a cell are expressed at any given time To be expressed a gene must be transcribed and translated What controls when and/or if a gene is

expressed? Recall promotersstart transcription signalsthat bind to RNA polymerase Example in prokaryotes E. coli bacterium 4288 genes in the organism A cluster of 3 can be turned off or on together Genes that operate together: operon The genes in this example are expressed

to break down the sugar lactose and are therefore known as the lac operon Example The lac genes are turned off by repressors and turned on by the presence of lactose Operator: Operator section of DNA that binds to repressor and prevents transcription Repressor protein also has a site that binds to lactosewhich then removes it from the

operator When lactose is broken down the repressor protein binds to operator again Eukaryotic gene regulation No operons in eukaryotes Most eukaryotic genes are controlled individually and have regulatory sequences that are much more complex than those of the lac operon in prokaryotes

Eukaryotic gene regulation Enhancers: Enhancers regions of DNA that makes transcription more likely to happen Promoter sequences: sequences regions of DNA that bind with RNA polymerase to start transcription TATA box: box region of DNA just before genes that ensure transcription will take place

Transcription factors: factors proteins that help to position RNA polymerase during transcription Development and Differentiation Differentiation: Differentiation cells must specialize in a multicellular organism A series of geneshox genescontrol genes

differentiation of cells in an embryo Sometimes called master control genes A mutation in one of these genes will change body plan of an organism A very striking similarity exists in these genes in all animals

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