Selective Breeding and Genetic Engineering DNA Technology Genetic engineering
T H E F I E L D O F S C I E N C E T H AT D E A L S WITH MAKING CHANGES IN AN ORGANISMS DNA Image Source: earthtimes.org DNA extraction
T H E P R O C E S S O F S E PA R AT I N G D N A F R O M THE REST OF THE CELL Image Source: yeastern.com
Restriction enzymes S U B S TA N C E S U S E D T O C U T D N A T H E Y A R E V E RY S P E C I F I C A N D C U T D N A O N LY I N S P E C I F I E D PLACES DUE TO A NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE.
Restriction enzymes Image Source: socratic.org Gel electrophoresis
P R O C E DU R E W H ER E DN A F R A G M EN T S A R E P L A C E D I N A S P EC I A L G EL AN D A N EL E C T R I C C U R R EN T I S R U N T H R O UG H I T. T H E C U R R E N T P I CK S UP T H E P I E C E S A N D C A R R I E S T H EM T H R OU G H T H E G E L . B A N DS A R E T H EN C O M PA R E D T O A K N OW N SA M P L E.
Gel electrophoresis Image Source: brittanica.com Gel electrophoresis T H I S I S U S E D T O C O M PA R E S A M P L E S F R O M C R I M E
SCENES TO SUSPECTS(LOOKING FOR A SPECIFIC M A T C H ) , O R A C H I L D T O A P O S S I B L E FA M I LY O R FAT H E R ( L O O K I N G F O R S I M I L A R I T I E S I N D N A ) . CODIS IS THE GENETIC BANK OF DNA SAMPLES F R O M C R I ME S C E N E S. Image Source:
science.halleyhosting.c om DNA fingerprinting A N A N A LY S I S OF SE CT I ON S O F D N A T H AT A R E US ED T O I D EN T I F Y I N D I VI D UA L S . S UC H A S CR I M I N A L S,
M I SS I N G C H I L DR EN, MI A S O L DI ER S, C R I M E V I C T I M S, E T C. EA CH P ER S O N H A S U N I Q U E D N A T H AT C A N B E U S ED F OR I D EN T I F I C AT I O N. Suspect 3 has some explaining to do
Hemophilia- replaces the defective allele on the X chromosome to correct the instructions for blood clotting. Trait Manipulation
Ways to get desired traits Selective Breeding Inbreeding hybridization Genetic engineering Cloning
Selective Breeding A L L O W I N G O N LY T H O S E A N I M A L S O R P L AN T S W I T H DE SI R E D T R A I T S T O R E P R O DU C E. Selective Breeding T H I S I S H O W W E H AV E D EV EL OP E D
M A N Y VA R I ET I ES OF CO R N, W H EAT, R I CE , CO W S, H O R S ES, D OG S, ET C. T H E SE A R E R EF ER R E D T O AS D OM ES T I C AT E D VA R I E T I ES . Image Source:
sciencedaily.com Selective Breeding S E L E C T I V E B R EE DI N G H A S B EEN P R A C T I C ED F O R T H O U SA N D S O F Y EA R S.
Image Source: medicaldaily.com Selective Breeding I T I N VO LV E S H UM A N S C H O O S I N G T W O I N DI V I DUA L S T O M AT E T O P R O D UC E OF F S P R I N G W I T H C ERTA I N
D E S I R AB L E C H A R A C T ER I S T I C S, S U CH AS: leaner meat on an animal wheat seeds that remain attached to the plant for longer
Image Source: emaze.com Selective Breeding Many plants and animals for domestic and agricultural purposes have been bred in this way to produce new varieties.
Dogs are a great example Examples Cattle and sheep have been specifically bred for such things as leaner meat, more milk,
creamier milk, better quality wool and increased resistance to disease. Pigs, due to selective breeding are less aggressive, have smaller tusks and more meat compared to their genetically similar ancestors.
Image Source: firstwefeast.com Examples Horses have been selectively bred from wild horses over centuries resulting in many varieties including draft horses.
breeds such as the Shire, Clydesdale, Belgian and Suffolk which are used for specific farming purposes, but all
involve greater strength, size and ability to pull wagons, ploughs and drays. Race horses also originated from wild horses and have been bred for greater speed.
Image Source: auldaney.blogspot.com Forms of selective breeding Inbreeding- involves crossing 2 individuals that have similar desired traits.
The offspring will probably have the same traits. Increases the chances of the recessive alleles being inherited Leads to genetic disorders
Forms of selective breeding Hybridization- crossing 2 genetically different individuals (hybrid-different) - have best traits from both parents Hybridization
the crossing of dissimilar organisms to bring together the best of both organisms. Many crops and domesticated animals are hybrids Recombinant DNA
THE COMBINATION OF DNA FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES. ( F O R E XA M P L E : H U M A N G E N E F O R H U M A N G R O W T H HORMONE IS INSERTED INTO BACTERIA AND THEN USED T O P R O D U C E G R O W T H H O R M O N E U S E D T O T R E AT GROWTH DISORDERS).
Recombinant DNA THIS IS THE SAME PROCEDURE USED TO P R O D U C E I N S U L I N F O R D I A B E T I C S, O R C L O TT I N G FA C T O R F O R H E M O P H I L I A C S : THEY JUST INSERT A DIFFERENT GENE INTO THE BACTERIA.
Genetic Engineering GM TERM USED TO DESCRIBE GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS
GM Cloning REFERS TO TRANSFERRING THE GENETIC MATERIAL OF ONE CELL INTO ANOTHER CELL
Image Source: huffingtonpost.com Cloning T H I S C A N R E S U LT I N E I T H ER A G RO U P O F I D E N T I C A L C EL L S O R A N EW
I N D I V I D UA L , I N W H I C H C A S E I T I S C A L L E D R E P R O DU C T I V E CL O N I N G. Cloning DOLLY, A SHEEP PRODUCED IN 1996, WAS THE FIRST CLONED MAMMAL.
Image Source: businessinsider.com Cloning C L O N I N G I S A L S O U S ED I N A G R I C ULT U R E W I T H P L A N T S. EV ERY
B A N A N A Y O U V E EV E R EAT EN WA S A CL ON E . Image Source: io9.com Make MIMI the Mouse
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu /content/tech/cloning/clickand clone/ Gene Therapy A P R OC E SS I N W H I C H A N AB S EN T OR FA U LT Y G E N E I S R EP L A C ED W I T H A
N O R M A L W O R K I N G G E N E. T H I S H A S B E E N S U C C E SS F UL LY D O N E I N S OM E C A S ES I N H U M A N S. Image Source: io9.com
Gene Therapy U SI N G G E N ET I C EN G I N E ER I N G T O C O R R E C T SO M E G EN ET I C D I S O R D ER S I N H U M A N S. I N VO LVE S I N S ERT I N G CO P I ES O F A G EN E DI R E C T LY I N T O A P ER S ON S CE L L S. Example: Hemophilia- replaces the defective allele on the X
chromosome to correct the instructions for blood clotting. Gene Therapy Vocabulary Selective Breeding: The intentional breeding of
organisms with desirable traits in an attempt to produce offspring with similar desirable characteristics or with improved traits. Species: A group of organisms having common characteristics that is capable of mating with one another. Variation: Differences in individual living things
from each other. gene: A segment of DNA that codes for a particular protein. gene pool: All the genes of all the members in a population. selective pressure: Any environmental factor
that favors one trait over another. mutation: A random change in a gene or a group of genes. genetic isolation: What occurs when two groups of one species are prevented from breeding with each other.
inherited trait: An inherited characteristic such as hair and eye color or muscle and bone structurethat has been passed on from a previous generation. acquired trait: An acquired characteristic such as the ability to ride a bike or do karate that is attained throughout life. Acquired traits
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