Genetically Modified Foods - University of Tennessee
Genetically Modified Foods Beth Roberson November 19, 2004 FST 490 Objectives Describe History GM Foods of regulation Labeling Processes Discuss
the EU to assess safety US regulations and compare to those of Genetic Engineering Genetically engineered (GE) foods are developed by modifying DNA in some way GE foods are also referred to as transgenic foods and genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
Benefits Reduce pesticide and herbicide use Increase crop yields Improve nutritional quality Reduce waste Disease resistance Reduce ecological impact Reduce cost Existing GM Foods Available for human consumption
Soybeans Corn Potatoes Not for humans Fish- not on market yet Starlink corn- animal feed (EPA) US Regulation of GM Foods FDA- Safe for consumption. CFSAN
EPA- Pesticides, Environmental Safety USDA- Several agencies involved History of US Regulation 1974- NIH sets up the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC)
1976- RAC guidelines for GE research 1980- US Supreme Court in Diamond v. Chakrabarty rules that genetically altered life forms can be patented 1986- Coordinated framework for regulation of biotechnology. Proposed in 1984 1990- FDA approved first GE food ingredient, chymosin History of US Regulation
May 29,1992 Federal Register vol. 57 Foods derived from new plant varieties produced by genetic engineering essentially will be regulated no differently than foods created by conventional means, unless special circumstances apply. Created a voluntary process under which producers could consult with the agency about safety and regulatory issues prior to marketing GE foods. History of US Regulation
1992- FlavrSavr, the first commercially grown GM food crop submitted to FDA. Released into market 1994 1996- FDA gave additional guidance to industry on procedures for consultations 2001-FDA proposed regulations on two subjects: A mandatory pre-market notification process for GM foods Voluntary labeling GM foods Labeling of GM Foods
FDCA- Product described by its common name and all important facts associated with claims made or suggested are shown on the label Not all GE food products are required to be labeled as such solely because they involved genetic engineering Certain situations require labeling FDA Safety Requirements GRAS Toxicity Allergy standards
testing Substantially equivalent Toxicity Standards for GM Foods Established tests for potential toxins Ames, cell cultures Feeding studies EPA
responsible for pesticides Compare to database of known toxins Allergenicity of GM Foods Assessment decision tree (Metcalfe et al., 1996) Adapted from FAO/WHO 2001 Substantial Equivalence (SE) Compare GM food to GRAS food
Consider chemical composition, macro and micro nutrients, toxins, and antinutrients. Look for protein and/or metabolite differences Feeding GM studies crop as safe as its counterpart EU Regulations VS
US Regulations Process-based assessment Product-based assessment Separate regulations
Existing food regulations SE used to limit toxicology testing All GE proteins tested for toxicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity Established SE is sufficient for approval
Novel proteins are assessed for adverse effects 90-day feeding studies on whole plant Feeding studies required for nonSE products Allergen assessment tree
Allergen assessment tree Labeling required for all products Labeling required for potential allergens QUESTIONS??
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