Genetics - cbsd.org

Genetics - cbsd.org

Genetics Jessica Garr, Amanda Melair, Ashley Regan, Jake Young, Giovanni Marrero What is Genetics? What are terms associated with Genetics? Genetics is the study of heredity, or the branch of biology that deals with heredity and genetic variations. Genotype: What is genetically expressed in an organis Phenotype:What is physically expressed in an organism Homozygous: Identical pairs of genes for any given characteristic Heterozygous: Different pairs of genes for any given characteristic Dominant: The trait that is physically expressed Recessive: The trait that is present but not shown Mitosis & Meiosis Mitosis has 4 phases: Prophase PREPARE Chromosomes are visible Lose nucleus Metaphase MIDDLE Chromosomes line up in the middle

Anaphase AWAY Chromosomes move towards the poles Telophase TWO NUCLEUS Nucleus split and reappears They are identical cells Body cells Diploid cells Meiosis goes through 2 processes: Prophase l Crossing over Protiens of chromatids break off and attach to the adjacent chromosomes on the homologous chromosomes

Metaphase l Anaphase l Telophase l Prophase ll Mertaphase ll Anaphase ll Homologous chromosomes seperate Sister chromatids seperate Telophase ll 4 haploid cells result They are similar cells Sex cells

Haploid cells Stages of Meiosis l and ll http://thumb7.shutterstock.com/ display_pic_with_logo/848740/11 6607409/stock-vector-vector-dia gram-of-the-meiosis-phases-116 607409.jpg STages of Mitosis http://www.google.com/search?q=mitosis&safe=active&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei= XgubU9GfEJGOyAS2_IKYDA&sqi=2&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ&biw=1301&bih=620#facrc=_&img dii=_&imgrc=nhZ-bmMsNUC3FM%253A%3BUhqCAF-wnFwS9M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252F differvs.com%252Fwp-content%252Fuploads%252F2013%252F08%252Fmitosis-vs-meiosis.j peg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fdiffervs.com%252Fdiscover-difference-mitosis-meiosis%252 F%3B495%3B420\ Mitosis Video http://video.mit.edu/watch/lego-animation-of-mitosis-with-des criptive-titles-3077/ DNA Stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid Primary Function: to store and transmit the genetic information that tells cells whcih protiens to make and when to make them DNA is an organic compound made up or repeating subunits called nucleotides. Nucleotides have 3 parts: 2 types of Nitrogen Sugar molecule Bases

Deoxyribose Phosphate Group Phosphorus Purines Oxygen Adenine(A) Guanine(G) Nitrogen Bases Adenine (A) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Thymine(T)

VIdeo: https://answersingenesis.org/genetics// Have 2 rings Pyrimdines Have 1 ring Cytosine(C) Thymine(T) en.wikipedia.org Base Pairings: DNA Cont. Cytosine bonds with Guaning (C-G) Adenine bonds with Thymine (A-T) James Watson and Francis Crick built the 3D model or the double helix

2 nucleotide strands wrap around eachother to form a double spiral Enzymes involved in DNA replication: DNA Helicase Binding Proteins Lay down the start and stop primers for the new strand DNA Polymerase Hold open the replication fork DNA Primase

Unwind and unzip the DNA Lays down one new nucleotide at a time DNA Ligase The glue that holds the new DNA strand together The Enzymes involved in DNA replictation Stands for Ribonucleic Acid A single sranded nucleic acid made up of repeating units Sugar molecule is ribose RNA Responsible forthe movement

of genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus to the site of protien synthesis in the cytosol Thymine(T) relaced with URACIL(U) A strand of RNA http://chemistry.tutorvista.co m/biochemistry/nucleic-acid s.html RNA cont. 3 Forms of RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) Function: Carries genetic info from the nucleus to the ribosome Transfer RNA (tRNA) Function: Binds to specific amino acids and helps form polypeptide chains (proteins)

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Function: Makes up the ribosomes where proteins are made Protein synthesis Protein Synthesis- The production of proteins The amount and kind of proteins produced in a cell determines the structure and function of the cell 2 Steps in Protein Synthesis Transcription:

Makes mRNA from DNA Transcribe- to copy Translation: mRNA leaves the nucleus through pores in the nuclear membrane mRNA then migrates to a ribosome in the cytosol, the site of protein synthesis http:// sciencevogel.wikispaces.com/ file/view/Protein%20Synthesis %20diagram.png/ 493016480/390x301/Protein Genetic Disorders: Genetic Traits and Disorders- Genes that control human traits can be mutated and then inherited by offspring Mutations-

Mutations/Disorders Definition- A change in DNA sequence that affects genetic info The result of some mutations are gentic disorders Inheritance- There are 4 main ways genetic disorders are passed.... Single Gene Disorder Karyotype showing the genetic disorder of Down Syndrome http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/ The problem traits controlled by a single gene and are passed in a dominant/recessive manner content/disorders/chromosomal/ Multifactoral Disorders These disorders result from mutations in multiple genes These disorders are difficult to study and treat EX. Alzheimer's Disease, Hypothyroidism down/images/ trisomy21_karyotype.jpg Mutations/Disorders continued

Inheritance cont. Chromosomal Abnormality Entire chromosomes or large segments of chromosomes are missing, duplicated, or otherwise altered Nondisjunction- Failure of a chromosome to seperate from its homologue during meiosis One gamete receives an extra copy of a chromosome and the other gamete lacks the chromosome entirely Scientisits can use karyotypes to identify disorders caused by chromosomal abnormalities X-Linked Disorders Disorders in which the mutations or errors are in genes found on the X chromosomes Ex.- Hemophilia, Muscular Dystrophy Review Questions What is the full name for DNA? Deoxyribonucleic Acid What two organelles can DNA be found in? Nucleus, Mitochandria

What is the shape of DNA? Double Helix What is a Gene? A sequence of DNA passed on to offspring What are the two purines found in DNA? Adenine, Guanine What are the two phases of protein synthesis? Transcription, Translation What are the four types of chromosomal mutations? What is the gene that is expressed called? What is a mutation? Answers What is the full name for DNA? Deoxyribonucleic Acid What is the gene that is expressed called? Dominant What two organelles can DNA be found in? Nucleus, Mitochandria What is the shape of DNA? Double Helix What is a Gene? A sequence of DNA passed on to offspring What are the two purines found in DNA? Adenine, Guanine What are the two phases of protein synthesis? Transcription, Translation What are the four types of chromosomal mutations? Deletions, Duplication, Insertion, Translocation What is a mutation? A change in the DNA sequence that effects genetic info

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