Geochemistry Lab Exercise: Crystallization of Magmas
Geochemistry Lab Exercise: Crystallization of Magmas John C. Ayers Vanderbilt University Objectives Use three methods to explore the crystallization behavior of a rock of known composition at 1 atmosphere pressure: Experimental method: Melt your rock at 1300C and then cool it to 1000C using a programmable glass melting furnace. Make grain
mounts of your run products and identify the phases. We may also use the SEM to image and analyze your run products. Phase diagram method: Calculate the normative composition of your rock and plot it on the Fo-An-Si diagram; predict the crystallization sequence. Numerical method: Use the computer program MELTS to predict the crystallization sequence. Also explore differences in crystallized assemblages and evolution of liquid compositions between batch and fractional crystallization.
Use the chemical composition of the rock to classify it and to make up REE, tectonic discrimination and spider diagrams and interpret them. Skill: Creating plots in Excel and Interpreting
What rock did your group work on? ______________________ Use the Excel template NormCalc.xlt to calculate the normative mineralogy of your rock. What are the normative minerals in your rock, and their percentages? Enter major element concentrations into cells C2:E2 on sheet My Data in the
Excel template Alkalinity.xlt. Is your rock alkaline or subalkaline? What rock type is it classified as in the TAS (Total Alkalis vs. Silica) diagram? For samples QLO-1 and GSP-2 only: Enter the normative composition of your rock into cells B17:D17 on sheet Ternplot in the Excel template TTGternaryplot.xlt. What is the classification of your rock? Enter trace element concentrations into cells B3:B10 on sheet My Data in the Excel template Discrimination.xlt. Examine the various plots that are automatically produced on the other sheets. What conclusions can you draw about the tectonic environment that your rock formed in? Replace the values in cells B2:B16 in the sheet Normed REE data in the template
REEPlot.xlt with the REE concentrations in your rock in ppm. Describe the shape of the REE pattern. Is your rock enriched or depleted in the LREE? Explain why. Is there a Ce or Eu anomaly? Why or why not? Replace the values in cells B2:B29 in the sheet Normalized T.E. data in the template SpiderPlot.xlt with the trace element concentrations in your rock in ppm. What are the characteristic features? What conclusions can you draw about the environment that your rock formed in? Alkalinity
Ternplot Skill: Performing Experiments In this exercise you will grow your own volcanic rock! First read about Experimental Petrology at: http://serc.carleton.edu/research_education/equilibria/exp erimentalpetrology.html Make a grain mount of your rock powder using immersion oil with an index of fraction of 1.54. Use the optical microscope to identify the minerals in your
rock. Create your volcanic rock, powder it, make a grain mount, describe and interpret the textures, and identify the minerals. List the minerals and their approximate percentages. Are the minerals you identified consistent with the rock type? Skill: Interpreting Phase Diagrams Use the normative Fo (or En), An and Si contents to
plot your rock composition on the FoAn-Si diagram. List the minerals in order of crystallization, and estimate the temperature at which they start to crystallize. Estimate the proportions of each phase in the rock when it solidifies.
Skill: Numerical Modeling Read about MELTS at: http://serc.carleton.edu/research_education/equilibria/me lts.html Use Melts to identify the equilibrium phases and their compositions at the same conditions as your experiment. Questions: How do the proportions of each phase compare with those
observed in your run products? Try to explain any discrepancies. Explain the change in liquid viscosity with temperature (I believe this is just for liquid and not liquid + crystals). Does the Harker diagram you made look like ones in your text that we discussed in class (e.g., Crater Lake) for series of cogenetic rocks? Explain. Liquid Viscosity Vs. Temperature -2.3 1125
1100 1075 1050 -2.35 log10 poise
-2.4 -2.45 -2.5 -2.55 -2.6
-2.65 Temperature 1025 1000 wt% Oxides Vs. wt% SiO2 18
16 14 wt% oxides 12 wt% wt% wt%
wt% wt% wt% 10 8 6
4 2 0 66.8053 67.8961 69.5224
70.9921 wt% SiO2 72.3089 73.4951 Al2O3
FeO +Fe2O3 MgO CaO Na2O K2O Wt% vs. T 120 100
Wt% 80 Liquid Spinel Feldspar 60
40 20 0 1125 1100
1075 1050 Temperatue Celsius 1025 1000
Summary Questions 1. Compare the crystallization sequences predicted by the Numerical and Phase Diagram methods and observed using the Experimental Method. Try to explain any discrepancies. 2. How do you know the crystals in your run product grew during the experiment and were not retained from the starting material? How could you test this experimentally? 3. Which method is the most generally useful? Explain.
4. Which method is likely to be most accurate? Explain. Other Options Have students image and analyze phases in run products using SEM and EDS Have students use X-ray diffraction to identify phases in run products
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