Geography - yardvmc

Geography - yardvmc

Geography Physical, Human, and Beyond! Introduction What is it? Geography is the study of space. It examines the location and distribution of people, places, and processes from an interdisciplinary perspective. There are two main branches of geography: physical and human. What is Included?

Geography includes the study of landforms, vegetation, and climates of the world. Knowledge of landforms may help determine whether the land is suitable for agriculture or for the construction of roads and railways. Plains, mountains, plateaus, and other landforms all have unique characteristics. In geography, the term vegetation refers to natural vegetation that is found in a region without human influence. Forests, grasslands, and tundra are examples of natural vegetation types. Knowledge of climate, including temperature and precipitation, is critical for agricultural production and many other human

activities. Much of our daily life is influenced by weather and climate Natural Resources The study of geography also includes knowledge of natural resources and where they are located. An understanding of various types of rocks and minerals and their origins is necessary in order for us to predict where they may be found and how they can be used. Knowledge of natural resources also helps us understand the development of various industries and their locations, as well as patterns of trade.

Frequently, the presence of a natural resource is a major factor in determining where people will live. Natural and Human Caused Phenomena Geography also includes the study of natural and humancaused events such as erosion, floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanic activity, and severe weather conditions. Many human activities are affected by such disasters as people seek to protect themselves or rebuild their lives after experiencing natures wrath. Often people do not realize that their own activities, such as clearing vegetation or constructing roads in mountainous areas, may trigger disasters such as floods and landslides.

Understanding the interrelationships between the physical environment and human activities is an important component of the discipline of geography. Skills and Tools In addition to these components, geography includes a variety of skills and tools necessary for geographers (and students) to do their work. Map, air photo, and satellite image interpretation, as well as skills such as working with scales, distances, and directions, are critical in geography. Use of equipment such as stereoscopes, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, meteorological instruments, and many others allow

geographers to collect important data. Computer software, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software, allows geographers to develop maps, and manipulate and interpret data to make important decisions in planning and resource use. These skills and tools enable geographers to study the world around us and help us understand our place in it. Physical Geography Physical geography is sometimes referred to as the setting upon which human activities take place. It is the field of geography that deals with the natural environment, including features and

processes, at or near the earths surface. These include the study of landform features and processes (geomorphology); rock types and natural resources (geology); soils (pedology); rivers, lakes and oceans (hydrology); weather and climate (meteorology); and flora and fauna (biogeography). Landforms Landforms include large-scale features such as plains, mountains, shields, and plateaus as well as small-scale features such as hills, valleys, cliffs, ridges, and badlands. We often describe a place we have visited in terms of these features.

Physical geography also includes the processes, such as erosion, landslides, earthquakes, and volcanoes, that shape and change the landforms around us. Other elements of physical geography include rock types and minerals, a field known as geology. Rock types give rise to various landform features and contain a variety of minerals such as metals, fossil fuels, and structural minerals. Rock types at the surface of the earth, in combination with climate and vegetation, largely determine the soil types in a region. Soils can range from deep fertile layers in agricultural regions to thin layers of permanently frozen ground in high latitudes. Water

Rivers, lakes, and oceans are also a component of physical geography. As water moves through the hydrological cycle in its various forms, it not only helps shape the surface features of the earth but also provides one of the key elements for life on earth. Water is also an important component of weather and climate. The conditions of the atmosphere, including temperature, precipitation, winds, length of sunlight, and so on, have a great effect on both the physical and human environments on earth. Indeed, our daily lives and activities are greatly influenced by weather and climate. The Physical Environment

Natural vegetation and wildlife are also part of the physical environment. The nature of this aspect of the physical environment, known as biogeography, has evolved in response to a variety of other factors such as rock types, soils, vegetation, weather, and climate. The physical environment is a major determinant of human settlement and activities. Suitable soil and climatic conditions allow for agricultural activities; the presence of minerals has resulted in mining operations; and the combination of landforms, water bodies, and climatic conditions has led to the growth of settlements. Indeed, many aspects of our lives are influenced by the physical environment around us. It is important to note that human activities can also bring about changes in

the physical environment. The clearing of forests, the cultivation of soils, the building of towns and cities, and the development of industries all have an impact on our physical surroundings. These activities can result in major long-term changes to the very environment that supports life on planet Earth. Human Geography Human Geography is the field of geography that deals with human presence, activities, and impacts on the natural environment. This includes the study of populations, their migration, and their distribution; economic activities such as resource extraction, industry, and agriculture;

settlement patterns and political geography and the modification of the natural environment. In short, human geography involves the study of all human activities and their impact on the natural environment. History The impact of early human societies on the natural environment was minimal because small nomadic populations existed primarily through hunting, fishing, and gathering. Tools and dwellings were fashioned from natural materials such as wood, stone, animal skins, and

bone. This was the type of existence of many First Nations groups at the time of European arrival in North America. The Modern Era and Changes to the Environment The domestication of plants and animals brought about greater changes in the physical environment. Land was used for extensive grazing and was cultivated to grow crops marking the beginnings of agriculture. The availability of more reliable food supplies allowed humans to live in permanent settlements and to develop a

more complex society. These developments brought about greater changes to the natural environment through the clearing of forests, construction of permanent dwellings, and the eventual growth of settlements. Impacts As early societies became more successful in meeting their needs within permanent settlements, they were able to live in larger concentrations and further develop their economic, social, and political systems. The rise of agricultural, resource extraction, and manufacturing activities led to more complex economic and political systems. Transportation and trade networks were established, political boundaries

were created, and settlements grew into towns and cities. The physical environment was subjected to greater and more permanent changes as societies evolved into the modern urbanized and industrialized world that we know today. The invention of the internal combustion engine, the rise of the automobile, and the discovery and extraction of vast amounts of fossil fuels resulted in dramatic changes to how people lived as well as a considerable impact on the natural environment. One of the greatest challenges faced by humans today is how to manage the use of energy resources in a sustainable fashion without inflicting permanent damage to the environment in the form of land, air, and water pollution and climate change.

The Human Impact on the Physical World Throughout human history, the physical environment has provided raw materials for human use and influenced human activities. In turn, human activities have altered the physical environment in dramatic ways in many parts of the world. Many believe that the nature of this interrelationship between the physical and human environments has reached a critical stage and will have to be addressed to ensure human survival on planet Earth in the 21st century.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Designing GIS & Remote Sensing Courses, Modules, &

    Designing GIS & Remote Sensing Courses, Modules, &

    Allows instructor to determine what students have learned Individual work Leave Elluminate on; hang up phone. Take 20 minutes to write down ideas about how you might use these ideas to design activities/assignments for your own course Call back in...
  • Workplace Violence - Occupational Safety and Health ...

    Workplace Violence - Occupational Safety and Health ...

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) defines workplace violence as: ... 2009 Bureau of Justice National Crime Victimization Survey. 572,000 occurred while at work. Among teaching occupations, technical or industrial schools had highest reported rates.
  • Sensory and Perception - PC\|MAC

    Sensory and Perception - PC\|MAC

    Our senses adjust to the overall level of stimulation More stimulation, less sensitive Less stimulation, more sensitive Stroop Effect Pink Blue Green Yellow Red Green Brown Orange Black Purple White Red Pink Orange Blue Light Blue Black Pink Red Green...
  • Spatializing tornado warning lead-time: Risk perception and ...

    Spatializing tornado warning lead-time: Risk perception and ...

    Experimental method. Choice scenario. Participants decide whether or not to order an aircraft hangar to shut down operations and . protect for a tornado. Cost/loss: $3000 to protect, $6000 loss if a tornado hits and you failed to protect. Should...
  • Development of Latent Prints

    Development of Latent Prints

    Images and other multimedia content used with permission. Fingerprint Chemicals (continued) Gentian violet (or crystal violet) - used for developing latent prints on the adhesive side of tape.
  • CALTECH 256 Greg Griffin, Alex Holub and Pietro

    CALTECH 256 Greg Griffin, Alex Holub and Pietro

    Benchmarks Clutter: 827 Background Images Acknowledgements Rob Fergus and Fei Fei Li, Pierre Moreels for code and procedures developed for the Caltech-101 image set Marco Ranzato and Claudio Fanti for miscellaneous help Sorters: Lis Fano, Nick Lo, Julie May, Weiyu...
  • Process Biotechnology

    Process Biotechnology

    Engineering Materials Corrosion Methods of corrosion control or prevention: Materials selection Corrosion control or prevention Coating Design Cathodic & anodic protection Environmental control Temperature Velocity Oxygen Concentration Inhibitors Cleaning Metallic Nonmetallic Metallic Inorganic Organic Avoid excessive stresses Avoid dissimilar ...
  • Cultural Influences on Cognitive Development Guided Participation Adults

    Cultural Influences on Cognitive Development Guided Participation Adults

    e.g., N G O H P I Q J ? Phase Two: How well do the children do in solving more challenging letter completion problems? e.g., U C T D S E R F ? Findings: Children who needed fewer...