# Geometric Optics - Morgan Science

Optics Mirrors and Lenses Law of Reflection Angle of Incidence = Angle of Reflection i = r Always measured from

Normal(Perpendicular) i r Plane Mirror Flat, smooth surface from which light is reflected.

The distance the object is away from the mirror is equal to the distance the image appears to be in the mirror Vocabulary Object distance, do Distance

object is from optical device Image distance, di Distance image is from optical device Vocabulary Object Height, ho

Height of object Image Height, hi Height of image Vocabulary

Real Image Image formed by actual intersection of light rays Image can be projected on a screen di=(+) Vocabulary

Virtual Image (imaginary) Light rays do not intersect Image can NOT be projected on screen The eye traces back the rays to where they appeared to have once intersected di=(-)

Vocabulary Upright Image Image Object Image is of the same orientation as

object hi = (+) Inverted Image Image is inverted from the orientation of the object hi = (-) Object

Image Vocabulary Magnification, M Ratio of the image height to the object height M=(+) image is upright M=(-) image is inverted

hi di M ho do Plane Mirror do = -di

ho=hi M=1 Mirror Spherical Mirrors

Concave Mirrors Mirror surface is on the inside of the curve Convex Mirrors Mirror

curve surface is on the outside of the Focal Point Point where light converges Half the radius R f 2

C f Concave Mirror Ray that is initially parallel to central axis reflects through focal point

Ray that is initially through focal point reflects parallel to central axis Ray that is incident at vertex, reflects at same angle Ray that travels through center of curvature will reflect back through center of curvature

Concave Mirror C f Mirror Equation 1 1 1 f do di

Example do = 30 cm C f f = 10 cm di = ? di = 15 cm

M = -0.5 Convex Mirror Ray that is initially parallel to central axis reflects through virtual focal point Ray that is initially through virtual focal point reflects parallel to central axis

Ray that is incident at vertex, reflects at same angle Ray that travels through center of curvature will reflect back through center of curvature Example

C f f C Example di = ?

f = -10 cm do =15 cm di = -6 cm M = 0.4 Lenses Converging Lenses

Biconvex f=(+) Diverging Lenses Biconcave f=(-) Converging Lens Rays

Ray that is initially parallel to central axis will refract through far focal point Ray that is initially through near focal point will refract parallel to central axis Ray that passes through center of lens pass without refraction

Converging Lens Converging Lens Example f = 10 cm di= ? do = 20 cm di= 20 cm

M=1 Diverging Lens Rays Ray that is initially parallel will refract as if coming from near focal point Ray that is initially through far focal point will refract as if coming from parallel

Ray that passes through center will continue on Diverging Lens Diverging Lens Example do = 25 cm f = -10 cm

di = ? di = -7.14 cm M = 0.3 Lenses in Combination Image from the first lens becomes the object for the second lens Lenses in Combination

Lenses in Combination do1 = 25 cm f2 = 8 cm f1 = 10 cm di1 = 16.7 cm 40 cm

do2 = 23.3 cm di2 = 12 cm

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