GERUND AND INFINITIVE PATTERNS + USED TO CLAIRE WALLIS KEEPING IT SIMPLE THERE ARE 3 REASONS WHY WE USE THE GERUND 1.AS THE SUBJECT (NOUN) 2.AFTER ALL PREPOSITIONS AND PHRASAL
VERBS 3.AFTER CERTAIN VERBS KEEPING IT SIMPLE THERE ARE ALSO 3 REASONS WHY WE USE THE INFINITIVE 1.AS THE INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE 2.AFTER ADJECTIVES 3.AFTER CERTAIN VERBS
AFTER CERTAIN VERBS IT IS NECESSARY TO LEARN BY HEART WHICH VERBS GO TOGETHER WITH THE GERUND AND WHICH GO TOGETHER WITH THE INFINITIVE. CERTAIN VERBS HOWEVER, THERE IS SOME LOGIC TO HELP YOU REMEMBER.
THE INFINITIVE IS NEARLY ALWAYS SUCCESSIVE (THE ACTIONS GO IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER) I would like to visit Paris. I need to see a dentist. She demanded to see the manager. CERTAIN VERBS HOWEVER, THERE IS SOME LOGIC TO HELP YOU REMEMBER.
THE INFINITIVE IS NEARLY ALWAYS SUCCESSIVE (THE ACTIONS GO IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER) I would like (1) to visit (2) Paris. I need (1) to see (2) a dentist. She demanded (1) to see (2) the manager. CERTAIN VERBS THE GERUND, HOWEVER, IS NOT. The man admitted stealing the painting.
The students denied cheating in the exam. WHAT IS THE ACTION ORDER IN THESE SENTENCES? CERTAIN VERBS THE GERUND, HOWEVER, IS NOT. The man admitted (2) stealing (1) the painting. The students denied (2) cheating (1) in the exam.
It is the contrary to the use of the infinitive. However, this is not foolproof. ANOTHER EXAMPLE I enjoy spending time with friends. I prefer living by myself. I love meeting new people. IN THESE EXAMPLES THIS IS NO ACTION ORDER BECAUSE THE ACTIONS ARE CONTEMPORARY.
THEREFORE, WE CAN CREATE PATTERNS TO HELP US REMEMBER BUT WE STILL HAVE TO LEARN THE VERBS. BOTH THERE ARE CERTAIN VERBS WHICH CAN TAKE BOTH THE GERUND AND INFINITIVE. 1.WITH NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING (START/BEGIN) It started raining/ It started to
rain. 2.WITH LITTLE DIFFERENCE (LIKE) I like going to the cinema/ I like to go to the cinema. THE FIRST MEANS IT MAKES YOU HAPPY. THE SECOND MEANS YOU THINK IT IS A GOOD IDEA. BOTH THERE ARE SOME VERBS WHICH GO TOGETHER WITH BOTH BUT MEAN VERY DIFFERENT
THINGS. 1.I remember visiting Paris as a child. Remember to do your homework. 2.I regret not studying harder before the exam. We regret to inform all passengers that there will be delays. BOTH 3. I meant to send you a postcard but I forgot.
Being a doctor means studying for years. 4. I tried to open the window but it was stuck. Try adding more salt to the dish next time. 5. I stopped smoking 8 years ago. I stopped to talk to Jane on my way home. 6. The professor went on talking about his new book for hours. After he had finished he went on to tell us about his next project.
BOTH THE VERBS WHICH GO TOGETHER WITH BOTH ARE; REMEMBER, FORGET, REGRET, STOP, TRY, GO ON, MEAN AND NEED OTHER PATTERNS SOME VERBS NEED AN OBJECT AND OTHERS DONT.
He told me to throw away my old toys. He threatened to throw away my old toys. SOME VERBS NEED THE BARE INFINITIVE RATHER THAN THE FULL INFINITIVE. He made me throw away my old toys. NOT JUST BASICS IT IS POSSIBLE TO USE THE INFINITIVE AND GERUND IN OTHER FORMS;
PASSIVE The little girl likes telling stories (gerund active) The little girl likes being told stories (gerund passive) Sarah would like to announce the winner (infinitive active) Sarah would like to be announced as the winner (infinitive passive)
NOT JUST BASICS PERFECT He thanked them for helping him. (gerund simple) He thanked them for having helped him. (gerund in the perfect) I would like to see Australia. (infinitive simple) I would like to have seen Sydney when I was in Australia. (infinitive in the perfect)
NOT JUST BASICS CONTINUOUS He appears to suffer from the flu regularly. (infinitive simple) He appears to be suffering from the flu. (continuous infinitive). OTHER STRUCTURES
REMEMBER THAT TO IS ALSO A PREPOSITION. THEREFORE, IT IS OFTEN USED WITH THE ING FORM. She confessed to stealing the money. You dont object to working late, do you? OTHER VERBS WHICH TAKE THIS STRUCTURE ARE; ADAPT, ADJUST, ADMIT, LOOK FORWARD, OWN UP, RESORT, COMMIT (admit can be used with and without to but must be used with the gerund)
They can also be used with a noun phrase. USED TO/BE USED TO/GET USED TO 1. I used to eat dinner at 5pm when I lived in the UK. We use this structure to talk about past states or habits which are no longer true. It gives a strong contrast between the past and
present. There is no present form of this structure. If you are talking about present habits, then you would use an adverb of frequency usually. USED TO/BE USED TO/GET USED TO 2. Since I came to Italy I have got used to eating at 9pm.
Get used to + ing Is used to describe something that becomes normal for you -something you become accustomed to doing (a change of habit). USED TO/BE USED TO/GET USED TO 3. Now after 10 years in Italy, I am used to eating at 9pm and I am not used to eating at
5pm anymore. Be used to + ing Is used to describe something that has become/is normal for you -something you have become/are accustomed to doing (a change of habit the new normal).
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